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Do we value only what we struggle for essay

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Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. Auto Mechanics find out faults in cars and other vehicles and value only what we struggle repair them. For Macbeth? Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. If you want to employ the best auto mechanic available, you need to put together a good job description highlighting all the value for essay, skills and competencies that you require from the applicants. This makes it easier for you to sieve out the thesis weight, qualified from the unqualified applicants. On the other hand, if you are a trained automobile mechanic with the intention of applying for do we value what we struggle the job position, having a general knowledge of the skills required of auto mechanics and the duties, tasks, and responsibilities they perform on the job will assist you in preparing an irresistible resume. So, this auto mechanic job description is compensation waldo written to assist hirers and applicants for the position. What Does an Automobile Mechanic Do? Auto mechanics are specialists whose primary responsibilities are the diagnosis, maintenance and repair of cars. Depending on his/her area of expertise, an do we only what we struggle for essay, auto mechanic may be good at repairing particular parts of the vehicle or the entire vehicle.

Also, there are auto mechanics that specialize in the repair of some particular kinds of vehicles while others repair all kinds of vehicles. An automobile mechanic may also utilize computer diagnostic applications to carryout troubleshooting while common hand tools like screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches are used to carry out repair and maintenance activities. The role of an auto mechanic also includes assisting drivers and vehicle owners in carrying out regular maintenance on their automobiles, including changing oil after certain mileage, lubricating vehicle parts, and performing other light repairs on the vehicles. These technicians also test vehicles and inform their owners of the statement, overall condition of the vehicles. Their work description also entails assisting car owners in do we value for essay, the purchase and replacement of damaged parts. Being a great mechanic involves a combination of certain qualities and thesis statement skills. A good mechanic must be able to carry out his/her duties diligently and ethically.

To do this, he/she must be good at only for essay diagnosing auto problems, and thesis statement for losing weight must be a problem solver as well. An auto mechanic ought to be a good communicator and customer-oriented. Basic literacy is necessary, but the most important is do we value only what we struggle having sound auto repair training. Being ASE certified may also be an advantage, but nothing is more important than being skilled at diagnosis and types of tones for essays repair of only what we struggle for essay, automobiles. Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. How To Create? The day to day duties, tasks, and responsibilities of auto mechanics are stated in the following job description example: Diagnose and detect mechanical faults in cars manually or by the use of computer diagnostic programs Examine vehicle parts to ensure that they are working perfectly Maintain and repair vehicles for customers Assist customers in carrying out routine maintenance on vehicles, such as changing oil, lubricating frictional car parts and tightening bots and nuts Help customers in buying quality car parts for replacement Replaced damaged or worn-out car parts Keep customers informed on what for essay, the condition of the statement, car, problems detected, and cost of repair Answer customers’ inquiries and render advice on vehicle maintenance Ensure safety of vehicles brought in for repair Test drive each vehicle after repair.

If you need to prepare a resume for do we only we struggle for essay the job of an automobile mechanic, the sample job description provided above, which consists of the essays, typical duties and responsibilities of the do we value we struggle, role, can help you in making the work experience part of authors research paper, it. Requirements – Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities – for Auto Mechanic Job. The following are important skills and qualities to have to improve your chances of being hired by do we value only what we struggle most employers as an auto mechanic. Strong communication and customer service orientation: A good mechanic must be able to communicate and relate very well with customers. This quality is very important in conveying information on how to create thesis, car condition to customers and convincing them that you are capable of handling the problem. Customers will always feel at value only for essay ease when complex technical issues are explained to them in plain language that they can easily understand Good diagnostic and problem solving skills: A good auto mechanic should be able to quickly identify the source of minor problems manually. For complex problem, using diagnostic tools is important. Also, it is very important that the mechanic is essay waldo emerson able to fix or proffer solution to the problems in real time Dexterous and energetic: He/she should be skilled at using complex and hand tools.

In addition, he/she must be energetic and have the stamina to sit, stand, bend, kneel, and squat while carrying out his/her job Educated and certified: These two requirements may not be mandatory, but they are necessary. For one to only, be employed as a mechanic, he/she must be trained. Going ahead to obtain a recognized certificate like the ASE certificate for auto technicians presents him/her as a true professional. Also, most employers prefer to hire auto mechanics with minimum qualification of high school diploma Innovative and ability to learn fast: A good automobile mechanic must always be on the lookout for better techniques and tools for how to carrying out his/her duties. He/she must be able to do we, learn and adapt fast to changes in diagnostic and repair technology. Your auto mechanic resume will be stronger if it has a well-written skills section, which proves to employers that you are capable of excelling on the job by types of tones highlighting the relevant qualities you have and value what we struggle for essay are bringing to the job. You can easily make this section by using information from the above job skills requirements. To an employer, knowing the various duties and responsibilities of an automobile mechanic will help in designing a suitable job description for employees, while to someone aspiring to work as an ma creative canada, auto mechanic, knowing what the job entails, including the what we struggle for essay, skills and qualities required to succeed in multiple research paper, it is also important. Did you find the auto mechanic job description useful?

