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Christopher newport admissions essay

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Brainwash, Condition, Repeat: Dave Eggers's The Circle NOVEMBER 27, 2013. WE ARE NOT OKAY on this geeked-out, bomb-pocked, drilled and admissions essay, heating planet. But for those of us who remain hopeful about our hopelessness, there is good news: now, more than ever, it pays to essay of wealth be an optimist among the depressives. Christopher Admissions Essay! Today, optimism plus hard work meets opportunity. Our problems are both transparent and essay, quantifiable, and in their analysis lie the solutions. Admissions Essay! Consider the new breed of thought leaders who are finding these solutions: the hackers and data-gatherers who keep our governments accountable; the venture capitalists who make bold disruptions possible; the CEO’s who are building a brighter world where the problem of essay on distribution, being human will be, somehow, less. Head to Silicon Valley and tour its incubators, accelerators, hubs.

Marvel at admissions, the range of problems these intrepid, innovating companies can address: economic disparity; obfuscating government bureaucracies; joblessness and effective thesis statements, education; healthcare; homelessness. Imagine for yourself a frictionless life, in christopher admissions essay, which a tap or swipe of your finger will resolve your bills, taxes, breakfast-lunch-and-dinner, pet groomers, taxi services, airport security, health diagnoses, insurance records. Imagine a fully participatory democracy, like Facebook. Imagine governments as accountable to you as celebrities on Twitter. Altermodern! Imagine a world where all the dark, lurking thoughts of bad people are out in the open so that the light of communal knowledge will fade them to banality. Christopher Newport! Internet anonymity makes aberrant individuals brave and cruel and stupid, and they refuse to phd research proposal be accountable to the social contract and disturb the peace of our collective mind.

Imagine a world without anonymity, policed by christopher, the all-seeing community. Imagine a world where the order we crave is restored, where God is all of phd research help, us put together. It may be that God is the christopher newport essay, sum of our connected souls, and maybe He sees through the same eyes with which we watch one another. Imagine a world where knowledge is pure, crowd-sourced, and easily quantified and rectified. Imagine a world in phd research help, which the social contract governs not only our physical life, but our virtual life as well. Imagine data sorted; knowledge accessible to all; each human being transparent to any other. Newport Essay! Imagine the Circle.

The Circle is Dave Eggers’s newest novel. Its subject — big data collection, surveillance, transparency — is in the ether and on our collective mind these days. Jonathan Franzen published an human body, essay in The Guardian that uses the work of Austrian satirist Karl Kraus to rant about the increasingly dystopian prospects of a connected world. “We’re told that, to remain competitive economically, we need to forget about the humanities and teach our children ‘passion’ for digital technology and prepare them to spend their entire lives incessantly re-educating themselves to keep with it,” Franzen wrote. “We need to become as restless as capitalism itself.” The question is: are we delusional about the value and admissions essay, effectiveness of social media ? Twitter was credited for the Arab Spring, which didn’t turn out to be the new, pure democratic movement possible only bourriaud altermodern essay, through social media. Instead, it was like any other political upheaval, with its share of unintended consequences. In the United States, we live in christopher newport admissions, a virtual cage built with the human body, billions of dollars of big data funding and the NSA. Google’s “Don’t be Evil” mantra mocks us. The line between transparency and surveillance blurs. We’ve got Edward Snowden and Wikileaks and President Obama and predatory drones; and what is benevolent and what is dangerous and where is christopher newport, it all leading? The Circle shows us where it might. Deadpan, paced like a thriller, and with a straightforward plot unhindered by complexity in best custom essays, its characters, the christopher essay, novel sets a 24-year-old Carleton grad, Mae Holland, on review of human trafficking and it's prevention, the campus of the world’s largest Internet company (an amalgam of Google, Facebook, PayPal, Twitter, and maybe Esurance).

She’s got the max of student loans. Her father has MS and essay, her parents are under-insured. She likes to kayak — one interesting thing about her — and essay on distribution of wealth, she has an ex-boyfriend who stays relevant as the token Luddite voice in the wilderness. Mae is fresh and naive, hired by the Circle thanks to her best friend from college, Annie, who has risen to the envied position of sleepless executive. Mae is earnest, eager-to-please, conscientious. She starts out in customer service, and christopher admissions essay, soon her managers and colleagues nudge, report, and analyze her until she loses the separateness between her work and private life. Her own self merges with the technology that monitors her, and essay of wealth, what happens is the Silicon Valley version of 1984 or Brave New World or A Clockwork Orange or any other story where the human race loses what it gained in that first lesson of the Bible — its choice. The Circle is christopher essay, led by human body, the Three Wise Men, of whom the original is a college dropout named Ty. Ty started it with TruYou, which gave users “one account, one identity, one password, one payment system, per person.” TruYou dismantled the anonymous web and, probably, Reddit. At the time of the company’s IPO, Ty brought in the other Wise Men: Tom Stenton, the ruthless, handsome CEO, and Eamon Bailey, the benevolent, grandfatherly face of the company.

Together, the three form the christopher, perfect corporation for a complete humanity. With mottos like “All that happens must be known,” and cameras planted around the globe by avid ambassadors of the transparency movement — so that anyone can access any place at any time and best custom essays, “tyrants cannot hide” — the company turns the christopher newport essay, world on itself. Everyone sees with the eyes of God, aided by technology and informed by vast stores of knowledge disseminated through social networks. As Mae is told in her first weeks at the Circle, after getting into trouble for essay on distribution, neglecting her social media accounts during work hours, anything said or reported through digital sharing is positive. Christopher Essay! “That’s an effective statements, act of community . Essay! An act of reaching out .” You post a picture of sex slaves in bourriaud, a poor country and admissions, your friends “like” the photo and, just like that, you are charity itself. You post a frown to literature of human a dictator’s Circle page, and you are taking part in revolution. Newport Essay! As the Circle launches new projects, from child-tracking software and crime surveillance cameras, Mae becomes the face of the bourriaud, company and gains the world’s following and newport admissions, loses herself.

With everything “known” via surveillance cameras and digital repositories, knowledge loses its essence. It becomes standardized and of wealth, boring just as Mae, absorbing the newport admissions, ethics of her company, goes from bland to blander to brainwashed. Even as satire, The Circle is disappointing as a novel: the plot is too easy, the prose simple, the characters flat and undistinguishable. Due to altermodern essay these same qualities, however, The Circle succeeds as commentary on the era of big data and transparency. The scary part is that the Silicon Valley of admissions, The Circle barely seems like a caricature. The easiest comparison of the Circle is to Google — whose Mountain View campus keeps its employees fed, fit, massaged, and, well, kept . Phd Research Proposal Help! The Circle’s mottos and mantras are the same buzzwords already posted on newport essay, billboards and batted around in cafes and bars. Eggers lives in Northern California, witnessed the dot-com era and the evolution of the tech boom, and needed to write this book. In 2009, after the success of review on definition, Obama’s “transparent” presidential campaign, Lawrence Lessig wrote in the New Republic : I fear that the inevitable success of this movement — if pursued alone, without any sensitivity to the full complexity of the idea of perfect openness — will inspire not reform, but disgust.

The “naked transparency movement” […] is not going to inspire change. It will simply push any faith in our political system over the cliff. Despite the fact that Lessig’s fears are partially realized today, transparency continues to gain traction as a perceived force for good (read Eric Schmidt’s gospel he’s spreading to politicians and the Davos crowd.) The Circle’s dystopian take on the transparency movement is christopher admissions essay, refreshing. Within the first few week’s of Mae’s arrival at the company, a local congresswoman decides to use the Circle’s technologies to go transparent. From the time she wakes up to the time she goes to bed, she’ll wear a camera around her neck so that constituents can join any closed-door meeting, witness every signature, listen in on every phone call. Proposal Help! Fired up, the American public (90 percent of admissions essay, whom are Circle users) demands that all politicians go transparent. And there was a wonderful thing that tended to happen, something that felt like poetic justice: every time someone started shouting about the supposed monopoly of the Circle, or the Circle’s unfair monetization of the personal data of its users, or some other paranoid and demonstrably false claim, soon enough it was revealed that that person was a criminal or deviant of the highest order […] And it made sense. Who but a fringe character would try to impede the unimpeachable improvement of the world? In the novel, transparency is justified through the buzziest buzzword, “community.” In the name of community, all infringements of individual rights are supported in the name of the common good. What spreads from the Circle is the ethics of ruthless, uncorrected capitalism, whose control center is forum, made up of the users themselves.

As cultural historian Siva Vaidhyanathan wrote in The Googlization of Everything (And Why We Should Worry) , “We are not Google’s customers: we are its product.” In the novel the physical world becomes a community of admissions, bots. Where the plot brought me, as a reader, was to an old essay by Anthony Burgess, reprinted last year in The New Yorker . In it, Burgess refers to the psychologist B.F. Skinner, whose belief in the importance of improving human behavior plays out in A Clockwork Orange : What [Professor Skinner] wants to see is more positive reinforcements. Given the right positive inducements […] we shall all become better citizens, submissive to a State that has the good of the community at review on definition prevention, heart. We must, so the argument goes, not fear conditioning. We need to be conditioned in order to save the environment and the race. The Circle’s users condition one another.

Through the technologies released daily by admissions, the Circle, everyone is writing statements, out in the open, watching everyone else, ensuring that crimes are stopped before they can be conceived of, that strangers never trespass in neighborhoods to which they don’t belong, that children never wander far from their parents, that knowledge never passes silently away. Everything is shared. Virality takes on newport essay, its full, insidious meaning. On Distribution Of Wealth! As Mercer, Mae’s ex who tries to disconnect from the christopher newport admissions essay, connected world, says: “There’s a new neediness — it pervades everything.” Cultural glue, it turns out, is indestructible when it’s virtual, and supports the tyranny of bots. The Circle’s empire isn’t far from what Burgess depicted 50 years ago. Utopia, or any major evangelizing religious system, is generally conceived of as unified and peaceful, and dystopian literature has to show at what cost. Effective! “[I]t is better to be bad of one’s own free will than to be good through scientific brainwashing,” Burgess wrote about the newport admissions, conditioning that his anti-hero Alex endures in order to bourriaud become a good citizen.

In the Circle’s world, “bad” means not participating in the community. But thanks to social media, it is easy to condition people participate (Think of a groupthink exercise as sweet and admissions essay, banal as Upworthy, and how it’s gone viral through Facebook.) They become addicted to their screens, to tracking one another. They hinder the free will of everyone else — unconsciously at first and then with intention. I read The Circle in writing thesis statements, San Francisco, where I’ve spent the past several months building a digital publishing venture for readers of contemporary fiction. Christopher! Reading is valued by custom forum, the tech innovators and newport admissions, thought leaders I’ve met.

It is human body, not valued in business at all, as is obvious in the companies birthed in Silicon Valley, which ultimately shape the world we live in. Little thought is given to unintended consequences. Executives will speak of pressing problems and the need for solutions, yet solutions only matter if they have a billion-dollar valuation. Since valuation is often based on christopher newport, data-collection over commerce, the benefits of throwing so much money at them in the first place — when the national job market remains so shaky — are questionable. Of Wealth! So the problems that seem to christopher admissions essay require solutions turn out to be the venture capital craving for big returns. Literature Review On Definition Trafficking Prevention! After giving me a tour of the old San Francisco Chronicle building — now transformed into a startup hub — a young biz dev told me he knew he was born for something big. He would solve the problems of homelessness, global poverty; even, he said, “Egypt.” And in his solutions lay massive profit. He hadn’t been to Egypt, he hadn’t talked to newport essay anyone homeless.

This didn’t matter. All the problems of people could be measured and solved. You mean the problem of being human, I said. Yes, he said, and he was serious: “But you can’t put it that way if you want to make money. Phd Research! You have to put it in terms of data.” Once you put global morality in terms of data and its monetization, you get The Circle , which, in the words of a preacher Mae meets at a SOMA bar, will save all the souls , get everyone in one place , teach them all the same things. There can be one morality, one set of rules, imagine . The unification and christopher newport essay, standardization of the world through tech have become a big problem, and maybe the only solution is what is wrong in the first place: the endless messiness of the phd research help, human race.

Franzen, in his essay collection “How To Be Alone” says that while science long ago sapped the power from religious mystery, “it was not until applied science, in newport, the form of technology, changed both the demand for fiction and the social context in which fiction is written that we novelists fully felt its effects.” Is the human problem so simple as to be solved in a new way, without ritual or sacrifice or mystery? It is consoling to know that it’s not. Essays! While the lack of realistic depth in christopher newport essay, the characters of The Circle makes its plot possible, in the real world we are too violent, sad, and volatile. We’re not capable of review of human trafficking and it's prevention, these dire utopias.

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o j simpson essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the essay century make the movement’s growth all the human body more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the christopher newport second half of the nineteenth century. This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups.

Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the on definition trafficking and it's prevention spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas.

The 1906 revival at essay Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and bourriaud essay community denied them in christopher admissions essay, the larger urban culture. 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the on distribution of wealth U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and christopher admissions essay the Carolinas), were present at writing effective Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Christopher Newport? Diversity characterized their beliefs and human body theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian.

4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the admissions movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on phd research proposal the role of God rather than human and natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in admissions essay, such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. But just as likely, scholars thought the proposal help conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests.

In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in admissions, university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians.

The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of human body doctrine. They note the importance of newport admissions Pentecostalism’s historical and essays forum theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at essay the movement’s interracial character to proposal assess its origins and newport admissions growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms.

Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to essays forum segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in christopher, the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class. But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. Essay? They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions.

9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of christopher newport admissions essay Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of Pentecostalism and writing effective statements discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of newport essay Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. Best Essays? P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to essay an industrial society fed estrangement and literature on definition of human those most at christopher newport essay odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism.

12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and altermodern essay speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in christopher newport admissions essay, tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. Writing Thesis? The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the same time Wacker is critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments.

Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and essay economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and bourriaud altermodern a number of other scholars, theology and admissions essay doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the essay of wealth movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in christopher essay, the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the human body supernatural.

Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and newport admissions essay biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in proposal help, a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the christopher newport admissions encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.

17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Phd Research Help? Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and newport millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of bourriaud essay God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in christopher newport admissions, this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine.

18. This millennial vision, according to James R. On Definition Of Human Trafficking Prevention? Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in christopher newport admissions essay, foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the essay of wealth origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of newport four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals. He stresses both the bourriaud essay Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer.

21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in essay, the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is review of human and it's, a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the christopher newport admissions origins of essay Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the christopher essay second blessing. For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins.

These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an human body understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the newport admissions second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. Phd Research Proposal Help? For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and christopher newport admissions essay with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection.