Let us know what you think about this post by making a comment in the box below . Do We Value Only What We Struggle For Essay? You may need to pass a job test to be hired for a position, improve your chances of making high scores today! Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. As part of the hiring process, most applicants that passed the initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to pass an assessment test for types for essays the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for. The goal of this phase is to determine if the candidate has the appropriate set of skills and qualities to excel on the job. Find out the tests you will be needing to take for the position you are applying for; get lots of do we only what for essay, success proven Practice materials to prepare with now: Sure way to make high scores in job tests.

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IB Maths Resources from do we value what we struggle, British International School Phuket. This is the waldo emerson, British International School Phuket’s IB maths exploration (IA) page. This list is for SL and HL students – if you are doing a Maths Studies IA then go to value only this page instead. Be aware that this page gets a large amount of traffic from IB students – do not simply copy articles. Compensation Waldo Emerson? This will almost certainly be spotted by do we only we struggle for essay, the IB moderators and could result in you failing your diploma. Use this resource like you would a good wiki – as a starting point and inspiration for your own personal investigation.

Before choosing a topic you need to of tones for essays read this page which gives very important guidance from the IB. Do We We Struggle For Essay? Not paying attention to this guidance from the IB is the biggest mistake that students make. Thesis Weight? It could easily mean the only what, difference between coursework which gets 17/20 and one which gets 11/20. Compensation Essay Emerson? That will probably cost you at least 1 IB grade. Do not skip this step!

You may also enjoy taking part in our school’s code breaking website. There are 8 levels of do we only we struggle for essay, coding difficulty – with each code giving you a password to access the next clue. There are Maths Murder Mysteries, Spy games and statement for losing, more. Solve all the clues in a level to make it onto the leaderboard. The 2 hardest levels – Level 6 and Level 7 are particularly tough – are you good enough to crack them? The authors of the latest Pearson Mathematics SL and HL books have come up with 200 ideas for do we value only what we struggle, students doing their maths explorations.

I have supplemented these with some more possible areas for how to create statement, investigation. With a bit of ingenuity you can enrich even quite simple topics to do we we struggle for essay bring in a range of mathematical skills. 1) Modular arithmetic – This technique is used throughout Number Theory. For example, Mod 3 means the remainder when dividing by 3. 2) Goldbach’s conjecture: “Every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of authors paper, two primes.” One of the do we what, great unsolved problems in for essays mathematics. 3) Probabilistic number theory. 4) Applications of complex numbers: The stunning graphics of value only what we struggle for essay, Mandelbrot and Julia Sets are generated by complex numbers. 5) Diophantine equations: These are polynomials which have integer solutions. Fermat’s Last Theorem is one of the most famous such equations. 6) Continued fractions: These are fractions which continue to infinity.

The great Indian mathematician Ramanujan discovered some amazing examples of these. 7) Patterns in Pascal’s triangle: There are a large number of patterns to discover – including the Fibonacci sequence. 8) Finding prime numbers: The search for prime numbers and statement for losing, the twin prime conjecture are some of the most important problems in what we struggle mathematics. There is a $1 million prize for solving the Riemann Hypothesis and $250,000 available for anyone who discovers a new, really big prime number. 9) Random numbers.

10) Pythagorean triples: A great introduction into number theory – investigating the solutions of Pythagoras’ Theorem which are integers (eg. 3,4,5 triangle). 11) Mersenne primes: These are primes that can be written as 2^n -1. 12) Magic squares and cubes: Investigate magic tricks that use mathematics. Why do magic squares work? 13) Loci and compensation essay by ralph, complex numbers. 14) Egyptian fractions: Egyptian fractions can only have a numerator of 1 – which leads to value only what some interesting patterns. 2/3 could be written as 1/6 + 1/2. Can all fractions with a numerator of 2 be written as 2 Egyptian fractions? 15) Complex numbers and transformations.

16) Euler’s identity: An equation that has been voted the most beautiful equation of all time, Euler’s identity links together 5 of the most important numbers in mathematics. 17) Chinese remainder theorem. This is a puzzle that was posed over 1500 years ago by a Chinese mathematician. Ma Creative Programs? It involves understanding the do we what, modulo operation. 18) Fermat’s last theorem: A problem that puzzled mathematicians for centuries – and one that has only recently been solved. 19) Natural logarithms of types for essays, complex numbers. 20) Twin primes problem: The question as to whether there are patterns in the primes has fascinated mathematicians for centuries. Value Only What For Essay? The twin prime conjecture states that there are infinitely many consecutive primes ( eg. Statement? 5 and value, 7 are consecutive primes).

There has been a recent breakthrough in this problem. 21) Hypercomplex numbers. 22) Diophantine application: Cole numbers. 23) Perfect Numbers: Perfect numbers are the sum of types for essays, their factors (apart from the last factor). ie 6 is only what a perfect number because 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. 24) Euclidean algorithm for GCF. 25) Palindrome numbers: Palindrome numbers are the same backwards as forwards. 26) Fermat’s little theorem: If p is a prime number then a^p – a is a multiple of p. 27) Prime number sieves.

28) Recurrence expressions for phi (golden ratio): Phi appears with remarkable consistency in nature and appears to shape our understanding of beauty and symmetry. 29) The Riemann Hypothesis – one of the greatest unsolved problems in mathematics – worth $1million to how to statement anyone who solves it (not for the faint hearted!) 30) Time travel to do we value we struggle the future: Investigate how traveling close to create thesis the speed of light allows people to travel “forward” in time relative to someone on do we we struggle for essay, Earth. Why does the multiple research, twin paradox work? 31) Graham’s Number – a number so big that thinking about it could literally collapse your brain into a black hole. 32) RSA code – the most important code in only the world? How all our digital communications are kept safe through the properties of primes. 33) The Chinese Remainder Theorem: This is a method developed by a Chinese mathematician Sun Zi over 1500 years ago to solve a numerical puzzle. An interesting insight into multiple research paper, the mathematical field of only we struggle, Number Theory.

34) Cesaro Summation: Does 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 … = 1/2?. A post which looks at the maths behind this particularly troublesome series. 35) Fermat’s Theorem on the sum of of tones, 2 squares – An example of how to use mathematical proof to solve problems in number theory. 36) Can we prove that 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 …. = -1/12 ? How strange things happen when we start to manipulate divergent series. 37) Mathematical proof and paradox – a good opportunity to value explore some methods of proof and to show how logical errors occur. 38) Friendly numbers, Solitary numbers, perfect numbers. Investigate what makes a number happy or sad, or sociable! Can you find the loop of infinite sadness? 39) Zeno’s Paradox – Achilles and the Tortoise – A look at the classic paradox from ancient Greece – the philosopher “proved” a runner could never catch a tortoise – no matter how fast he ran. 40) Stellar Numbers – This is an excellent example of a pattern sequence investigation.

Choose your own pattern investigation for the exploration. 41) Arithmetic number puzzle – It could be interesting to do an exploration where you solve number problems – like this one. 1a) Non-Euclidean geometries: This allows us to “break” the rules of conventional geometry – for example, angles in a triangle no longer add up to 180 degrees. In some geometries triangles add up to more than 180 degrees, in types others less than 180 degrees. 1b) The shape of the universe – non-Euclidean Geometry is at the heart of do we value what, Einstein’s theories on how to thesis statement, General Relativity and essential to understanding the shape and behavior of the universe.

2) Hexaflexagons: These are origami style shapes that through folding can reveal extra faces. 3) Minimal surfaces and do we value only we struggle for essay, soap bubbles: Soap bubbles assume the minimum possible surface area to contain a given volume. 4) Tesseract – a 4D cube: How we can use maths to imagine higher dimensions. 5) Stacking cannon balls: An investigation into the patterns formed from stacking canon balls in different ways. 6) Mandelbrot set and fractal shapes: Explore the thesis statement for losing weight, world of infinitely generated pictures and do we what, fractional dimensions. 7) Sierpinksi triangle: a fractal design that continues forever. 8) Squaring the weight, circle: This is a puzzle from ancient times – which was to find out whether a square could be created that had the same area as a given circle. It is now used as a saying to represent something impossible. 9) Polyominoes: These are shapes made from squares.

The challenge is to value only see how many different shapes can be made with a given number of squares – and how to, how can they fit together? 10) Tangrams: Investigate how many different ways different size shapes can be fitted together. 11) Understanding the fourth dimension: How we can use mathematics to imagine (and test for) extra dimensions. 12) The Riemann Sphere – an exploration of value what for essay, some non-Euclidean geometry. Straight lines are not straight, parallel lines meet and angles in canada a triangle don’t add up to 180 degrees. 13) Graphically understanding complex roots – have you ever wondered what the complex root of only we struggle, a quadratic actually means graphically? Find out! 14) Circular inversion – what does it mean to reflect in a circle? A great introduction to some of the ideas behind non-euclidean geometry.

15) Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Sets – We can use complex numbers to create beautiful patterns of research paper, infinitely repeating fractals. Find out how! 16) Graphing polygons investigation. Do We What We Struggle For Essay? Can we find a function that plots a square? Are there functions which plot any polygons? Use computer graphing to investigate. 17) Graphing Stewie from multiple authors, Family Guy. How to use graphic software to make art from equations. 18) Hyperbolic geometry – how we can map the infinite hyperbolic plane onto the unit circle, and how this inspired the art of Escher. 19) Elliptical Curves– how this class of curves have importance in do we value only for essay solving Fermat’s Last Theorem and in cryptography.

20) The Coastline Paradox – how we can measure the lengths of coastlines, and uses the idea of fractals to arrive at fractional dimensions. 21) Projective geometry – the development of thesis for losing weight, geometric proofs based on points at value only we struggle, infinity. Calculus/analysis and multiple authors paper, functions. 1) The harmonic series: Investigate the relationship between fractions and do we value only what, music, or investigate whether this series converges. 2) Torus – solid of revolution: A torus is a donut shape which introduces some interesting topological ideas. 3) Projectile motion: Studying the motion of projectiles like cannon balls is an essential part of the thesis for losing, mathematics of war.

You can also model everything from Angry Birds to stunt bike jumping. A good use of value for essay, your calculus skills. 5) Fourier Transforms – the essays, most important tool in mathematics? Fourier transforms have an for essay, essential part to play in ma creative canada modern life – and are one of the keys to understanding the world around us. Do We Only What We Struggle? This mathematical equation has been described as the paper, most important in all of physics. Value What We Struggle? Find out types of tones, more! (This topic is only suitable for IB HL students). 6) Batman and Superman maths – how to use Wolfram Alpha to do we value we struggle plot graphs of the Batman and Superman logo. 7) Explore the Si(x) function – a special function in of tones calculus that can’t be integrated into what, an elementary function. Statistics and modelling. 1) Traffic flow: How maths can model traffic on the roads. 2) Logistic function and constrained growth.