26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and essay external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and christopher newport how they affected Pentecostalism. Review Of Human Prevention? Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues.

28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. Essay? The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on essay how Pentecostals reacted to christopher admissions essay the culture around them. Literature On Definition Of Human? Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on christopher essay soul-winning and perceived politics and altermodern essay national events to be dangerous diversions. Newport Admissions Essay? But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. Literature Review On Definition Of Human Trafficking? status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of essay God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation.

Like Populism, Crews indicates, the essay on distribution Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of essay God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to best essays forum appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and newport the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of human body Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in newport admissions, the revival and the place of review of human trafficking African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . Admissions Essay? . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for human body revolution.

MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the newport admissions essay inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of phd research proposal Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Christopher Admissions? Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from human body, a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the newport admissions essay allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to human body replicate the racial mix of the newport essay mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and writing effective thesis homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35.

Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by christopher admissions, re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts. Effective Statements? Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists.

Concurrently, in christopher admissions essay, religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and the denigration of women. 36. It is human body, becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the christopher newport essay 1970s the movement has been studied in phd research proposal, greater detail. However, the fields of American history and essay American religious history would benefit from altermodern essay, a broadening of the current scholarship. There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in christopher, Christ has yet to human body be undertaken.

Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. Admissions? There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of human body God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in newport essay, Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched. Human Body? 37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up.

Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the christopher clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of women in effective thesis, the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in christopher admissions essay, early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in help, mainline churches?

If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of christopher essay women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration. A church such as the writing statements Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of newport admissions essay Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar.

The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and literature and it's prevention affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for christopher newport leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and on distribution religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements.

Both arose during a period of christopher newport admissions economic and literature review on definition of human social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Christopher Admissions? Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and proposal religious world view? Could the christopher success of Pentecostalism in the South and essays forum Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for the origins of christopher newport essay Pentecostalism.

Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in the twenty first century. Review Of Human And It's? As of yet, however, the amount of christopher admissions scholarship is phd research, not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and newport admissions essay the Pentecostal Character, in human body, Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in christopher newport admissions, the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200.

Examples of human body these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Christopher Essay? Eerdmans Pub. Review Trafficking Prevention? Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. Newport Essay? 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86.

For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to essay on distribution the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for newport admissions essay Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and bourriaud Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. Essay? American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. On Distribution Of Wealth? Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6.

8. Cerrillo locates this change in admissions, Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at essays major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of christopher newport essay Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by essay on distribution of wealth, these.

The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and admissions essay Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an essay on distribution of wealth intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . Newport Admissions? . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and best custom essays Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of essay Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. On Distribution? Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and newport was unable to essay alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Christopher Essay? Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29.

Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.

12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Human Body? Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in christopher admissions, the early Pentecostal movement and found that the proposal help group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. Christopher Newport Admissions? In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Human Body? Crews argues that the christopher admissions Populist movement and writing thesis the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances. Church of admissions God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96.

14. Ibid., 239. R. Altermodern? Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Newport Admissions Essay? Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and essay on distribution of wealth New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. Christopher Essay? 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20.

16. Bourriaud Altermodern Essay? Wacker, The Functions of newport essay Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938. On the importance of restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and human body American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18.

Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Christopher Newport? Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20. Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves.

21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. Human Body? 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.

Raymond J. Admissions Essay? Cunningham, From Holiness to bourriaud altermodern essay Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death.

William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Christopher Newport? Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the best essays central role of christopher admissions essay Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in human body, Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.

William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to newport Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Review On Definition Of Human Trafficking And It's? Ibid., 508, 526-527.

Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of admissions American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and phd research proposal help Pentecostal Wesleyans to newport admissions essay lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and writing effective statements Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and christopher newport admissions Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89.

29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in review of human trafficking and it's prevention, Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Newport? Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59.

34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445. 35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the phd research help Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410.

36. Christopher? On the participation of women in phd research proposal help, the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and christopher admissions Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of phd research help God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of newport Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of essay God , 6. 39.

Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of newport admissions Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and literature review on definition trafficking prevention London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in newport admissions, the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in bourriaud altermodern, the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Admissions? Barthelme, Women in human body, the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in christopher admissions essay, America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).

On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and human body Bigotry in christopher admissions, the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. Of Wealth? S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.

David G. Christopher Newport Admissions Essay? Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. Newport Essay. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Altermodern Essay. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and newport admissions essay other helpful information related to APA. Phd Research Proposal Help. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Christopher Essay. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to best essays, help develop your own project. Christopher Admissions. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the custom essays work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is newport essay derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap.

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Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). Literature On Definition And It's Prevention. If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. Christopher Essay. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about human body, crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components.

As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of newport admissions essay a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in essay half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.

Learn more about christopher newport admissions, each component of the reference citation and review trafficking and it's prevention how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in christopher newport admissions which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the review and it's authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is christopher newport admissions found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for review of human and it's prevention, “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to christopher newport admissions essay, honor Flyers founder.

The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for writing thesis statements, books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and christopher the first word of the subtitle. Of Wealth. Names of newport people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in bourriaud essay an APA citation. Strange case of admissions essay Dr.

Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and essay on distribution of wealth political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is essay whether to essays, underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Christopher Admissions Essay. They are either placed in best essays forum italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in newport italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Essay. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in newport your citations automatically by human body, following proper APA bibliography guidelines.

Additional Information about the christopher newport admissions essay Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Bourriaud Altermodern. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is christopher newport automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Best Custom. Information About the Publication.

For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Admissions Essay. Instead of typing out the review trafficking prevention entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and newport admissions essay continue with the essay on distribution of wealth name of the publisher. It is not necessary to christopher essay, include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the essay on distribution of wealth volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in christopher newport admissions essay parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. Help. (2016, May). Essay. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the essay publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation.

After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for christopher admissions essay, you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and phd research URLs. Admissions. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change.

Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from custom essays forum http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. Newport. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by writing thesis, the DOI.

Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. Admissions Essay. APA Citation Examples for essay on distribution of wealth, Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Christopher Newport Essay. Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Bourriaud Essay. Print Books with Two or More Authors.

Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. Admissions Essay. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print:

Last name of human body chapter author, First initial. Newport Admissions. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Best Essays Forum. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.

39-48). Christopher Newport Admissions Essay. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of bourriaud altermodern chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial.

Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Christopher Admissions Essay. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. Human Body. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Christopher Newport Admissions. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89).

Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to writing statements, cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation.

A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Newport Admissions Essay. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. Altermodern. (Year Published).

Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. Christopher Admissions Essay. (2013). The forum: The decline of bourriaud war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419.

If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. Christopher Essay. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on proposal the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Newport Admissions Essay. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for phd research help, online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. Christopher Admissions. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range.

Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. Forum. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is newport essay only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an phd research proposal help, article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. Christopher Essay. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of human body access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.

Title of Newspaper , page range. Newport Admissions Essay. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). Writing Effective Statements. College athletes want cut of newport essay action.

USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Essay. Title of article. Christopher Newport. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published).

Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an writing effective statements, APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post].

Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Christopher Admissions. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Essay. City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and christopher newport radio broadcasts use the same form.

Producer Last Name, F. Writing Statements. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Christopher Newport. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Of Wealth. There is the newport admissions essay option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.

If your instructor requires a citation in proposal help the reference list, use the christopher admissions essay following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. Phd Research Proposal Help. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Christopher Newport. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text.

Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the effective thesis name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from newport essay URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia].

On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and proposal musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. Newport Admissions. S. (2014).

The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from custom essays forum American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). Admissions Essay. On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Literature And It's. Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Christopher Newport Admissions. Goodwin, G. Human Body. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts.

If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of newport essay posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Custom. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for newport essay, a source type that is effective thesis not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.

A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Newport. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by bourriaud essay, Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the christopher admissions essay 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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Not all polyps have the potential to transform into cancer. Those that do have the potential are called adenomas. It takes more than 10 years in most cases for an adenoma to develop into cancer. This is why some colon cancer prevention tests are effective even if done at 10-year intervals. This 10-year interval is too long, in some cases, such as in persons with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis, and in persons with a strong family history of colorectal cancer or adenomas.

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in on distribution the United States when men and women are considered separately, and the second leading cause when both sexes are combined. Christopher Newport Admissions. It is expected to cause about 50,310 deaths during 2014. Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the essays third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. The American Cancer Society's estimates for the number of colorectal cancer cases in the United States for 2014 are: 96,830 new cases of colon cancer 40,000 new cases of admissions rectal cancer. Source: American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts Figures 2014. What are the Colorectal Cancer screening options?

Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you. Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the American College of altermodern essay Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and essay age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test. Phd Research Proposal. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool.

If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed. CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an christopher newport admissions essay, X-ray designed to look for colon polyps and cancers. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths. Essay Of Wealth. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to colonoscopy because it is unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in christopher the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years.

Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Most early colorectal cancers produce no symptoms. This is why screening for colorectal cancer is so important. Symptoms of colorectal cancer vary depending on the location of the cancer within the colon or rectum, though there may be no symptoms at all. Literature Review On Definition Prevention. The prognosis tends to admissions essay be worse in symptomatic as compared to asymptomatic individuals. The most common presenting symptom of colorectal cancer is human body rectal bleeding. Cancers arising from the left side of the colon generally cause bleeding, or in their late stages may cause constipation, abdominal pain, and admissions essay obstructive symptoms. On the thesis statements other hand, right-sided colon lesions may produce vague abdominal aching, but are unlikely to present with obstruction or altered bowel habit.

Other symptoms such as weakness, weight loss, or anemia resulting from chronic blood loss may accompany cancer of the right side of the colon. You should promptly see your doctor when you experience any of these symptoms. Remember to christopher promptly see your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms: New onset of abdominal pain Blood in or on the stool A change in stool caliber or shape A change in typical bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea. Adenomas can grow for bourriaud essay years and transform into cancer without producing any symptoms. By the admissions time symptoms develop, it is often too late to cure the essay on distribution of wealth cancer, because it may have spread. Screening identifies cancers earlier and actually results in cancer prevention when it leads to removal of adenomas (pre-cancerous polyps). The cause of colorectal cancer in most cases is unclear. However, most colorectal cancers develop from polyps, which are abnormal growths in the colon. If polyps grow unnoticed and are not removed, they may become cancerous.

Screening tests can find precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. The development of more than 75-90 percent of colorectal cancer can be avoided through early detection and removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Everyone age 50 and older . Essay. The average age to develop colorectal cancer is 70 years, and 93% of cases occur in persons 50 years of age or older. Current recommendations are to begin screening at of wealth, age 50 if there are no risk factors other than age for colorectal cancers. Christopher Newport Admissions. A person whose only risk factor is their age is said to be at average risk.

Men and women Men tend to get colorectal cancer at an earlier age than women, but women live longer so they 'catch up' with men and thus the total number of cases in literature review on definition men and women is equal. Anyone with a family history of christopher admissions colorectal cancer . If a person has a history of two or more first-degree relatives (parent, sibling, or child) with colorectal cancer, or any first-degree relatives diagnosed under age 60, the overall colorectal cancer risk is custom three to six times higher than that of the general population. For those with one first-degree relative diagnosed with colorectal cancer at age 60 or older, there is an approximate two times greater risk of colon cancer than that observed in the general population. Special screening programs are used for those with a family history of colorectal cancer. A well-documented family history of adenomas is also an important risk factor. Anyone with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomas at any age, or cancer of endometrium (uterus) or ovary diagnosed before age 50. Persons who have had colorectal cancer or adenomas removed are at christopher, increased risk of developing additional adenomas or cancers. Review Of Human Trafficking And It's. Women diagnosed with uterine or ovarian cancer before age 50 are at increased risk of colorectal cancer.

These groups should be checked by admissions essay colonoscopy at regular intervals, usually every 3 to 5 years. Woman with a personal history of breast cancer have only a very slight increase in best risk of colorectal cancer. African Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at newport admissions essay, a younger age than other ethnic groups, and African Americans with colorectal cancer have decreased survival compared with other ethnic groups. Guidelines from the American College of bourriaud altermodern Gastroenterology recommend that African Americans begin colorectal cancer screening at newport admissions essay, age 45 rather than 50 years. Data support the recommendation that African Americans should begin screening at a younger age because of the higher incidence of colorectal cancer and a greater prevalence of proximal or right-sided polyps and cancer in this population. The strategy for reducing colorectal cancer deaths is simple—CRC screening. Literature Review On Definition Of Human And It's Prevention. For normal risk individuals, screening tests begin at age 50 and the preferred approach is christopher admissions a screening colonoscopy every 10 years; an alternate strategy consists of annual stool test for blood and a flexible sigmoidoscopic exam every 3 to 5 years. African Americans should begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years. Colonoscopic surveillance (also called screening colonoscopy) needs to phd research help be available at more frequent intervals for individuals at high risk for colon cancer (for instance, those with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps; family history of colorectal cancer; non-hereditary polyposis; colorectal cancer; or a pre-disposing condition such as inflammatory bowel disease. (Medicare provides for surveillance colonoscopy no more frequently than once every two years for those at high risk.) For both average and christopher newport high risk individuals, all potential pre-cancerous polyps must be removed. Recent observations suggest regular use of forum non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin, reduce the chances of colorectal cancer death by 30-50%.

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Guidelines from the best essays American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and christopher newport essay colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the American College of writing effective thesis Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the christopher preferred colorectal cancer detection test. Bourriaud Essay. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed.

CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to look for colon polyps and cancers. CTC every 5 years is an christopher admissions, alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to colonoscopy because it is unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in human body the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Please see National Cancer Institute resource pages:

Colonoscopy is a procedure which enables a physician (usually a gastroenterologist) to directly image and examine the entire colon. It is effective in newport essay the diagnosis and/or evaluation of best forum various GI disorders (e.g. colon polyps, colon cancer, diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease, bleeding, change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, obstruction and abnormal x-rays or CT scans) as well as in providing therapy (for example, removal of polyps or control of bleeding). It is also used for screening for colon cancer. A key advantage of this technique is that it allows both imaging of abnormal findings and also therapy or removal of these lesions during the same examination. This procedure is newport particularly helpful for phd research help identification and removal of precancerous polyps. A colonoscope is a flexible and newport essay steerable instrument to evaluate the entire colon (large intestine). The large intestine is approximately 3 – 4 feet long. A colonoscope is engineered such that biopsies of suspicious areas can be obtained, and polyps (which may turn into cancer) can be removed. Your lifetime risk (defined as life to 85 years old) is approximately 6% (male or female).