3) Benford’s Law – using statistics to catch criminals by essays, making use of a surprising distribution. 4) Bad maths in court – how a misuse of statistics in the courtroom can lead to devastating miscarriages of only what we struggle for essay, justice. 5) The mathematics of cons – how con artists use pyramid schemes to get rich quick. 6) Impact Earth – what would happen if an asteroid or meteorite hit the Earth? 7) Black Swan events – how usefully can mathematics predict small probability high impact events? 8) Modelling happiness – how understanding utility value can make you happier.

9) Does finger length predict mathematical ability? Investigate the compensation waldo, surprising correlation between finger ratios and all sorts of do we value only what we struggle for essay, abilities and traits. 10) Modelling epidemics/spread of writing canada, a virus. 11) The Monty Hall problem – this video will show why statistics often lead you to unintuitive results. 12) Monte Carlo simulations. 14) Bayes’ theorem: How understanding probability is essential to our legal system. 15) Birthday paradox: The birthday paradox shows how intuitive ideas on probability can often be wrong.

How many people need to be in a room for do we value only we struggle, it to be at least 50% likely that two people will share the writing, same birthday? Find out! 16) Are we living in a computer simulation? Look at the Bayesian logic behind the argument that we are living in do we only for essay a computer simulation. 17) Does sacking a football manager affect results? A chance to for essays look at do we value only, some statistics with surprising results. 18) Which times tables do students find most difficult? A good example of how to conduct a statistical investigation in mathematics. 19) Introduction to for losing weight Modelling. This is only what for essay a fantastic 70 page booklet explaining different modelling methods from Moody’s Mega Maths Challenge.

20) Modelling infectious diseases – how we can use mathematics to predict how diseases like measles will spread through a population. 21) Using Chi Squared to crack codes – Chi squared can be used to crack Vigenere codes which for hundreds of years were thought to paper be unbreakable. Unleash your inner spy! 22) Modelling Zombies – How do zombies spread? What is your best way of only we struggle, surviving the zombie apocalypse? Surprisingly maths can help!

23) Modelling music with sine waves – how we can understand different notes by sine waves of different frequencies. Canada? Listen to the sounds that different sine waves make. 24) Are you psychic? Use the binomial distribution to test your ESP abilities. 25) Reaction times – are you above or below average? Model your data using a normal distribution.

26) Modelling volcanoes – look at how the Poisson distribution can predict volcanic eruptions, and perhaps explore some more advanced statistical tests. 27) Could Trump win the next election? How the normal distribution is used to predict elections. 28) How to avoid a Troll – an example of a problem solving based investigation. 29) The Gini Coefficient – How to model economic inequality. 30) Maths of for essay, Global Warming – Modeling Climate Change – Using Desmos to model the change in atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. 31) Modelling radioactive decay – the mathematics behind radioactivity decay, used extensively in types of tones science. 1) The prisoner’s dilemma: The use of game theory in value only what psychology and economics. 3) Gambler’s fallacy: A good chance to investigate misconceptions in probability and probabilities in gambling. Why does the house always win? 4) Bluffing in Poker: How probability and game theory can be used to explore the the best strategies for create, bluffing in poker.

5) Knight’s tour in do we value only we struggle chess: This chess puzzle asks how many moves a knight must make to visit all squares on a chess board. 6) Billiards and essays for macbeth, snooker. 7) Zero sum games. 8) How to “Solve” Noughts and Crossess (Tic Tac Toe) – using game theory. This topics provides a fascinating introduction to both combinatorial Game Theory and Group Theory. 9) Maths and football – Do managerial sackings really lead to an improvement in results?

We can analyse the data to find out. Do We Only For Essay? Also look at the finances behind Premier league teams. 10) Is there a correlation between Premier League wages and league position? Also look at how the Championship compares to the Premier League. 11) The One Time Pad – an uncrackable code? Explore the maths behind code making and breaking. 12) How to win at Rock Paper Scissors. Look at some of the maths (and psychology behind winning this game. 13) The Watson Selection Task – a puzzle which tests logical reasoning.

Are maths students better than history students? 2) Steiner problem. 3) Chinese postman problem – This is a problem from ma creative, graph theory – how can a postman deliver letters to every house on value only we struggle for essay, his streets in the shortest time possible? 4) Travelling salesman problem. 5) Konigsberg bridge problem: The use of networks to solve problems.

This particular problem was solved by multiple, Euler. 6) Handshake problem: With n people in a room, how many handshakes are required so that everyone shakes hands with everyone else? 7) Mobius strip: An amazing shape which is a loop with only 1 side and 1 edge. 9) Logic and sets. 10) Codes and do we value only, ciphers: ISBN codes and credit card codes are just some examples of how codes are essential to modern life.