Your risk is roughly doubled if one (1) first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) had colon cancer or polyps after age 50, and is higher if the cancer or polyps were diagnosed at a younger age or if more members of your family are affected. Certain inherited disorders, for human body example, polyposis syndromes and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer, but those are rare. Other important risk factors include obesity, cigarette smoking, inflammatory conditions in christopher admissions essay the colon such as Crohn’s, colitis and ulcerative colitis, and excessive alcohol consumption. Your doctor is in the best position to thesis statements discuss whether your personal or family history suggests one of those conditions. Yes. Colonoscopy accomplishes this by detecting and removing polyps, and christopher newport detecting early cancers. Recent data show that both the number of proposal new cases of colon cancer (incidence) and deaths from the disease are decreased when colonoscopy is performed according to established guidelines (see Question 11). The most common reason patients cite for essay not getting a colonoscopy is that their doctor did not discuss it with them. Phd Research Help. The next most common reason is christopher fear or avoidance of the preparation (“prep”), which involves taking a laxative which causes temporary diarrhea for several hours. In addition, many people are simply unaware that they need colon cancer screening.

This is an on distribution, important obstacle in the eyes of many patients to newport admissions getting a colonoscopy, but it need not be! There are a variety of preparation methods for effective thesis colonoscopy ranging from liquids (of varying quantity) with or without enemas, to pills, which rid your colon of newport admissions essay feces. Human Body. A clean colon is essential to allow for christopher essay a careful examination for literature of human trafficking and it's polyps or other abnormalities. Newport Admissions. Your doctor can discuss and prescribe the most appropriate preparation method for you, taking into account various factors such as your age, personal preferences, kidney function and physical stamina. The most popular preparation used for literature review on definition trafficking and it's colonoscopy involves drinking a volume of solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This solution causes a diarrhea that effectively rids the colon of its contents. Various fruit flavors are available and patients have several hours to drink it.

Usually a patient will have clear liquids the christopher newport essay day of the preparation (day before the colonoscopy) and human body then take half of the prep in the late afternoon or that evening. The other half is christopher admissions done approximately 5 hours before coming in for the test the following day. Patients are encouraged to essay drink a lot of fluids and to continue clear liquids up until 2 hours before their scheduled procedure. Before going to bed, many doctors also prescribe a laxative pill (e.g. Dulcolax®) that helps with the evacuation process.

Smaller volumes of solution (e.g. MoviPrep®, HalfLytely®) or pill preparations (e.g. OsmoPrep®) have also recently become available with similarly good outcomes to PEG for people who dread the thought of large volumes of liquid. Christopher Admissions. Another preparation involves a phosphate solution (called Fleet® Phospho-soda) which consists of two (2) rounds of phosphate rich liquid of human body 45ml each the night before and day of the exam. It is essential to drink at least 2 quarts of water with these preps to replace losses. Alternatively, a phosphate tablet preparation of about 30 pills is available and is also very effective for colon cleansing and is preferred by some patients. Christopher. This preparation also requires that you drink at least 2 quarts of water to replace losses. Phospho-soda® prep should be avoided in patients with significant heart or kidney problems, in elderly patients who have difficulty maintaining hydration and with caution in patients with significant liver problems.

The best method of colonic preparation should be discussed with the gastroenterologist so that a method that suits the patient’s preference may be selected. No, colonoscopy is usually not painful! Almost all colonoscopies can be performed using “intravenous sedation” or “twilight sedation” in which you are very drowsy, but comfortable and still breathing on your own. The most common type of sedation also has a mild amnesiac effect, so most patients do not even remember the human body procedure! Your doctor can discuss with you the best form of newport admissions sedation to suit your needs. Medicare (and most third party payers) will pay for colonoscopy for phd research proposal colon cancer screening, thanks to the hard work of advocacy groups and the efforts of national organizations such as the christopher admissions American College of essay Gastroenterology (ACG). Regrettably, a recent study showed a low compliance rate for screening (less than 30%) among Medicare patients.

Yes, but potential complications are associated with virtually every form of testing done in medicine. Clearly, colonoscopy has been found to be extremely safe when performed by a well trained physician such as a gastroenterologist. Christopher Newport Essay. Although quite rare, most complications are related to essay on distribution of wealth sedation administration (cardiac and christopher essay respiratory problems); the colon may also become partially torn (perforated) and phd research help this may require surgery. Rarely, bleeding from polyp removal or from the procedure itself may require additional treatment such as hospitalization and/or blood transfusions. As one reads about these procedures, the reader should weigh these low risks against the far more frequent complication of developing colon cancer if appropriate testing is NOT done. If you have no colorectal symptoms, family history of colon cancer, polyps or inflammatory bowel disease you should have your first exam at age 50 whether you are a man or a woman since colon cancer affects both EQUALLY! Recent evidence suggests that African Americans should begin screening earlier at the age of 45. If one or more first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has had a precancerous polyp or colon cancer, the general guideline is to begin colon cancer screening 10 years younger than the youngest age of the family member with colon cancer, or age 40, whichever is younger.

There are additional guidelines for suspected or confirmed rare syndromes, and you should discuss these options with your doctor. For patients with ulcerative colitis involving the entire colon and patients with Crohn’s disease, screening for colon cancer should begin 8 – 10 years after the initial diagnosis is made. Questions and admissions essay Answers about Quality in Colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy has been available in clinical practice for more than 40 years, only in the past 15 years has awareness developed that the success of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer and minimizing complications is very dependent on the skill and competence of the colonoscopist. Colonoscopists differ substantially in the number of precancerous polyps they detect during colonoscopy and in how often they perform colonoscopy in response to both normal and essay abnormal findings. Awareness of these differences led the U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer in 2002, as well as a joint task force of christopher essay experts from the American College of Gastroenterology and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2006, to propose quality indicators that colonoscopists can use to measure how effectively and safely they perform colonoscopy. Obviously, patients have an interest in undergoing the most effective and safe colonoscopy possible, and achieving these goals requires a colonoscopist who is committed to high quality. Studies have shown average performance of colonoscopy by gastroenterologists to be superior to that of primary care physicians in three different areas of colonoscopy performance.

First, three population-based studies have found that gastroenterologists performing colonoscopy are less likely to miss colorectal cancer than are primary care physicians who perform colonoscopy. Literature On Definition Of Human And It's Prevention. This may reflect the more extensive training that gastroenterologists receive in this procedure and their higher volumes of colonoscopy in christopher newport admissions practice. Proposal Help. Second, gastroenterologists’ patients are less likely to incur serious complications during colonoscopy, such as perforation or making a hole in newport the colon, compared to primary care physicians. Third, gastroenterologists are less likely than both primary care physicians and best essays general surgeons to perform colonoscopy at admissions, intervals that are considered too short according to current guidelines. Whether this difference reflects a lack of confidence among primary care physicians and general surgeons in human body the quality of their colonoscopy or lack of christopher newport admissions awareness of current guidelines is unknown. Even though gastroenterologists have on average the highest level of literature review on definition of human and it's training and their examinations have been shown on average to be superior to primary care physicians, there is considerable variation among gastroenterologists in their detection rates of precancerous polyps. Therefore, it is essential that every colonoscopist, regardless of admissions essay specialty, makes measurements to establish that their examinations are effective. It is very reasonable and appropriate for essays forum patients to admissions essay ask questions of of wealth their colonoscopist about whether quality measurements are being made and newport essay their results.

The measurement that best reflects how carefully colonoscopy is performed is a doctor’s adenoma detection rate. Essay Of Wealth. This rate is christopher essay defined as the percentage of patients age 50 and older undergoing screening colonoscopy, who have one or more precancerous polyps detected. This rate should be at best essays forum, least 25% in men and 15% in christopher essay women. A secondary measure of careful examination is that doctors should have an average withdrawal time of at least six minutes. The withdrawal time is the time it takes to remove the scope from the colon.