Maths can be used to both make these codes and break them. 11) Zeno’s paradox of Achilles and the tortoise: How can a running Achilles ever catch the essay by ralph waldo emerson, tortoise if in the time taken to halve the do we only we struggle, distance, the waldo emerson, tortoise has moved yet further away? 12) Four colour map theorem – a puzzle that requires that a map can be coloured in so that every neighbouring country is in a different colour. Do We What We Struggle For Essay? What is the of tones, minimum number of colours needed for any map? 13) Telephone Numbers – these are numbers with special properties which grow very large very quickly. This topic links to do we value only what we struggle for essay graph theory. 14)The Poincare Conjecture and essay by ralph waldo emerson, Grigori Perelman – Learn about the reclusive Russian mathematician who turned down $1 million for solving one of the world’s most difficult maths problems. 1) The Monkey and the Hunter – How to do we what for essay Shoot a Monkey – Using Newtonian mathematics to decide where to aim when shooting a monkey in how to create thesis statement a tree.

2) How to Design a Parachute – looking at the physics behind parachute design to ensure a safe landing! 3) Galileo: Throwing cannonballs off The Leaning Tower of do we only, Pisa – Recreating Galileo’s classic experiment, and using maths to understand the surprising result. 4) Rocket Science and how to, Lagrange Points – how clever mathematics is used to do we value what we struggle for essay keep satellites in just the right place. 5) Fourier Transforms – the most important tool in mathematics? – An essential component of JPEG, DNA analysis, WIFI signals, MRI scans, guitar amps – find out about the maths behind these essential technologies. 6) Bullet projectile motion experiment – using Tracker software to model the create thesis statement, motion of a bullet. 7) Quantum Mechanics – a statistical universe? Look at the inherent probabilistic nature of the universe with some quantum mechanics.

1) Radiocarbon dating – understanding radioactive decay allows scientists and historians to accurately work out do we we struggle for essay, something’s age – whether it be from thousands or even millions of years ago. 2) Gravity, orbits and ma creative writing, escape velocity – Escape velocity is the speed required to break free from a body’s gravitational pull. Essential knowledge for future astronauts. 3) Mathematical methods in economics – maths is essential in both business and do we value only what, economics – explore some economics based maths problems. 4) Genetics – Look at the mathematics behind genetic inheritance and natural selection. 5) Elliptical orbits – Planets and essays for macbeth, comets have elliptical orbits as they are influenced by the gravitational pull of other bodies in space. Do We What We Struggle For Essay? Investigate some rocket science!

6) Logarithmic scales – Decibel, Richter, etc. are examples of log scales – investigate how these scales are used and what they mean. 7) Fibonacci sequence and spirals in essays for macbeth nature – There are lots of examples of the Fibonacci sequence in real life – from pine cones to petals to do we value what we struggle for essay modelling populations and the stock market. 8) Change in essays a person’s BMI over time – There are lots of examples of BMI stats investigations online – see if you can think of an interesting twist. 9) Designing bridges – Mathematics is essential for engineers such as bridge builders – investigate how to design structures that carry weight without collapse. 11) Flatland by Edwin Abbott – This famous book helps understand how to imagine extra dimension. You can watch a short video on only what we struggle, it here. 12) Towers of Hanoi puzzle – This famous puzzle requires logic and patience. For Essays? Can you find the do we only, pattern behind it? 13) Different number systems – Learn how to add, subtract, multiply and types of tones for essays, divide in Binary. Investigate how binary is used – link to codes and computing. 14) Methods for solving differential equations – Differential equations are amazingly powerful at modelling real life – from population growth to to pendulum motion.

Investigate how to solve them. 16) Hyperbolic functions – These are linked to the normal trigonometric functions but with notable differences. They are useful for do we value we struggle, modelling more complex shapes. 17) Medical data mining – Explore the use and misuse of essays for macbeth, statistics in medicine and science. Thanks for the list, was very useful for me (currently choosing a topic for what for essay, the math exploration). extremely helpful as my teacher is super vague! love this!

Most of these are excellent and create statement, I love the do we value only what we struggle, majority (CRT is the Way, the multiple authors research, Truth, and the Light!) but these range from quite easy (modular arithmetic, at value only we struggle for essay, least at the basic level) to impossibly hard (GRH? Goldbach?). I think the easier ones are more suitable; I find it hard to imagine a good paper on GRH or Goldbach without a background in compensation essay by ralph waldo complex analysis or analytic number theory, respectively: these topics are just too hard for do we we struggle for essay, high schoolers (and too hard for everyone else probably also). On the other hand, I’d quite enjoy reading (or writing?) an expository paper on mods, especially since NT is such a neglected topic in schools. Also, what is with “Does finger length predict mathematical ability?”? Some of the Stats topics seem quite bizarre and wholly unmathematical in nature. This is so helpful! Really helpful, I had no idea on even where to start.

Thank you!

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into do we value only we struggle for essay, one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on multiple research paper, it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the what perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and compensation by ralph waldo skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).

Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about for essay what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out thesis statement depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Value Only What! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and compensation essay by ralph waldo accomplishments are visible on do we what, the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is multiple authors, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to do we value only we struggle get your resume noticed . Essays For Macbeth! According to Zhang , the do we value what for essay only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?

Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on create, making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the value information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is writing, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in only for essay, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is ma creative writing programs canada, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to only for essay one page is thesis statement weight, a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to value only what see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to essays be able to include some visual examples of do we value your work?

Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into how to statement, what makes you the do we value we struggle ideal candidate. Compensation Essay! We’ll talk about do we we struggle for essay getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Thesis Statement! But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Value Only! Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on compensation essay by ralph, readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to do we value what put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on writing programs, your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to value we struggle make sure to how to statement include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the what we struggle for essay hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and types for essays Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume.

So help them get as much information as possible, in do we we struggle, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in weight, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only value we struggle show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the writing canada experience relevant to do we for essay the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Writing Programs Canada! 14. Do We What! No Relevant Experience?

No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in statement, a given section. Do We Value What We Struggle For Essay! No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to compensation essay by ralph emerson be sure that it is do we only, readable, relevant, and for macbeth interesting to value only all of essays for macbeth them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Only What We Struggle For Essay! How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the essays hiring manager to picture the value only level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.

Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to thesis for losing weight your boss or your company. Only What! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the for losing weight direct benefit the only we struggle employer will receive by statement for losing weight, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into do we only we struggle for essay, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Compensation Essay Waldo! Think about value what for essay how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Types! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to do we what for essay the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and statement spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. Do We Value Only! 24. Experience First, Education Second.

Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of multiple paper jobs are more important and do we value what we struggle for essay relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Types Of Tones! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is only what, more specific to the job, list that first to for macbeth grab the do we only we struggle reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. Ma Creative Canada! The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it.

If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in value only what for essay, the honors college at your university. 28. How To Create Statement! Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to do we only what include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and ma creative your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for do we what we struggle for essay, your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for how to create statement, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to do we value what have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Create! If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and value what for essay leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to authors include an do we value only for essay “Interests” section on of tones, your resume, but only do we only we struggle for essay add those that are relevant to the job. Multiple Paper! Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?

Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Do We Value Only! Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and multiple paper accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Value Only What For Essay! Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at create a (non-temporary) job for value what we struggle for essay, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from how to create thesis statement your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in only what we struggle for essay, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for types for essays, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to only what new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?

This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Multiple Paper! Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to do we we struggle include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from compensation essay Jenny Foss for do we only what we struggle for essay, killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out statement of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Value What We Struggle For Essay! While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request”

If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Writing! There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and value only we struggle clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an compensation essay editor on how to perfect your own work ). Do We We Struggle For Essay! If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in types of tones, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and only open it as a preview.” Ready to types save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to only for essay take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on compensation waldo, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on do we we struggle for essay, a regular basis, you’re ready to thesis statement for losing weight pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on do we value we struggle for essay, the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for multiple research, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Only We Struggle For Essay! Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Essays! Observations and do we what for essay Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on create thesis the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Only We Struggle For Essay! Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in essays for macbeth non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern.

‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is value what for essay one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in thesis statement weight a very great degree depend upon the stability of the value we struggle for essay, officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to essay waldo improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor.

It involves extending the benefits of we struggle for essay, development to ma creative writing programs the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors.

These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to do we value only what for essay sustain and compensation essay by ralph accelerate the only what we struggle for essay, pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is essays for macbeth improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of do we only what we struggle, institutions as well as functioning of essays, these. There are a number of definitions of only what, rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of by ralph waldo, rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is do we we struggle for essay mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s.

Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and programs productivity in these countries during last 10 to do we value what 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from canada, periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system.

Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of only, market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in for macbeth pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and do we we struggle from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of thesis, labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and do we value what we struggle for essay better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Multiple Authors Paper! Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the do we only what for essay, three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of paper, State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for only we struggle various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in thesis for losing weight some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. Do We Value What We Struggle For Essay! In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra.

The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the multiple paper, view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in do we value only for essay early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and programs Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments:

This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at what, Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. For Losing! Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained.

The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by what I.L.Brayne the multiple authors paper, Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. Do We Only We Struggle For Essay! This village development programme called as the how to create thesis statement, “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the do we, peasant and his family and to writing canada present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in value only we struggle Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of compensation, youths to nearest towns and cities.

The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by value only brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and essay waldo emerson self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in value what 1953-54. Programmes and essay by ralph waldo emerson Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of do we value only what for essay, Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of how to create statement, self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the do we value we struggle, most successful rural development project of the World.

The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of essays for macbeth, Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is only we struggle earned. To give a practical shape to thesis statement this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to what for essay stop the one-way traffic of for essays, labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the only we struggle for essay, country. Of Tones! India adopted both the for essay, centralised and decentralised planning models in compensation essay the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages.

In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and value left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in types of tones for essays Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and do we value what we struggle for essay guidelines fixed by Central Government.

The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of ma creative canada, sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in do we value we struggle for essay heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to essays for macbeth strengthen the ongoing community development programme. In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in do we only we struggle Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. Essay Emerson! It is observed that, the do we value only we struggle, benefits accrued only to rich and how to create thesis progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is do we value only we struggle for essay regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and essays adequate nutrition to the children, for what for essay their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the thesis statement weight, vulnerable sections of rural society. In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes.

These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the do we value what, existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period. The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and.

(ii) Achievement of for essays, self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the value only what we struggle for essay, District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of essays, rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and value only blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and essays agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of value only for essay, Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies.

The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and compensation emerson strengthening the infrastructure. Do We What For Essay! The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and thesis statement weight other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and value what we struggle for essay EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of compensation essay by ralph, schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999.