This interval is important because this is the phase of colonoscopy when most doctors actually examine the proposal colon systematically for christopher newport admissions polyps. It is perfectly reasonable to expect doctors to have measured their adenoma detection rate and to human body record their withdrawal time. It is also reasonable to ask for a copy of the colonoscopy report that documents that the colonoscope was advanced to newport admissions essay the very beginning of the colon and review of human trafficking that the landmarks of newport essay that portion of the colon (called the cecum) have been documented by notation in the report and by photography. Colonoscopy is review of human trafficking prevention a video examination of the colon. The video camera and the colonoscope, like any other video camera, cannot see through solids. Therefore, the christopher essay colon must be thoroughly cleansed to provide the doctor the best opportunity possible for a thorough and human body detailed examination.Be sure to christopher newport essay pick up and literature on definition of human trafficking and it's read your written bowel preparation instructions at christopher admissions, least several days before your colonoscopy. Go over the instructions and make sure you have all of the altermodern materials needed to complete the preparation.The most effective bowel preparations involve split dosing of the laxatives, in which half of the preparation is taken on the morning of the christopher newport essay examination, usually 4 to 5 hours before the time of the scheduled colonoscopy, and completed at essay on distribution of wealth, least 2 to essay 3 hours before that time. If you are scheduled at 7 or 8 in the morning, this will mean getting up very early to take the second half of the preparation. If the instructions call for split dosing, do not alter the timing of the of wealth doses. It is worth the christopher newport essay inconvenience of getting up in the middle of the night to make sure that you have a very effective preparation. The timing of the second dose in custom forum relationship to the colonoscopy is critical.

If too long an interval is allowed between the end of the second half of the preparation and the timing of the colonoscopy, mucus and secretions will come out newport of the small intestine and stick to of wealth the cecum and right colon. To ensure an effective and safe colonoscopic examination, find a well-trained colonoscopist who is committed to making quality measurements. Christopher Newport. It is fair to effective statements ask the colonoscopist to be sure to do a slow and careful examination and to provide a copy of the report that documents and photographs the complete extent of examination. Take the bowel preparation instructions seriously. Pick up the written instructions early, read them early, and follow them carefully. When colonoscopy is done carefully and with an effective preparation, it is a very powerful cancer prevention technique. Your Doctor has Ordered a Colonoscopy: What Questions Should You Ask? A Gastroenterologist is a specialist in gastrointestinal diseases and has received special training in christopher newport admissions colonoscopy.

Gastroenterologists perform more colonoscopies by far than any other specialty. Non-gastroenterologists are five times more likely to best custom forum miss colorectal cancer during colonoscopy than Gastroenterologists. 1. 1 Rex DK, Rahmani E, Haseman JH, et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema.

Proper training in colonoscopy is necessary not only to increase the chance that the procedure can be completed and any necessary treatments applied, but also to christopher be sure that abnormal results can be properly interpreted. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends that persons performing colonoscopy complete a fellowship program in gastroenterology or receive training in colonoscopy during a surgical residency. How many perforations has the doctor had? Many Gastroenterologists have performed many thousands of colonoscopies. A colonoscopist should know the rate at which their procedures have been associated with a perforation or making a hole in the colon. This rate should certainly be below 1 in 500 examinations and many experts have rates of phd research proposal perforation well below 1 in 1000. Experienced colonoscopists reach the newport essay very beginning of the large intestine (the cecum) in more than 90% of cases and in more than 95% of patients who are undergoing screening. Custom Essays Forum. Screening is the process of checking people who have no symptoms for colon polyps and cancer. Persons performing colonoscopy must be trained in the removal of polyps. Although even Gastroenterologists may refer a patient with a large polyp to a special expert in the removal of polyps, a trained colonoscopist can remove the overwhelming majority of routine polyps. A Gastroenterologist is a physician with dedicated training management of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver.

Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. It involves a detailed understanding of the normal action (physiology) of the gastrointestinal organs including the movement of christopher admissions essay material through the review of human trafficking and it's prevention stomach and intestine (motility), the digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body, removal of waste from the newport system, and the function of the liver as a digestive organ. It includes common and important conditions such as colon polyps and cancer, hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and human body biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and pancreatitis. In essence, all normal activity and newport admissions disease of the digestive organs is part of the study of Gastroenterology. A Gastroenterologist must first complete a three-year Internal Medicine residency and is then eligible for additional specialized training (fellowship) in Gastroenterology.

This fellowship is generally 2-3 years long so by the time Gastroenterologists have completed their training, they have had 5-6 years of additional specialized education following medical school. Gastroenterology fellowship training is an intense, rigorous program where future Gastroenterologists learn directly from nationally recognized experts in help the field and develop a detailed understanding of gastrointestinal diseases. Newport Admissions. They learn how to evaluate patients with gastrointestinal complaints, treat a broad range of human body conditions, and provide recommendations to maintain health and prevent disease. They learn to christopher newport admissions care for patients in human body the office as well as in the hospital. Gastroenterologists also receive dedicated training in admissions essay endoscopy (upper endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) by expert instructors. Endoscopy is the use of narrow, flexible lighted tubes with built-in video cameras, to visualize the inside of the intestinal tract.

This specialized training includes detailed and intensive study of bourriaud how and when to perform endoscopy, optimal methods to complete these tests safely and christopher essay effectively, and essay on distribution the use of newport essay sedating medications to ensure the literature on definition comfort and safety of christopher admissions patients. Gastroenterology trainees also learn how to perform advanced endoscopic procedures such as polypectomy (removalof colon polyps), esophageal and intestinal dilation (stretching of narrowed areas), and hemostasis (injection or cautery to stop bleeding). Importantly, Gastroenterologists learn how to essay of wealth properly interpret the findings and biopsy results of these studies in order to make appropriate recommendations to newport admissions treat conditions and/or prevent cancer. Some Gastroenterologists also receive directed training in advanced procedures using endoscopes such as endoscopic biliary examination (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ERCP), removal of tumors without surgery (endoscopic mucosal resection or EMR), placement of internal drainage tubes (stents) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). This provides them with the training necessary to non-surgically remove stones in the bile ducts, evaluate and treat tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and provide minimally invasive alternatives to surgery for some patients. The most critical emphasis during the training period is attention to detail and incorporation of literature review on definition of human their comprehensive knowledge of the entire gastrointestinal tract to provide the highest quality endoscopy and consultative services. The final product is a highly trained specialist with a unique combination of broad scientific knowledge, general Internal Medicine training, superior endoscopic skills and experience, and the ability to christopher admissions integrate these elements to provide optimal health care for patients. This advanced fellowship training is overseen by help national societies committed to ensuring high quality and uniform education. These groups include the American Board of christopher essay Internal Medicine, the American College of review trafficking prevention Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and newport admissions essay the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. These groups carefully scrutinize the educational experience of each program to ensure that every Gastroenterology trainee receives the highest quality training. Once fellows successfully complete their training they are considered “Board Eligible.” They are then qualified to take the Gastroenterology board certification test administered by the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Once they have successfully completed this examination they are “Board Certified.” Some Gastroenterologists receive special recognition from national societies when they demonstrate extraordinary achievement in research, teaching, or other unique service to the field of Gastroenterology. The American College of Gastroenterology and the American College of Physicians designate such physicians as “Fellows” and the suffixes FACG and FACP are added to altermodern essay denote these honors. This means that these physicians have fulfilled the respective organizations’ rigorous requirements to gain this added distinction. The unique training that Gastroenterologists complete provides them with the ability to provide high quality, comprehensive care for admissions essay patients with a wide variety of gastrointestinal ailments. On Distribution. Gastroenterologists perform the bulk of research involving gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as well as the interpretation of results, and newport are considered experts in the field. Studies have shown that Gastroenterologists perform higher quality colonoscopy examinations and comprehensive consultative services when compared to other physicians. This translates into more accurate detection of polyps and human body cancer by colonoscopy when performed by Gastroenterologists, fewer complications from procedures and christopher admissions fewer days in the hospital for on distribution of wealth many gastrointestinal conditions managed by trained gastroenterology specialists.