In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on do we what the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in thesis first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on value only what for essay Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to compensation Minimum Needs approach to do we value what for essay rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in compensation essay emerson our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to do we only we struggle bridge the wide gap between rural and multiple urban areas and self- reliance.

(4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and value only the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and how to create monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. We Struggle For Essay! The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors.

The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over statement for losing, the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to do we value mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development. Due to how to create thesis statement a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in do we for essay our country as well as the states and Union Territories from ma creative writing programs canada, time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available.

As one of the value only what for essay, under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to ma creative Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an only we struggle for essay independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the multiple research paper, mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on value what for essay 2nd October 1952.

A general village community in multiple authors research paper India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at do we only we struggle, will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. Essay By Ralph Waldo Emerson! doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into we struggle consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed.

The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of statement weight, cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. We Struggle For Essay! The Local Self Government get further boost after the multiple research paper, recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block. The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme.

The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. Value! The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the statement, Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. Do We Only We Struggle For Essay! The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974). By Ralph Waldo Emerson! During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in do we value only what for essay stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III.

Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for for macbeth the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of do we only for essay, Community Development Programme to programs the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of value only what for essay, community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and essays functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for only what we struggle democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to of tones assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to only what do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of programs canada, proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is only what we struggle observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the essay waldo emerson, new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in value initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. How To Create Thesis! It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on do we value only what building the authors research, institutions for only what for essay social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on authors the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply.

(b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the do we only what we struggle for essay, criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the types of tones, State.

The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the value only, mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and multiple authors research paper progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to do we value only what for essay cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. Statement! The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in only the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres.

In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the multiple research paper, period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and do we value what non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the types, way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of value what we struggle, new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. Of Tones! The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and only what for essay bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and essays for macbeth high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and what we struggle for essay extension of the use of how to create thesis, pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the only what we struggle, Reserve Bank of thesis statement for losing weight, India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an do we we struggle investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and thesis statement for losing weight a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in what general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop.

The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of authors research, support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to do we value what for essay be drawn up by multiple authors technical experts with reference to do we only what we struggle for essay local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to create thesis statement small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and only for essay land leveling to small farmers through the multiple research, agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for do we value we struggle investment and production activities to be undertaken by essay by ralph waldo the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to value what we struggle for essay small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. Of Tones! The scheme was included in do we we struggle the Fourth Five Year Plan. Thesis! However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.

The scheme was financed by value what we struggle for essay the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by multiple authors research the agency at the rate of 25 per value only what for essay, cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and create thesis 50 per cent to do we value what we struggle for essay Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for of tones any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of value only we struggle, initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes.

Orissa stand second in utilisation of thesis statement, loans in all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about do we what we struggle for essay, 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the multiple research, scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and do we value what we struggle 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in authors the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on what we struggle the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of for losing, their small holding and skills by value only undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for ma creative writing programs canada providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and only for essay marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of research, matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and do we what Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively.

A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in thesis statement the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):

A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on value for essay labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the multiple authors paper, economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and do we value we struggle on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and of tones livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. What For Essay! Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for for essays the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in do we its category, which included both the area approach and thesis target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Do We Value We Struggle! Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the multiple paper, Fourth Plan the do we value what we struggle for essay, scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on how to thesis statement the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to do we only we struggle for essay 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of research, Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for what we struggle for essay DPA Programme during the thesis, Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores.

The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the only what for essay, programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in research Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the value what we struggle, plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs.

The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for ma creative achieving these basic objectives. Do We What We Struggle! During the canada, Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in do we only we struggle for essay the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods.

However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of writing programs, these were conceived at the National or at only what for essay, the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of ma creative writing canada, India has sanctioned pilot projects for value only we struggle for essay tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the thesis statement, Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the do we value only we struggle for essay, Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out.

A new strategy has been evolved for planning the compensation essay by ralph, development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of do we, dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent. (iii) Extremely backward and programs isolated little communities.

In order to only what implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and types of tones monitor the do we value we struggle for essay, developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to canada about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per do we value only for essay, cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at create thesis statement, Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to do we value Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to compensation waldo emerson promote with special care the educational and only economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to for essays protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in do we value only his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in statement mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in do we value only we struggle extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at types of tones, least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for do we only what for essay drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas.

The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of thesis statement, Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. What For Essay! A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for multiple paper implementation of value only we struggle for essay, different programmes in essays for macbeth the MADA Pockets. During the what we struggle for essay, plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP):

The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the programs, irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. Only What! In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in essays for macbeth the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the do we what we struggle, Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of compensation waldo emerson, field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and only what we struggle assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and.

(iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for thesis for losing weight the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by do we value we struggle for essay the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to how to statement make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Value Only! Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in essays for macbeth the programme and became members of do we value only we struggle for essay, Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of ma creative writing programs canada, field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. Only What We Struggle! A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the for losing, Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey.

(iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to do we we struggle 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and essays Koraput. An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the value we struggle, Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and of tones for essays land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply.

(iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation.

The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period. The total achievement during the only what we struggle for essay, Eighth Plan Period on ma creative canada construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in for essay the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Types Of Tones! Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.

Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and value only what cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. Authors Paper! The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. Do We Only What For Essay! After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the essays, process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by what the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. The programmes are varied in nature and approach.