It is this ability to provide more complete, accurate, and thorough care for patients with gastrointestinal conditions, which distinguishes Gastroenterologists from other physicians that provide some similar services. Colorectal Cancer Awareness Audio QA Podcast Series. ACG continues its Colorectal Cancer Awareness QA Podcast Series this year featuring a more informal discussion format with physician experts answering some of the most common questions about colorectal cancer. New this year—two of the podcasts also feature patients and provide a more in-depth look at christopher, the risk factors related to colorectal cancer, including family history, Lynch Syndrome, and the special concerns of African Americans. A third podcast helps make sense of conflicting media reports about the various screening options with the latest expert insight so you can gain a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of each test—and decide with your doctor which test is right for you or loved one. Previous podcasts include common questions about colorectal cancer screening, what to essay on distribution expect during colonoscopy and how to get the highest quality exam. Learn why colonoscopy is ACG’s preferred screening strategy, how to decipher fact from newport fiction when it comes to bowel preps, and human body more, from ACG physicians in these insightful audio QAs. Colonoscopy Bowel Prep—Myths Realities - Jack A. Christopher Newport Essay. Di Palma, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Screening - Carol A. Phd Research Proposal Help. Burke, MD, FACG.

Colorectal Cancer Screening Options - Douglas K. Rex, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options - Mark B. Pochapin, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer and African Americans - Fritz Francois, MD, MSc, FACG. Early Accurate Detection of christopher newport admissions Colon Polyps: Impact on Survival - Roy K.H. Wong, MD, FACG. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors - Carol A. Best. Burke, MD, FACG. How to Ensure You Get a Quality Colorectal Exam - David A. Johnson, MD, FACG. Importance of Colorectal Cancer Screening - Philip O. Newport Essay. Katz, MD, FACG. Risk Factors Recommendations for African Americans - A. Steven McIntosh, MD, FACG.

What to writing effective Expect from Colonoscopy - Immanuel K.H. Ho, MD, FACG. Find an newport, ACG member gastroenterologist with a specialized interest in liver disease.

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Essay on “Human Rights” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. Synopsis : Every human being is entitled to human rights such as right to live and christopher admissions essay, exist, right to best custom, freedom, freedom from exploitation, equality before law, to have adequate standard of living etc. The UN adopted Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Rights have their corresponding duties. Human rights presuppose a rule of law and equality. Violation of human rights is very common among totalitarian, theocratic, despotic states tec. Women, children and newport admissions, weaker sections f the society are often victims of discrimination and violation of human rights. Deaths in police custody, sex-apartheid, child-abuse, political killings are very common which have very much degraded the quality of human life.

Violation and best custom forum, denial of human rights by christopher newport essay states is very dangerous and often gives to revolutions. Violence against women is most pervasive. It needs to be tackled effectively. The massive violation of human rights throughout the world is a matter of effective great shame for the entire humanity. Human rights are the rights to which an individual has a just right as a human being. Men, women and children collectively and individually have these by virtue of their birth as human beings.

For the sake of convenience, human rights have been put into two categories: natural rights and civil rights. Under natural rights come such rights as right to admissions, live and exist and best essays, sustain life with food, shelter, clothing etc. Freedom from torture, cruelty and christopher newport admissions, slavery, freedom of movement, the right to marry and have a family, freedom of thought and conscience and faith are some other fundamental natural rights. Right to work, freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, right to a fair trial, equality before law, the right to a nationality, freedom of altermodern essay association and peaceful assembly, to have adequate standards of living, freedom from exploitation and christopher admissions essay, discrimination, right to participate in elections etc. are important civil rights. The UN General Assembly adopted Universal Declaration of Human Rights in human body 1948. The Declaration recognized the admissions inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family. This Charter of Human Rights was mostly drafted by Rene Cassin, Noble Peace Prize winner of 1968. The Charter urged the right to human body, political, economic social and cultural self-determination; the right to peace; the christopher newport admissions essay right to live in a healthful environment; and the right to share in the Earth’s resources. It pledged the rights to life, liberty and security of a person –the basic human rights.

Although these rights are not later on ratified by a couple of international conventions. Then there are political rights which entitle a person to contest an election and to vote freely, without any fear for a candidate of his or her choice. Human rights and their implementation, practice and human body, protection are a benchmark of a truly developed, civilized and democratic society. Admissions? In a democracy people enjoy the maximum number of human rights. But rights and duties go together. The human rights have their corresponding human duties.

They are two aspects of a same coin, Liberty never means license. Human rights pre-suppose a rule of phd research proposal law where all the citizens follow a code of conduct and behaviour for the good of all irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex, social status, region etc. It is the sense of duty, tolerance, mutual participation that lends meaning and sense to the rights. Rights have their existence on the principle of christopher newport essay live and let live. For example, my right to speech and expression involves my duty to all others to enjoy the same of on definition freedom of speech and expression. Human rights and human duties are inextricably inter-linked and interdependent. My rights become maintained between the two. Christopher Newport Admissions Essay? Whenever there is an imbalance, there is violence of human rights leading to disturbance and essay on distribution, chaos. Rights cannot survive without their corresponding obligations and duties.

Violation and denial of human rights are very common in totalitarian and despotic States. In theocratic States there is much persecution in the name of religion and the minorities and women suffer the most as we see in many fundamentalist Muslim countries. The women, children and the weaker sections of the society are victims of these transgressions, and violence. The UN commission on Human Rights is mainly concerned in christopher newport admissions essay protecting and promoting human rights and freedom of the bourriaud essay people of the world. Newport Essay? In its various sessions held from time to time in Geneva, it adopts various measures to encourage worldwide observations of these basic human rights and freedoms. It calls on its members to give information regarding measures complied with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights whenever there is a complaint of violation of these rights. Then there are many voluntary human rights organisations throughout the length and breadth of the world but in most of the cases, they become a mere instrument of cheap publicity, propaganda, personal gains, popularity etc. in the hands of vested interests.

For example, in India itself the Kashmiri Pandits etc. have been subject to terrorism, loot, rape, killings and custom essays, displacement for many years but no human rights organisation has come forward to give voice to their sufferings or to protect their human rights. Similarly, in the western countries there prevail all sorts of discrimination and violation of christopher human rights. Human Body? In the christopher admissions U.S. churches of the black are being burnt and they are persecuted. Essay? In Pakistan and Afghanistan, women are being denied their basic rights and freedoms. They are flogged and stoned to death publicity without any fair judicial trial on false and fabricated charges. They cannot marry men of their choice or seek an employment. Christopher Essay? In Cambodia under the dictatorship of Pol Pot of Khmer Rouge, millions of people were massacred systematically and nothing was done to check it or punish the men responsible for this mass genocide. People and political parties talk of human rights but in practice there are flagrant violations of them.

Death in police custody and writing, fake encounters is an example of christopher newport essay such violations. The police often take the law in their own hands and essay, kill the so-called criminals instead of subjecting them to due process of christopher essay law. No Investigations are held as to whether the deceased had committed any offence. In the capital city of phd research proposal Delhi, the christopher admissions police shot dead two innocent businessmen and seriously wounded their companion and then placed a revolver etc in their car to prove it an encounter. The violation of human rights by the police, the very protectors of law and order, are too numerous to cunt. They harass, maltreat, humiliate, tyrannize and lacerate and people in the name of interrogation and investigation. In China, a Communist State, the denial and transgression of human rights are too many frequent. It is estimated that in the year 995-96 itself 3,500 people were executed under the so-called strike-hard anti-crime campaign, which is being continued vigorously. In Tibet the followers of Dalai Lama are being persecuted for many years. Similarly, the Xinjinang, the literature on definition of human autonomous region, the followers of Islam are tortured and harassed.

In 1989, thousands of people were killed and 10,000 people, mostly students, were shot dead in Tiananmen Square, outside the Great Hall of the People in Beijing because they staged a demonstration for their democratic rights and freedoms. These examples of flagrant violations of human rights are just the proverbial tip of the iceberg. The actual violation of human rights is on far more vast scale throughout the world. Women, children, weaker sections of the societies, minorities and other ethnic groups are the common victims of such violations. Till recently in christopher newport admissions essay South Africa apartheid was being practiced, the native Africans were denied their just and bourriaud altermodern essay, legitimate human rights. Essay? Then there are other forms of apartheid being blatantly practiced worldwide. In Myanmar (Burma) there prevails terrorism and military dictatorship and the masses are being denied their basic democratic rights. Sex-apartheid is most rampant. Women are subject to various kinds of abuses and exploitations.

The children too are being abused and exploited. Sexually they are assaulted and exploited, sold and bounded for labour. Their limbs are sometimes amputated to make them earn for essay on distribution, the mafias as beggars. Thus, the present state of affairs in respect of human rights is disappointing. Their denial, curtailment and newport admissions essay, violation have further degraded the quality of human life. Human rights may be reshaped and redefined to some extent according to the political needs but they should not be distorted out of shape. Such tendencies are totalitarian, inhuman and savage and should be resisted. The awareness of the sanctity of human rights and essay of wealth, basic freedoms should be spread to more and more people of the world. They should be united into very effective case of transgression and violation of human rights, the individuals should be compensated suitably and it should be ensured that these are not repeated.

Violation of human rights gives rise to various other evils such as terrorism, extremism, alienation, frustration, separatism, etc. Admissions? In many cases, the governments controlled by phd research help self-seeking, over ambitious and narrow-minded people use repressive, unconstitutional and savage means and spread violence and terror to command the admissions essay obedience from the masses. But State terrorism, violence, transgression of people’s rights is phd research proposal, a very dangerous strategy and often boomerangs. In the background of all world revolutions there has been this strategy. Whenever there has been systematic and widespread State persecution and violation of human rights, there broke out rebellions and revolutions and history repeats itself. Half the world is christopher newport essay, that of women and yet the violence against them may be the help most pervasive and admissions essay, least recognized human rights abuse in the world.

Gender violence, sexual harassment, discrimination, denial of economic, sexual and effective thesis, reproductive rights etc. are in practice unlimited. The remedy lies in widespread legal reforms, better enforcement of existing laws, new procedures to document violations, education about human rights and close alliance between organisations concerned with their rights. Christopher Newport Essay? According to a U.N. report the cases of rape are on the rise and in courts rape victims are often stigmatized and their testimony and integrity impugned. Child prostitution, dowry deaths and dowry-related crimes are other areas of effective thesis concern. In India thousands of women die because of dowry-related crimes. Girl-children are often held in bondage in brothels.

The marked preference for boys over girls, sex selective abortions etc. are also matters of much concern and should be effectively tackled. These massive violations of human rights, taking place across the world, are a great stain on the face of entire humanity. Human rights are those rights which are fundamental for the human life. These rights recognize the basic human needs and demands. It is expected that every civilized state will incorporate these rights in its constitution and try to ensure that its citizens enjoy them. Christopher Newport Admissions? In the present day, world there is essay, a lot of concern about the protection of human rights. The United Nations has adopted a Charter of Human Right and it asks the governments to respect these rights of their citizens. The Universal Declaration Human Rights , which the admissions UN adopted on on distribution, 10 December , 1948 enumerates some important basic rights of humans. Christopher Newport Admissions? These are right to life, liberty and security of person, right to freedom of speech , judicial remedy, freedom to movement, right to take part in the governance of one’s country. The second type of rights are economic and social rights.

The rights included in this groups are also very important. These are : all members should have the right to work, to have a good standard of living, right to rest and leisure, right to education and equal pay for equal work. Bourriaud? The UN has taken a great deal of interest in the abolition of discrimination against women. One of the most serious cases of violations of admissions human rights is the case of racial discrimination. The problem about human rights varies from proposal society to society. In some societies, political and civil rights are not given or guaranteed to christopher admissions essay, all its citizens. In other societies, economic and social rights are not enforced. The importance of the human rights movement is writing effective thesis, that it tells people that one cannot call as society a good and a just society until all its citizens enjoy these human rights.

The basic idea behind human rights is that human beings should try to end all kinds of unjust discrimination. Christopher? On the basis of most unjust discrimination is the discrimination on the basis of race. South Africa, for example had for quite some time practiced a policy called Apartheid. It meant that the black people, who were in majority in South Africa had no political rights. The country was ruled by a minority regime of whites.

The UN passed resolution to condemn its racist policy. Most countries of the literature review trafficking prevention non-aligned movement including India, did not have diplomatic relations with South Africa. Fortunately South Africa after a long struggle has undergone a significant change. For the first time in its history the christopher newport essay people of South Africa have an elected Black President, and review on definition trafficking, political rights have been extended to all the people of South Africa irrespective of race, colour and creed. There are many cases of violation of human rights in christopher admissions different parts of the thesis statements world. Christopher? For the prosperity and happiness of human beings every nation must create such conditions in which the Human Rights are ensured to its citizens. We are lucky.

We have democracy. India beings democratic country, provides such rights to its citizens and allow them freedom of expression. These rights, which are called ‘Fundamental Rights’ form an important part of the Constitution of India. These rights are fundamental in three different easy. Firstly, these are basic human rights.

As human beings we have the right to enjoy these rights. Secondly, the Constitution gives us these rights and guarantees them because it believes that these rights are necessary if citizens are to act properly and live democratically. Writing Effective Thesis? Thirdly , effective procedure for the enforcement of these Fundamental Rights have been guaranteed in the Constitution itself. A citizen ahs the right to go to the court of law if she/ he is denied these rights. The Constitution is there to newport admissions essay, safeguard her/ his rights. The constitution guarantees to phd research proposal, us six Fundamental Rights.

The six Fundamental Rights as mentioned in our Constitution are : i)Right to Equality ii) Right to christopher admissions essay, Freedom iii) Right Against Exploitation iv) Right to Freedom of Religion v) Cultural and Educational Rights vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies. There are many cases of violation of human right in different countries of the world. There can be no permanent and regular prosperity of human beings unless every country or nation creates such conditions in which human rights are enjoyed by its natives.