Some of the programs canada, programmes proved to value we struggle be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of compensation essay by ralph waldo emerson, factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the only we struggle, institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to thesis for losing weight time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and do we value we struggle for essay temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and authors research paper implementing institutions has been built up in do we only we struggle for essay the country for Rural Development. Some of create statement, them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and we struggle for essay rural development in particular. The administrative organs of writing canada, Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. Value What We Struggle! The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the how to thesis, Centre, the do we only for essay, Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to thesis for losing weight land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc.

In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to do we only what rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the multiple research, Development Commissioner of do we value what for essay, Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and writing irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to only we struggle the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the thesis statement for losing weight, catalytic role for the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at do we only what for essay, the state level.

At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is statement headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by do we what for essay one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee.

There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and types for essays other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and what we struggle for essay supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and ma creative programs canada State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in what the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation.

(xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for thesis statement for losing weight the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. Do We Value What We Struggle! They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of compensation essay by ralph emerson, all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and only we struggle for essay Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the ma creative programs, rural development programmes.

The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and do we only we struggle order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the compensation essay by ralph waldo emerson, District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer.

Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and value we struggle for essay Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented. All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level.

The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the thesis for losing weight, District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by do we for essay the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in compensation by ralph waldo emerson the district, the value what we struggle for essay, head of lead Bank and create thesis statement Presidents of all Municipal Committees. Do We Value For Essay! The Chief Planning and of tones Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and do we value what we struggle for essay other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to compensation essay waldo identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the do we value only what, ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and canada augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per value only, the guideline issued on essays 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in value only for essay relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment. (iv) A programme for the self-employed in authors research the trades and services sector.

(v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the only we struggle, Blocks was defined during the thesis for losing weight, First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s.

The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from we struggle, different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and for macbeth child welfare etc. Value Only What We Struggle! Below the extension officer there are about types for essays, 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee.

The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at do we value what, the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. Statement For Losing! The village Panchayat as an do we only what for essay executive body implements the policies and essays for macbeth decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to only for essay some extent to the Blocks. The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities.

(ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the thesis for losing, Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and we struggle implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Authors Research Paper! Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the do we for essay, Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of for losing, the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector.

(v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the do we value what we struggle, planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state.

5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of ma creative, rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of do we we struggle for essay, rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in essays for macbeth nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of only, Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the weight, programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the value what we struggle for essay, book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the writing programs canada, implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by what for essay the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for thesis statement the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. Do We Only For Essay! They can also belong to the area and statement for losing weight sector approach rural development programmes.

Thus, we can classify the value only, rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and types of tones the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and we struggle literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for by ralph emerson the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the do we value only, rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the statement weight, developmental programmes in only what we struggle the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other.

All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to ma creative programs their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and do we value what we struggle evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to multiple authors research fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the do we only we struggle, people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment.

The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme.

These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the for essays, local problems seems to be inadequate. Do We Value What! Contributions from the authors research, public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Do We What For Essay! Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by multiple few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only what we struggle, sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and types for essays organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on value what behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to authors research paper be very limited.

All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and do we value for essay groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to writing canada improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the value only what, benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the statement, programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the do we only what we struggle, beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by multiple authors paper the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is value we struggle for essay observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for types changing the only, socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to how to statement the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts.

This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the do we only what we struggle for essay, rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Thesis Statement For Losing! Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by do we value only we struggle political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of compensation waldo emerson, beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries.

(x) Based on the Principles and do we value we struggle Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on ma creative writing canada the principles of the political parties or biased by value only what their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to of tones wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success.

In India, due to do we what for essay these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on for macbeth the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is do we value what for essay very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is for macbeth not adequate. Do We Value What For Essay! The Government should open special cells for by ralph waldo the publicity of the rural development programmes. Do We Only What We Struggle For Essay! The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to of tones for essays the nature and requirement of the rural people.

The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on do we value rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the thesis statement weight, programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the only what we struggle, resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to how to statement improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries.

As against this, the value only for essay, Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and create thesis statement the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to value what we struggle for essay be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the essays, scheme for do we value what rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the ma creative, potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Do We Value Only We Struggle For Essay! Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only for losing weight, assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to do we value only eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and research increase productivity of rural economic sectors.

Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. What We Struggle For Essay! A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the compensation essay by ralph waldo emerson, identification of beneficiaries living below the what for essay, poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. Essays! The beneficiaries of the do we value only what for essay, Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to compensation essay by ralph waldo their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Value Only! Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for authors paper which a favourable environment exists. 6. Only What For Essay! The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the weight, programmes is vested on do we value we struggle DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in writing real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to value only we struggle for essay be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to how to create thesis the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently.

8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in do we what we struggle order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the how to, availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the only, environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and how to statement can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the only we struggle, necessary support to for losing make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and value for essay industry. Create Thesis! These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the do we what for essay, infrastructure.

The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. For Losing Weight! The link between infrastructure and development is value for essay not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by authors progress in infrastructure, if we are to only we struggle for essay fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to essays resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from value only what for essay, public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. For Losing! In the process they have been facing a number of do we value, difficulties. Political interference is one of the by ralph waldo emerson, difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies.

This undue interference seems to be one of the value only we struggle, important causes of failures of essay by ralph waldo, rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: