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book report on Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on essay, an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of research, terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book.

Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and accident, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas.

Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Ethics Of Phoenix! In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for essay each of of of, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the traffic book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published).

The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to personal university build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the essay traffic writing of the essay question on religion book or noteworthy credentials of the traffic author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the essay question author a well-known authority on accident, the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to informants read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and essay traffic accident, four—you’ll describe what the book is about.

This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the personal statement university of phoenix book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the traffic story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Telomerase Paper! Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to essay accident solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and essay first, conflict resolution.

Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on essay traffic, Non-fiction. Research Papers Children! If you are writing a book report on essay traffic, a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the children book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author.

Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about essay, some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Essay About First! You’ll like writing the essay traffic final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in research, your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Essay Accident! After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and essay about, writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of accident, Expository Essay. A book report is question usually written as an essay accident expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Telomerase Paper! In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the essay accident last decade. Paper! Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to essay persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.

If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Causes Anorexia Nervosa! Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in traffic accident, helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

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Roundtable 1-3 on The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War. N icholas Thompson has taken an imaginative approach to the Cold War by essay accident, presenting a comparative study of the public careers of Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. officials who participated in the Cold War from its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. With access to the records of his grandfather, Nitze, and the diaries of Kennan, Thompson is question able to develop their evolving relationship and the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and essay traffic accident, ambition on their policy views and involvement in the Cold War. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable , Volume I, No. Personal Statement. 3 (2010) Diane Labrosse and Thomas Maddux, H-Diplo/ISSF Editors. George Fujii, H-Diplo/ISSF Web and Production Editor. Commissioned for H-Diplo/ISSF by essay accident, Thomas Maddux. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable on Nicholas Thompson. The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and children, the History of the traffic, Cold War . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2009. Published by H-Diplo/ISSF on 15 November 2010 (updated on 24 November 2010)

PDF: http://issforum.org/ISSF/PDF/ISSF-Roundtable-1-3.pdf. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. 2. Review by Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of State. 6.

Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of research papers, History Emeritus, San Francisco State University 10. Review by Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 15. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. 18. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker . 22. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. N icholas Thompson has taken an imaginative approach to the Cold War by presenting a comparative study of the public careers of essay traffic accident, Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. officials who participated in telomerase, the Cold War from its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. With access to the records of his grandfather, Nitze, and the diaries of essay traffic accident, Kennan, Thompson is research papers children able to develop their evolving relationship and the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and ambition on their policy views and involvement in the Cold War. The book’s title, The Hawk and the Dove , suggests a sharp divergence between Nitze and essay accident, Kennan, but the nervosa essay, reviewers favorably note that Thompson explores both the strengths they displayed in working together in essay traffic accident, the early Cold War years and the differences that became increasingly evident in the 1970s and 1980s.

Jerald Combs, for example, notes the successful cooperation of Nitze and Kennan in the development of on religion, containment, particularly the Marshall Plan, their similar views on keeping Germany together, their agreement on intervention in Korea and preference to keep the essay traffic accident, conflict limited by stopping at the 38 th parallel in 1950. Joshua Botts also points out decribe 3 types of of informants, shared reservations about essay, Vietnam in the 1960s, although Kennan went public with his criticism whereas Nitze kept his reservations within closed doors as he served in informants, Robert McNamara’s Pentagon and, like many officials, failed to essay traffic make a strong stance in person when questioned by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. (pp. 201-202). The emerging differences between Nitze and Kennan receive more assessment by Thompson, although the reviewers would have welcomed more analysis in this area. Sarah-Jane Corke questions Thompson’s view that containment rather than roll-back remained the central U.S. strategy and suggests that Thompson fails to evaluate Nitze’s views on covert operations and roll-back.

Alonzo Hamby and Joshua Botts favorably note Thompson’s emphasis on statement university the different views that Kennan and Nitze held about what the U.S. could accomplish in essay traffic accident, international relations with the latter being far more optimistic throughout their careers and the former becoming more pessimistic after leaving the State Department and brief service as Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1952 and Ambassador to Yugoslavia in 1961-62. Hamby also highlights their different views on the role of military power. Telomerase Research. Despite a lack of precision in his “Article X” on containment and willingness to support force in Korea and covert political operations, Kennan clearly favored diplomacy and non-military means to address Cold War issues. As Thompson points out, Kennan opposed the decision to build the hydrogen bomb and the NATO military dimension of the North Atlantic alliance. Nitze, on essay accident the other hand, was more comfortable with military power and telomerase research, developed a correlation of forces concept in essay traffic accident, which he believed that good things would move in the U.S.’s favor if it maintained a favorable balance of power vis-a-vis the Soviet Union and research, its allies. Essay Accident. As Kennan’s successor as head of the Policy Planning Staff in the State Department, Nitze directed the preparation of NSC-68 which provided the rationale for a major buildup of U.S. Decribe. nuclear and essay accident, conventional forces around the globe and transformed Kennan’s containment strategy. Thompson also illustrates that underlying Nitze and Kennan’s growing disagreements was a fundamental difference on how to evaluate the challenges posed by 3 types, the Soviet Union. As the reviewers note, Nitze put the highest importance on available means. When the Soviet Union began to catch up with the U.S. in number of intercontinental missiles and obtain an traffic advantage in total throw weight, i.e., the “heft of the research papers, weaponry each missile could carry over a particular range,” (p. 232), Nitze, as a participant in the SALT negotiations, became increasingly concerned about an unfavorable correlation of essay traffic accident, forces, worried about a Soviet first strike with missiles, and turned against detente, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, and Jimmy Carter. In part a personal response to perceived mistreatment by essay about, Nixon and accident, Kissinger and a failure to connect with Carter, Nitze became a founder of the Committee on Public Danger in 1976 and active public critic of SALT II.

Kennan, however, emphasized that intentions had to be considered and research, not just the available military power. Since 1945 Kennan had viewed the Soviet Union as a political challenge to the U.S. and not a military threat. Traffic Accident. Consequently, he dismissed Nitze’s preoccupation with missile throw-weight as far too limited of a measure of the Soviet challenge. Furthermore, Kennan worried about the U.S. ability to papers children maintain control and restraint with increasing nuclear forces that would look offensive to the Soviet Union. Thompson points out that by essay traffic accident, the late 1970s Nitze and Kennan, as leaders of rival organizations, the telomerase paper, Committee on Public Danger and traffic accident, the American Committee on research children East-West Accord, focused on reducing tensions among the superpowers, engaged in a public campaign against essay, each other on question on religion talk shows, before Congress, and in the press. (pp.

270-272)[1] Most of the reviewers note that Thompson does not take sides on Nitze and Kennan and essay traffic accident, is not uncritical of either of them. Botts notes that Thompson discusses Kennan’s contradictions, his involvement in on religion, FBI surveillance of Americans in essay accident, the 1960s, and his growing criticism of U.S. democracy and leadership in foreign policy with overtones of dismay at the loss of leadership by white males with elitist training and culture. (pp. 40-41, 222, 237-239) Combs detects a pattern in Nitze’s behavior from Thompson’s study: when Nitze was out of power he lacked restraint and engaged in research papers, several disreputable attacks on officials and friends such as Paul Warnke whom Carter picked to lead SALT negotiations rather than Nitze; when in a position of essay accident, influence, such as Ronald Reagan’s arms control negotiator, Nitze attempted unsuccessfully to negotiate a compromise agreement on intermediate range missiles. In conclusion, Thompson gives both men credit for their contributions to the successful end to the Cold War and telomerase research, stresses that they complemented each other with Kennan playing a “crucial role, both in framing the essay accident, conflict and then serving as the telomerase research paper, nation’s conscience as those horrifying weapons hypnotized the superpowers more and more.

Kennan, the outsider, accurately foresaw how the traffic accident, Cold War would play out. Nitze, the experience, insider helped bring about the essay traffic accident, Cold War’s end by papers, behaving as if Kennan’s prophecy would never come true.” (p. 313) Corke, however, found a “gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and Kennan feminine,” and traffic, Corke offers a number of contrasts in the depictions of the two strategists. (2-3) The reviewers do raise some reservations about Thompson’s study particularly with respect to the Cold War context and specific issues. Combs suggests that the Cold War context “is often rendered so briefly and with such lack of personal statement, nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the essay, policies advocated by” Nitze and Kennan. (1) Where the two advisers were in agreement on policy in the early Cold War, Combs points to a lack of analysis on the Soviet perspective and concerns.

When Thompson shifts to decribe 3 types informants their areas of disagreement, Combs finds “far more precision and nuance” as Thompson develops more of the essay accident, Soviet side on arms negotiations. Botts goes further than Combs in concluding that throughout the study Thompson failed to adequately explain “why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices” which makes it difficult to judge the essay about first experience, debate between Kennan and Nitze: “Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to open a ‘window of vulnerability’ for the United States that would break the traffic accident, will of the free world as Nitze and paper, his allies in the Committee for the Present Danger argued in the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of deeply-held anxieties about the vulnerabilities of their own society and their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in essay traffic, NATO war plans?” (3) Thompson does refer to post-1990s studies and interviews of Soviet military planners and essay about first experience, strategists that tend to provide more support for Kennan’s perspective than that of Nitze. Essay. (pp. 261-262) Since Kennan produced a number of historical works and foreign policy prescriptions, Hamby would have welcomed more attention to these studies, although this would necessarily take some attention away from the close comparison of Kennan with Nitze, who was far more actively engaged in telomerase research paper, policy making and produced few studies besides a memoir.

Hamby notes Kennan’s reputation as a realist and accident, the desirability of placing him in the context of about experience, foreign policy realism and his contemporaries such as Hans J. Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr. Accident. Kennan’s many studies dealing with Russia, Soviet-American relations, and his personal experiences in Moscow in the 1930s would have strengthened our understanding on his assumptions about the Soviet challenge and how to deal with Moscow. After the roundtable was organized, Nicholas Thompson was appointed senior editor of The New Yorker. Despite many efforts, we have not been able to make contact with him since that time and thus have decided to move forward with the roundtable. Nicholas Thompson is a senior editor at the New Yorker , a contributor to CNN International, a contributing editor at Bloomberg Television, and telomerase paper, a senior fellow in the American Strategy Program at the New America Foundation. Joshua Botts earned his Ph.D. in history from the essay, University of Virginia in 2009.

His dissertation examines neoconservative strategic culture during and after the Cold War. He also wrote “‘Nothing to Seek and … Nothing to Defend’: George F. Kennan’s Core Values and American Foreign Policy, 1938-1993,” which appeared in Diplomatic History in November 2006. He is currently a historian at the U.S. Department of State. Jerald A. Essay. Combs (Ph.D. UCLA 1964) is Professor of essay traffic, History Emeritus at 3 types, San Francisco State University where he retired after serving nine years as chair of the History Department and two years as Dean of Undergraduate Studies. He is the author of The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the essay, Founding Fathers (University of California Press, 1970); American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of Changing Interpretations (University of California Press, 1983); and The History of American Foreign Policy (3d ed., M.E. Sharpe, 2008). Causes Anorexia Essay. His latest publication is “A Missed Chance for Peace? Opportunities for essay accident Detente in Europe,” in The Cold War after Stalin’s Death: A Missed Opportunity for Peace? edited by Klaus Larres and Kenneth Osgood (Rowman and decribe of of informants, Littlefield, 2006). Sarah-Jane Corke is an assistant professor at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

She graduated with a Ph.D. from the University of New Brunswick in 2000. Her first book is on American Covert Operations during the Truman Administration. She is currently working on a history of the Psychological Strategy Board. She has published articles in Intelligence and essay, National Security and The Journal of Strategic Studies. Her U.S.

Covert Operations and Cold War Strategy: Truman, Secret Warfare and the CIA, 1945-53 (2008) was the focus of a recent H-Diplo roundtable. Alonzo L. Hamby is Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio University. He is the anorexia, author of five books: Beyond the New Deal: Harry S. Truman and American Liberalism (Columbia University Press, 1973), The Imperial Years: The United States since 1939 (Weybright Talley, 1976), Liberalism and Its Challengers (2 nd ed., Oxford University Press, 1992), Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford University Press, 1995), and traffic accident, For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the World Crisis of the 1930s (Free Press, 2005), as well as numerous articles and reviews. Review by 3 types of of informants, Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of State. The views expressed here are my own and essay traffic accident, do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of State or the U.S.

Government. B y the late 1970s,” Nicholas Thompson remarks near the children, end of essay traffic accident, The Hawk and the Dove , “[George] Kennan and [Paul] Nitze had become the diplomatic equivalents of Larry Bird and Magic Johnson: competing icons who admired each other and nervosa essay, would be forever linked” (270). He might have added that, for one of them to win, the other had to lose. Essay. For forty years, George Kennan and Paul Nitze embodied competing impulses toward the nuclear arms race and the Cold War. Though the two men shared many of the same priorities at the dawn of the Cold War, by personal ethics statement university of phoenix, the end of the Truman administration they had parted ways on many of the central questions that American policymakers faced during the next forty years. Their most consequential disagreement focused upon whether American policy should be guided by increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions. Kennan argued that the essay accident, Soviet Union was weak and essay about, that its expansionist impulses derived from its leaders’ perceptions of essay accident, vulnerability. Nitze countered that Soviet power steadily escalated throughout the Cold War, culminating with his fears that Moscow was poised to wrest strategic superiority from the United States in the late 1970s.

Kennan thought that a more sophisticated understanding of 3 types of of, Soviet intentions could defuse Cold War tensions. Nitze believed that greater awareness of traffic, Soviet capabilities was necessary to snap the United States out of ethics statement university of phoenix, its dangerous complacency. Kennan scorned the accident, vulgarity of American culture, the papers children, mediocrity of American society, and the incompetence of American political institutions. Nitze remained confident of the accident, benevolent role that the United States played in the world. Nitze and Kennan, Thompson argues, “represented two great strains of American thought during the telomerase, second half of the twentieth century.” “One can understand,” he continues, “much of the traffic accident, story of the United States during the Cold War by examining the of of, often parallel, and sometimes perpendicular, lives of Paul Nitze and traffic, George Kennan” (6). In The Hawk and the Dove , Thompson grapples with central themes in the history of the Cold War by tracing the convergences and divergences between Nitze’s (who was Thompson’s grandfather) and ethics, Kennan’s prescriptions for American foreign policy between 1945 and 1991. When the two men agreed, as they did on the Marshall Plan, limiting Korean War aims, and opposing American intervention in Vietnam, they were usually right (though, perhaps, not when they urged the unification and neutralization of essay accident, Germany in the late 1940s or when they participated in covert programs designed to essay first experience neutralize domestic radicalism in the 1960s). Even when they disagreed, Thompson concludes, “the two men complemented each other” (313).

For Thompson, Kennan “had an uncanny ability to predict many of the great events of his lifetime,” including how the Cold War would end, how the division of Germany would harden Cold War boundaries, how the pursuit of security would result in a nuclear arms race that threatened humanity’s destruction, and how fissures in the Communist world would give American policymakers opportunities to exploit (4). Nitze, on the other hand, was responsible for transforming Kennan’s prescriptions for traffic containment into the strategy that kept the United States and its allies safe until the essay on religion, end of the Cold War. By following Nitze’s “militant version of essay, containment,” by “making the United States a less tempting target for the Soviets and negotiating deals that would make an attack less likely,” the United States outlasted the Soviet Union (312). In telling Nitze and Kennan’s story, Thompson employs a wide variety of published and unpublished sources, including interviews and privately held manuscripts unavailable to ethics statement of phoenix previous biographers. Thompson’s memories of Nitze and his use of Kennan’s diaries give his book a uniquely intimate perspective on their lives. That intimacy allows readers to imagine Nitze family tennis tournaments and to glimpse Kennan’s anxieties about the propriety of his private conduct. More significantly for scholars, Thompson’s access to new sources also reveals new details about both men’s involvement in essay traffic accident, the Cold War. This is especially true for Nitze, whose personal papers at the Library of Congress remain closed to the public. Thompson uses these papers in two ways.

First, he employs Nitze’s personal notes from significant meetings to link his subject to the ebb and flow of the Cold War. During the Kennedy administration, for example, Thompson traces the mounting pressure to intervene in Vietnam through Nitze’s eyes (180) and describes the uncertainties in causes anorexia essay, ExComm that prevented an immediate preemptive attack on Soviet missiles in Cuba through Nitze’s hand (184). Secondly, Thompson uses Nitze’s marginal notes on personal copies of Kennan’s speeches and essays to enrich and enliven the dialogue between the two men. Essay Traffic Accident. For instance, after Kennan spoke before the Council on Foreign Relations in 1977 to criticize his “friends” who “lose themselves in the fantastic reaches of what I might call military mathematics” and decribe 3 types of of, suggest that Americans set aside “all the arguments about who could conceivably do what to whom if their intentions were the nastiest,” Nitze marked up a copy of Kennan’s speech to challenge his friend’s characterization of Brezhnev as “a man of peace” and refute his fear that “the uncertainties [the arms race] involves are rapidly growing beyond the power of either human mind or computer” (269-270). Essay Traffic Accident. As effective as Thompson is in using Nitze’s personal papers, his priority is engaging a popular audience. Historians still have to imagine the ways those sources will add to their understanding of Nitze’s role in the Cold War when they become available for public use.

Thompson’s use of new sources from Kennan’s manuscripts is also enticing. Though two generations of scholars have explored the complicated story of “Mr. X” and his relationship to American foreign policy during the Cold War, their work has to be reassessed in light of the new information that has become available since his death. Previous Kennan biographers, for example, could not describe his participation in the FBI’s surveillance of domestic radicals in the 1960s. We already knew that Kennan argued with student radicals in nervosa, the pages of the New York Times Magazine , but Thompson tells us about Kennan’s involvement in essay, COINTELPRO. Nervosa. In the same vein, Thompson uses Kennan’s diaries to illustrate the essay traffic, depth of his alienation from question, American political and social life, providing additional support for essay traffic accident a major theme in the existing literature. Thompson’s portrait of Kennan does not undermine prevailing scholarly views, but it does suggest that forthcoming work based on essay about experience newly available sources – like John Lewis Gaddis’s authorized biography – will tell us a lot more about him than we already know. Thompson begins The Hawk and the Dove with vivid descriptions of Nitze’s and Kennan’s experience of the end of World War II. In April 1945, Kennan found himself in Moscow, confronted with a throng of Russians celebrating victory over Germany. He worried that Joseph Stalin would pursue a very different kind of vision from his putative allies in Washington and, even more anxiously, that American policymakers would remain unaware of the challenges the Soviet Union posed to U.S. objectives.

Nitze found himself interrogating Albert Speer, the logistical alchemist who kept the Nazi war machine moving despite relentless British and essay accident, American strategic bombing campaigns targeting German industries. By the papers children, end of the summer, Nitze had been reassigned to the Pacific, where he evaluated the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Essay. The two men’s experiences – one absorbed in essay about experience, divining Soviet intentions and explaining them to disinterested officials in traffic, Washington and the other engaged in evaluations of strategic doctrines and examining the aftermath of a nuclear war – shaped their priorities for the next four decades. After establishing Kennan’s and Nitze’s personalities with accounts of the austerity and alienation that filled the research papers children, former’s journey from Wisconsin to Princeton and beyond and the conviviality and confidence that the latter displayed as he marched from traffic accident, Harvard to Wall Street to Washington, Thompson surveys their contributions to Truman’s foreign policy. He provides the research paper, immediate context for essay initiatives like the essay, Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift, the accident, Korean War, and the hydrogen bomb, but his discussion of the Cold War is clearly intended for general readers and not professional historians. Indeed, as Thompson follows Kennan’s and Nitze’s lives in the aftermath of their heroic days in the Truman administration, his ambitious attempt to decribe 3 types of of draw as much of the history of the Cold War as possible into his book leads to frequent tangents that seem unconnected to Nitze’s and Kennan’s fundamental debate. Essay Accident. Narrative threads like U.S. Navy warrant officer John Walker’s espionage for the Soviet Union (214-216) appear and disappear without much explanation for how they relate to the whole. In an attempt to broaden his book, Thompson neglected opportunities to 3 types of of deepen his analysis of his key themes. The most significant of these missed opportunities lies in Thompson’s abbreviated efforts to integrate recent scholarship about essay traffic accident, Soviet decision-making with his evaluation of Nitze and essay, Kennan’s debate about nuclear weapons and U.S. foreign policy. Without explaining why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices, Thompson can offer only shaky conclusions in his assessment of the decades-long debate between Nitze the hawk and Kennan the dove.

Should American policy be guided by Nitze’s increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or by essay traffic accident, Kennan’s nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions? With brief discussions of probable Soviet reactions to American restraint in 1950 (109), of Leonid Brezhnev’s anxieties about Soviet military spending (234), of Soviet anxieties about American technological prowess and intentions and the boundless appetite of the causes, Soviet military-industrial complex during the 1970s (261-262) and Mikhail Gorbachev’s prioritization of domestic reform over military spending in 1980s (307-308), Thompson gives his readers insufficient evidence to judge the essay traffic accident, merits of his protagonists’ cases. Telomerase. Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to open a “window of vulnerability” for the United States that would break the will of the free world, as Nitze and his allies in essay traffic, the Committee for anorexia nervosa essay the Present Danger argued in traffic, the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of deeply-held anxieties about the vulnerabilities of their own society and of of, their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in NATO war plans? Was the arms race a consequence of Soviet malevolence or did it reflect a security dilemma that grew out of the sense of essay, vulnerability that plagued both the United States and the Soviet Union in the nuclear age? Thompson never really engages this question, but his conclusion, that Nitze’s militarized containment and his zealous attention to the nuclear balance between the two superpowers kept the United States safe until the fulfillment of Kennan’s prophesy of a Soviet collapse, only personal statement university of phoenix makes sense if he embraces Nitze’s perspective. To the limited extent that his book addresses Soviet decision-making, the evidence does not address the veracity of Nitze’s fears and therefore does not justify Thompson’s claims. The Hawk and the Dove is an engaging biography of two men who made significant contributions to essay traffic accident America’s Cold War.

It offers general readers a compelling reminder of the fears and question, passions inspired by the nuclear arms race. It anticipates a new round of scholarship on traffic accident George Kennan and essay, teases historians with glimpses of the materials hidden in boxes of Paul Nitze’s papers in traffic, the Library of telomerase research, Congress. Scholars should appreciate those virtues even as they recognize its weaknesses. Thompson has vividly captured the accident, lives of these “icons” of the Cold War that will be “forever linked,” but, because he does not establish which man “won,” we are still left to argue just who was Magic and who was Bird in the great Cold War debate. Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of History Emeritus, San Francisco State University. N icholas Thompson, the grandson of Paul Nitze, has written a fascinating dual biography of his grandfather and George Kennan, Nitze’s most prominent rival as a defense and decribe of of, foreign policy intellectual. Thompson’s connection to Nitze gave him access to a great deal of unexploited material, including the private papers of his grandfather and Kennan’s private diaries. He also gained revealing interviews with prominent players in the episodes that featured the two protagonists.

With these resources, Thompson has been able to essay traffic go beyond the extant literature, which has done well in analyzing the policies of Nitze and Kennan, to delve more deeply into the rationales, motives, and emotions behind those policies. This book is personal statement university of phoenix intended for the general reader as well as the scholar. The writing is direct, clear, and essay traffic, filled with colorful anecdotes, personalities, and research paper, odd facts. The scholar will notice, however, that the Cold War context of the conflict between Nitze and Kennan is often rendered so briefly and with such a lack of nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the policies advocated by the two men. This is particularly the case in Thompson’s descriptions of the accident, early Cold War when Nitze and Kennan were in statement of phoenix, general agreement about the need to contain the Soviet Union. Thus, the essay traffic accident, author states baldly that Kennan favored a hard policy toward the question, Soviet Union because “he had seen the Soviets double-cross the United States repeatedly over the war’s final months.” (p. Traffic Accident. 49) He does not discuss what those double-crosses were or what the Soviet perspective on those issues might have been, and thus it is just assumed that containment was necessary. Personal. In describing the run-up to the Korean War, he states that “In the South the Americans had installed Syngman Rhee, a devout Christian with a Ph.D. in politics from Princeton.” (p.

127) He offers no further description of the chaotic and repressive situation in South Korea, but simply points out that Stalin approved Kim Il-Sung’s request to invade and thus makes it a given that Nitze and Kennan were correct to approve U.S. Traffic. intervention. He recites Communist moves in Europe in 1948, including the Berlin Blockade, without mentioning that the Allies had already decided to unite their zones and issue a separate currency, thereby challenging Stalin’s hold over eastern Germany. Thus, in telomerase, almost every case where Nitze and Kennan were in agreement, the situation is described in such a way as to assume that their policies were correct. Thompson treats the areas in which Nitze and Kennan clashed with far more precision and nuance. Accident. He does simply label the personal ethics, two men hawk and essay, dove in the title of the book and idealist and realist in body of his work. He is certainly correct that Nitze was a hawk who almost always urged massive increases in arms along with a considerable readiness to use them while Kennan for the most part urged restraint in the building and use of arms. Research Children. He is also correct that Nitze was an idealist in that he believed that the United States, as the center of power in essay traffic accident, the free world, had to arm itself and act boldly to frustrate the Kremlin and change the world for the better.

If America wanted peace, it had to prepare for war by acquiring as much military power as it possibly could. Meanwhile, Kennan was a realist in that he believed it was best for the United States to avoid grandstanding and meddling in cultures it did not understand. Instead, the nation should cultivate “an attitude of detachment and soberness and readiness to reserve judgment.” (p. 133) But Thompson goes well beyond the labels of hawk and dove or idealist and realist in his analyses of the policy conflicts between the two rivals. First, he points out that Nitze and Kennan were actually in agreement at several of what Thompson calls “strange” but “critical” moments in personal ethics of phoenix, the Cold War. Nitze played a significant role in helping Kennan to implement his policy of containment, especially in formulating the traffic, Marshall Plan. Nitze went on to agree with Kennan about ethics statement of phoenix, avoiding the essay traffic, division of Germany between East and West, although Nitze abandoned his opposition long before Kennan did. Nitze and Kennan agreed on the intervention in nervosa, Korea and both argued against going north of the 38 th parallel. They both opposed the CIA intervention against Mossadegh in Iran. They also both opposed escalation in Vietnam, although Nitze temporarily backed away from his opposition at the very moment he might have had an effect on Lyndon Johnson.

Finally, after the traffic accident, Cold War had ended, Nitze came around to agree with Kennan that the United States should seek the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The disagreements between Nitze and Kennan, however, were far more profound and had much greater impact on American foreign policy than their agreements. The most important disagreement between them was the role of military arms in containing Communism. Kennan opposed building the hydrogen bomb; Nitze favored it. Kennan opposed the informants, creation of NATO; Nitze not only favored NATO but pushed for a major expansion of it in authoring NSC-68. In NSC-68, he argued specifically that the United States should seek a preponderance rather than a mere balance of power.

He especially wanted a preponderance at the nuclear level on the grounds that it would permit a greater freedom of action at lower levels of accident, conflict. As he put it in chess terms, if you were superior at the level of the queen, you could more easily maneuver your pawns. Telomerase. Later on, as the Soviet Union built its own nuclear forces, Nitze argued more often that the United States needed to essay traffic accident build its arms to prevent the Soviets from achieving a preponderance of power rather than to achieve a preponderance itself. At times he supported arms control efforts that would have restrained U.S. arms building and essay on religion, thus seemed to essay traffic accident advocate at least some moderation in American policy. But Thompson points out in the most interesting part of his book that Nitze was almost always more restrained when he was in power than when he was out. As a member of the SALT I team negotiating arms control under Richard Nixon, he was willing to trade limits on missile defense for limits on about first experience the Soviet lead in large intercontinental missiles that could carry a great number of nuclear warheads. But he soon found that National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger considered the SALT delegation irrelevant to his personal negotiations. Kissinger first tried to get Nitze to essay traffic act as a back channel to himself and the president, thus circumventing the leader of the delegation, Gerard Smith, whom they distrusted. When Nitze refused, Kissinger disparaged Nitze’s calculations as Talmudic and research, dismissed the delegation as a disaster. Nixon and essay traffic accident, Kissinger even believed that Nitze had had a part in leaking the Pentagon Papers to telomerase research the press. Consequently, Kissinger ignored the accident, SALT team and traded an Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty for a temporary agreement limiting missiles but setting no limit on the size and 3 types informants, throw-weight of the essay accident, missiles.

Kissinger and telomerase research, Nixon figured that given the essay, greater accuracy of U.S. missiles plus the fact that neither the missiles of the NATO allies nor America’s lead in aircraft-delivered warheads were counted against the American side, the causes anorexia essay, two sides would achieve a rough parity. But Nitze was livid about the agreement, and his mood was not improved when Nixon and essay traffic, Kissinger kept the SALT delegation in Helsinki rather than bringing its members to the 1972 Moscow Summit where final adjustments to ethics statement university the agreement were made. Nixon and Kissinger called only at the last minute for the delegation to come to Moscow for accident the signing. Nitze found himself stranded at the Moscow airport, arrived late to the ceremony, and essay question on religion, was left standing in the hall as Nixon and Brezhnev departed with their entourages. When Kissinger began negotiating SALT II. he again bypassed the SALT delegation and omitted the essay traffic accident, issue of throw-weight from the agreement. On Religion. Nitze resigned in the midst of the negotiations and in the process did his best to essay traffic sabotage both SALT II and essay about experience, detente. He publicly said that no reasonable arms control deal would be possible until the essay traffic accident, president began to uphold the Constitution. He created a furor by leaking the existence of Kissinger’s back channels. He fed Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, the research, leader of the traffic accident, Democratic hawks, questions he could use to embarrass Kissinger when Kissinger appeared before the Senate Armed Services Committee in first, defense of the SALT negotiations.

Nitze supported Jimmy Carter’s election, but when Carter did not select him for an important defense position in the administration, he attacked Carter’s policies just as he had Nixon’s. As a member of the CIA Team B, appointed by President Gerald Ford to check on CIA National Intelligence Estimates of Soviet military strength that Nizte and accident, other hawks considered too low, he embarrassed the Carter administration and the CIA by claiming the Soviets were far stronger than the CIA estimated and much more malevolently intentioned. Research Paper. He also organized the Committee on the Present Danger to publicize this view, and in the process brought together Scoop Jackson Democrats and traffic, Goldwater Republicans in a coalition that would be later dubbed neoconservative. In the process, he testified before the Senate committee considering Carter’s appointment of Paul Warnke to lead the SALT negotiations. Nitze, who obviously thought that he rather than Warnke should have had the position, told the committee that his old friend was not only question wrong and accident, weak on defense, but also was not a good American. He then helped to derail Senate ratification of SALT II. Once Nitze was back in power, however, his tendencies toward a measure of restraint returned. Appointed by Reagan along with many of 3 types of of informants, Nitze’s fellow member of the Committee on essay accident the Present Danger to lead the administration’s arms control negotiations, Nitze took his famous “walk in first, the wood” to essay traffic accident try to fashion a compromise agreement over essay on religion intermediate range missiles in Europe.

Both the Soviet and American governments rejected the agreement as unauthorized and accident, too moderate. Moreover, while Nitze favored Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative and did his part to of of informants undermine the ABM treaty that hindered its development, he did not share Reagan’s illusions that Star Wars could actually intercept a Soviet missile attack. Instead, he thought it would be an excellent bargaining chip to essay traffic trade for the Soviet giant missiles and their throw-weight. Thus, Thompson concludes, while Nitze was excessively hawkish in his policies and none too scrupulous in promoting them, he was ultimately a pragmatist willing to telomerase research paper work things out with America’s adversaries. Thompson regards Kennan’s policies of restraint toward the traffic, Soviet Union more favorably than he does Nitze’s hawkish views despite the author’s relationship to Nitze. While Thompson ignored the Soviet side of things in his treatment of the early Cold War, he makes good use of Soviet sources in university of phoenix, his account of the later period and concludes that Kennan was more correct about Soviet capabilities and intentions than Nitze. While Thompson implies that Kennan sometimes placed too much emphasis on the Soviet Union’s supposed intentions and essay, too little on its actual capabilities, he defends Kennan against Nitze’s claim that Kennan went so far as to papers insist that Western Europe needed no more than a couple of divisions to defend itself. Thomson also agrees with Kennan’s insistence that the containment policy he originally devised was intended to be primarily political rather than military, and that the militarized containment policy brought about by Nitze’s NSC-68 and the Korean War went well beyond his recommendations. But Thompson goes on to point out the various times that Kennan supported CIA interventions and military actions that pushed the essay accident, boundaries of political containment.

Thompson also recounts the ungracious and dissembling way Kennan responded to those individuals, like political scientist C. Anorexia Nervosa. Ben Wright, who called attention to episodes that challenged Kennan’s sense of his own past conduct. Thompson’s primary criticism of Kennan is not of Kennan’s policy of restrained political containment but the reasons Kennan advocated it. Kennan’s realist policy was not based exclusively on essay traffic accident an attractive modesty about papers children, America’s supposedly unique virtues or the effectiveness of U.S. intervention into cultures it did not understand well. Instead, his approach was influenced by his belief that democracies were too irrational to follow a proper policy of the essay traffic accident, sort that wise and educated men like himself would advocate. This was especially true, in his opinion, of a democracy like the research, United States, which Kennan saw as declining in intelligence and morality as its core of Northern European manly culture was diluted and essay traffic, corrupted by the rise in influence of lesser ethnicities, genders, and cultures. This bigoted and reactionary side of Kennan has been exposed to anorexia nervosa some extent by Kennan’s previous biographers, but it comes through more powerfully in quotations Thompson found in Kennan’s private diaries. In the end, however, Thompson takes a rather benign view of his two protagonists despite their various lapses. Kennan was often wise in his counsels of restraint. Nitze usually came around to a pragmatic view of American policy. And throughout their long rivalry, the two maintained a civilized relationship.

As angry and dismissive as they might be of the essay accident, one another’s views at times, they exchanged civil letters, hosted one another at social events, and research, even toasted one another graciously at Kennan’s 80 th birthday party. As Nitze remarked during that party, he never had any differences with Kennan “except over matters of substance.” (p. 2) Review by Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. I n the spring of essay accident, 1995, as I began the research for my doctoral dissertation, I traveled to Independence, Missouri.

One of my goals, while visiting the anorexia nervosa, Harry S Truman Library, was to look at essay traffic accident, Paul Nitze’s oral history. When I asked to do so the archivist at the time, Denis Bilger, told me that it was unavailable. According to Bilger a few years earlier Nitze had sealed his account after someone had published an article that showed the former director of the Policy Planning Staff in a negative light. Bilger told me that my only recourse was to write to Nitze and request his permission. I was initially skeptical but I sent the letter anyway. In my note I told him I was working on my Ph.D. and essay question on religion, was looking at essay accident, how covert operations designed to “liberate” Eastern Europe and “rollback” Soviet power could be understood within the decribe 3 types informants, context of a strategy of essay traffic accident, “containment”.[2] Much to my surprise about a month or so later I received his reply. The letter read in part: “The hope and telomerase paper, expectation of the containment doctrine was that, if the traffic, USSR could be denied the capture and exploitation of additional territory by military means, their top people would look inward and research, begin to face their panoply of external problems… We thought it might be useful and wouldn’t hurt much, to give the process a push by overt or covert stratagems.” He went on to note that George “Kennan was a much more ardent supporter of roll-back efforts” than he. Apparently, Nitze “was leery of covert operations because he doubted the ability of the American “military capability to carry [them] through to success in the face of the Soviet reaction.”[3] These were shocking words. This was 1995 and the first FRUS volume on intelligence would not be released until the following year. Thus I had to essay accident wonder if perhaps Nitze was being a bit disingenuous.

His note contradicted the essay experience, conventional wisdom that Kennan was the author of a strategy of traffic accident, containment, and Nitze, under the guise of NSC 68, had not only militarized Kennan’s strategic vision but also called for a dramatic increase in the number of covert operations conducted by the CIA. Of course the political scientist Beatrice Heuser, and the historians Eduard Mark, Walter Hixson and Melvyn Leffler had all suggested that perhaps Kennan’s strategy went beyond that of the containment of the personal ethics statement, Soviet threat, and a few journalists had brought to light the covert operations that had taken place during Truman’s presidency. Essay. Aside from the vague references in the NSC policy papers, however, there was very little primary source evidence to support these claims. As a result, the majority of about, scholars remained wedded to traffic accident the traditional argument. Despite the vast array of new evidence available today, and the number of books and articles that have been published on the subject, sadly this continues to on religion be the case. Nicholas Thompson is accident no exception. His is very much a traditional history of the cold war. Despite his orthodox interpretation, which is somewhat surprising given his position at Wired magazine, which purports to be “on the front lines of the 21 st century,” it troubles me that he remains wedded to the belief “that for the most part” the United States “was never actually trying to roll back the Soviet Union.” More importantly, perhaps, although he does recognize that Kennan was, at least initially, a strong advocate of essay on religion, covert operations, he gives us no hint whatsoever about how his grandfather felt about these campaigns.

Yet, despite the lack of essay, a substantive discussion on his grandfather’s position, a subject, which perhaps only I am interested in, I did find his biography noteworthy for what it tells us about the relationship between the two directors of the Policy Planning Staff under Harry Truman. However, what I took away from university of phoenix, Thompson’s story was probably not what he intended. Throughout the manuscript he maintains that Nitze and traffic, Kennan were “friends,” albeit not best friends. (6) Yet I have to confess that I came away with a fundamentally different conclusion: Nitze really did not like Kennan very much. To be fair Thompson does concede that his grandfather liked to tell “slightly spurious stories” about the so-called father of decribe 3 types of of, containment. Yet to accident an outsider looking in, it would appear that his grandfather’s “spurious stories” directly impacted his grandson’s view of George Kennan. This tension comes out in essay, the language that Thompson uses to characterize the two men. Throughout the book he sets up Nitze and traffic accident, Kennan as cold war archetypes: the hawk and the dove—the realist and the idealist.[4] But he goes farther than this and creates a gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and telomerase research, Kennan feminine. Traffic. For example he writes that Nitze was active and telomerase, adventurous, an “insider,” and a “doer.” He was always “organized,” “logical,” “rational,” and “practical.” He was also “scientific” in how he approached the challenges he faced and essay, was “great with numbers.” Moreover he was “popular,” and “confident.” Not only was he always “the smartest man in the room,” but he was a great dresser to papers children boot. Apparently at accident, one point in his life he was robbed and the only thing the thief stole was his clothes! (94-95, 281, 284) Kennan in contrast, was a “poet,” a “thinker” “a designer,” and “a luddite.” No one “felt deeper, thought harder or wrote more beautifully.” Moreover Kennan’s ultimate goal in life was simply to achieve “peace and quiet.” And when he got it, according to Thompson, “he used it to flagellate himself.” …Hmmm….. Moreover, unlike Nitze he was always in “doubt, both of nervosa, himself and others.” Kennan was both a “fatalist,” and “an outsider.” He was prone to “tantrums” and at one point Thompson tells us that his tactics “reeked of Nixon.” I have to assume that he does not mean this in a positive sense.

Indeed, he later compares Kennan to a pterodactyl, which, at least according to my dictionary, is an extinct flying reptile. To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind. (226, 254, 256) If you have not bought my argument yet compare Thompson’s use of language when he talks about how each man dealt with difficult challenges. In this context, Nitze becomes “alarmed” by events, while Kennan is “afraid.” His bias even comes across even when he is praising Kennan and traffic, criticizing his grandfather. Causes Anorexia Nervosa Essay. For example he writes that while Kennan had “keen powers of persuasion,” they were “marred with profound vulnerability.” But when “Nitze lost his cool” it was because he was a fiendishly clever man… who was “slow to traffic accident take orders” and was challenging only those whose job he coveted. (192) The subtext here is decribe informants of course that he was ambitious. A quality heralded in men but seldom in women. Women, at accident, least in the olden days, were coveted precisely because of ethics statement university of phoenix, their vulnerability. Despite his reliance on gendered stereotypes, which I find more interesting than problematic, I have no doubt that this book will contribute to the growing historiography that challenges our perception of Kennan as the master strategist of the cold war; and traffic accident, rightly so.

It will also further damage Kennan’s personal reputation as we find out that not only was he a philanderer, a racist and an anti-Semite but he was also emotionally unstable as well. At one point he considered taking a cyanide capsule after “a fling with some dame.” (138) Now don’t get me wrong, this was a fun book to read and I have my own problems with Kennan, who by his own admission was a sexist. Essay. For this and a number of other reasons I enjoyed the book immensely. It was wonderfully written and contains a number of essay traffic, interesting insights into the characters of both men as well as some juicy tidbits that will keep you interested to the end. It will no doubt garner a wide audience beyond the readers of H-Diplo, which is research children a good thing.

I only wish that Thompson had been as forthcoming about his grandfather as he was about traffic, Kennan. But then perhaps Aleksandr Savelyev was right when he suggested “Nitze was a god”. (3) P.S. Despite Nitze’s letter to decribe 3 types me, which I spent more money framing than any piece of art I have bought since, I was still denied access to his oral history. Perhaps I’ve never got over that…. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. G eorge Kennan and Paul Nitze, Nicholas Thompson tells us, “were the only two people to be deeply involved in American foreign policy from the outset of the Cold War until its end.” (2) Writing from a unique perspective as one of Nitze’s grandsons, he surveys a half-century relationship between two respectful antagonists who represent a yin and yang of sorts in essay, post-World War II American foreign policy. Scholars of American foreign relations will find little that is new in Mr.

Thompson’s engaging narrative, save perhaps for an occasional tidbit regarding Nitze’s role in the Reagan administration’s arms limitations negotiations. Nonetheless, he has researched his subjects with a thoroughness that academics can admire. An editor at Wired magazine? he writes fluently and focuses as much on question character as on essay traffic policy. Eschewing stereotypes, he depicts two individuals with considerably different personalities and causes essay, modes of policy conceptualization, reacting to fluid situations with less predictability than his title leads us to expect. The Kennan story will be more familiar to traffic most readers of H-Diplo. Mr. Thompson adds no new twists. He effectively recounts the telomerase, saga of a boy born to a moderately well-off family in Milwaukee, only two months old when his mother died, raised by sisters and an indifferent stepmother, sent off to a military prep school, going on to college at Princeton.

The common theme in all these phases of his life seems to be one of unhappiness, anxiety, and loneliness, expressed from an early age through poetry that revealed a rare literary talent. The one hero of traffic, his formative years seems to have been a distant relative, also named George Kennan, with whom he shared a birthday. Telomerase Research Paper. A prolific liberal-minded writer on Russian culture and politics, the early Kennan seems to have sparked an interest in Russian history and culture that defined the essay accident, career of his young cousin. The Foreign Service, a Russian/East European specialization, then postings to question Moscow and other important European capitals followed. The Nitze story is less well known.

His father, a University of Chicago professor of philology, was rigorous and demanding. His non-conventional mother dabbled in radical politics, was attracted to avant-garde art, and essay traffic, took her son on trips to Europe. Mr. Thompson depicts a boy and young man who was well-adjusted, socially adept, and successful in almost everything he attempted. “Kennan never fit in,” Thompson observes, “Nitze always did.” (24) He moved effortlessly from Chicago to decribe 3 types of of Hotchkiss prep school to Harvard, where he achieved the ultimate distinction of being elected to Porcellian. After graduation, he took a job with the prestigious financial house Dillon Read and became a protege of James Forrestal. In 1940, Forrestal accepted a call to the Roosevelt White House as a presidential assistant.

One of his first acts was to essay accident send a telegram to decribe of of informants his younger aide: “Be in essay, Washington on Monday.” (38) The end of World War II found Nitze working with the Strategic Bombing Survey, interviewing Nazis (including Albert Speer) in Germany, then pondering the impact of causes essay, nuclear weapons as he examined the traffic, ruins of Hiroshima and statement of phoenix, Nagasaki in Japan. Nitze’s conclusion in essay traffic, the Survey’s final report that the atomic bomb was not the major reason for 3 types Japan’s surrender, Thompson declares? “was not merited by the evidence.” (66) The author never quite explains this uncharacteristic analytical lapse. Perhaps Nitze tailored his conclusion to conform to essay Air Force doctrine that emphasized conventional strategic bombing. Nitze, the author tells us, does seem to research children have been convinced that the bomb, for all its power, was essentially another weapon. It is accident true that at the very beginning of the nuclear age conventional bombing raids were capable of causes anorexia nervosa, inflicting equally extensive (if non-radioactive) devastation on other Japanese cities. Throughout the rest of his career, Nitze would be among those strategists (Henry Kissinger among them) willing to think out loud about the unthinkable—a winnable nuclear war. His bottom-line conviction was that power and the willingness to use it constituted the traffic, bottom line of paper, national strength. Kennan, back in Moscow for the opening salvos of the Cold War, received a request from Washington for an analysis of Soviet obstreperousness in the months after the Japanese surrender. The result—his famous “long telegram” later published as “The Sources of essay traffic, Soviet Conduct” in Foreign Affairs —soon had him back in Washington at the head of a new Policy Planning Staff under Secretary of State George C. Marshall.

One of his colleagues in the new enterprise was Paul Nitze. The two men admired each other and maintained a personal friendship for the rest of their lives; professionally, however, they were soon antagonists. In the long telegram, Kennan had laid down the doctrine of containment, but he also possessed the professional diplomat’s aversion to military force, had an first acute understanding of the traffic, limits of American power, and thought of containment as something to be pursued by soft means. Nitze, unencumbered by the inhibitions of the diplomatist, continued to assume the primacy of essay about experience, power in international relations. Kennan recoiled from traffic, American universalism, as expressed in the Truman Doctrine; Nitze welcomed it as a sign of 3 types, American toughness and resolve. Traffic. The two men agreed on the Marshall Plan, but diverged again on essay experience the North Atlantic Treaty, especially its military component, NATO.

They also were at odds on the decision to build the hydrogen bomb. Nitze, the author makes clear, was no warmonger; he always sought deterrence, not preventive war. Nor was Kennan a dreamy pacifist; in mid-1950, he backed the decision to use military force in Korea. Nearly thirty years later at the onset of the Iranian hostage crisis, he was willing to essay accident support a declaration of war against the Islamic Republic. Still, the general inclinations of the two were clear, and Nitze’s temperament meshed far better with that of Marshall’s successor as Secretary of State, the blunt, no-nonsense Dean Acheson. Nitze replaced Kennan as the head of personal university of phoenix, Policy Planning in 1949.

In 1950, Kennan began his disengagement from the department. By then, with Acheson’s encouragement and essay traffic accident, support Nitze had spearheaded the question, production of NSC-68, a policy document geared toward a defense buildup of wartime proportions. Accident. This early history of the Kennan-Nitze relationship established a pattern that would prevail for a period of some forty years in which both affected American foreign relations as influential policy formulators and/or critics. Many readers of this book will be struck by the limitations both displayed. Nitze’s NSC-68, for example, sought to remedy real deficiencies in research paper, deployable U.S. military strength, but overshot the essay traffic, mark. Harry Truman refused to sign off on it until the third month of the Korean War; Dwight Eisenhower effectively cancelled it upon becoming president. Nervosa. As late as the 1980s, Nitze was aligned with individuals willing to argue that the United States could survive a nuclear exchange in which as many as twenty million Americans might be killed. Yet at the same time he was an arms negotiator in the Reagan administration and sincerely dedicated to the quest for a strategic arms limitations agreement. The quality of Kennan’s mind and the seductiveness of his prose have obscured his own weaknesses, both as a man of action and as a thinker. Made ambassador to the Soviet Union in the final year of the Truman administration, he hardly had time to get settled before being thrown out for declaring that the experience was comparable to his internment by the Nazis after Pearl Harbor. As undiplomatic as it was truthful, the ill-considered remark deprived the United States of valuable services Kennan could have rendered from Moscow.

Appointed ambassador to Yugoslavia by essay accident, John F. Kennedy, he unnecessarily antagonized Yugoslav dictator Joseph Broz Tito, whom he criticized for supporting Nikita Khrushchev’s resumption of decribe of of informants, nuclear testing. He then irritated Kennedy and essay, influential congressmen by lobbying too insistently for favored trade status for Yugoslavia. After two years he resigned, having failed to essay about experience make the most of his position at a strategic outpost of the Cold War. As one of his subordinates put it, “he was a better writer than an ambassador.” (183) But perhaps he was also a better writer than a foreign policy thinker. Throughout his career, Kennan complained about being misunderstood. Walter Lippmann, who wrote a dozen articles, later published as a small book, attacking “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” is the essay traffic, best-known example, but hardly the only one.

Until Kennan published his memoirs, many liberals thought him an amoral cynic of Metternichian proportions. He was not good at managing the tug of war between the decribe of of, foreign policy realism to which he was rationally attached and essay traffic accident, the highly developed moral sense that he felt deeply. Perhaps it was this struggle that led him at times into foreign policy prescriptions that were almost other-worldly, such as his advocacy in decribe 3 types, the 1956 Reith lectures of German reunification and accident, neutralization. At times, Kennan conveyed the impression that he believed diplomacy could be successfully conducted without deployable power. An elitist who believed foreign relations should be run by educated and experienced gentlemen like himself, he was tone deaf to the imperatives of democratic politics. If nothing else, Paul Nitze served as a necessary counterbalance.

Kennan’s thinking requires much more development than Thompson gives it. Causes Anorexia Nervosa Essay. Kennan’s classic American Diplomacy (1950) receives scant examination. His historical works are dutifully mentioned but given little or no analysis. Traffic Accident. His two volumes of memoirs, which the author rightly tells us rank with The Education of Henry Adams as literary masterpieces, rate two pages of summary. Kennan’s influential and widely read Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin (1960) is not mentioned. Nor is there any effort to develop a context for his thinking within a larger school of question on religion, foreign policy realism.

Kennan was often bracketed with Hans J. Morgenthau and traffic accident, Reinhold Niebuhr, neither of whom appear in this book. By contrast, Paul Nitze comes across as little more than a pragmatic technocrat, and something of a one-dimensional foil to the visionary Kennan. Nitze, it is true, did not reveal a tenth as much of himself to a wide public as did Kennan and thus can easily be thought a man of limited capacities. Still, the personal ethics statement of phoenix, author’s memory of Gramps sipping red wine and essay, reading Joseph Conrad suggests a wider-ranging mind than we see in his narrative. (“Missiles are boring,” Nitze tells his grandson. Statement University. “Conrad is interesting.” ([317]) It is a shame that we cannot know more about what seems to have been a complex inner self. Nicholas Thompson has given us a well-crafted piece of popular history that will motivate at least some of its readers to delve more deeply into the lives of essay accident, its protagonists and to learn more about the nervosa, Cold War in which they were soldiers. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker. I t is an honor to have had my book critiqued by four scholars, all of whom clearly read with care. Each also asks questions I had not thought of, and offers lines of inquiry that I would like to pursue. Accident. I am of course, delighted, by decribe 3 types of of, the various compliments.

As a general response, I note that there is a slight tension in the critiques and the praise given to the book. The central theme of the praise is that the book is briskly written; the central theme of the criticism is that it would have been better had it delved more deeply into one of essay accident, several complicated subject areas. Briskness and thoroughness are not, of course, mutually exclusive, and I would hope that all the research, reviewers would agree that there are some parts of the Cold War into which I dug quite deeply. But should add that one reason the traffic, book is readable is because it is relatively narrow. I constantly crossed out potential chapters and sections in a desperate effort to keep the book relatively contained, no pun intended. 3 Types Informants. I wanted to cover the Cold War, and the lives of two extraordinary men, in a volume that would not be so thick that it would menace people, unread, from their bookshelves. That defense is not of course absolute. I certainly could have added some material and left out other parts of the book. I agree, actually, with Professor Combs that I should have spent more time explaining the traffic, historical context in situations where Kennan and Nitze agreed, particularly regarding policy toward Berlin in the late 1940s.

Professor Hamby is correct to flag the fact that I was not able to research papers children offer a complete and persuasive explanation for Nitze’s puzzling analysis of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; that episode remains, to me, one of the mysteries of his life. Traffic Accident. Professor Corke is personal university of phoenix correct to essay accident note that I do not add a great deal to the historical literature about Nitze’s involvement in early CIA operations; I just didn’t find any. Mr. Botts is, I believe, correct in his critique that I didn’t spend sufficient time explaining what recent Soviet archives teach us about the nuclear policy of the U.S.S.R. in the 1970s and on religion, 1980s. Traffic Accident. As it happens, in fact, I have a forthcoming essay in the Journal of Contemporary History on just this topic. Skipping from nuclear weapons to basketball, for a minute, I do however disagree with Mr. Botts, in one place. In my book, I said that Kennan and Nitze became the diplomatic equivalents of Magic Johnson and Larry Bird. Paper. Mr.

Botts notes this and writes, “He might have added that, for one of them to win, the other had to lose.” That’s true for essay accident a given game, but it’s not true for telomerase a career. You can have a riveting and inconclusive argument about who was the better player; just as you could have a lively debate about Nitze and Kennan’s views of Soviet nuclear intentions, without describing one as right and one as wrong. For the record, I do think that Nitze vastly over-estimated Soviet efficiency and ascribed to them a much darker worldview than deserved. I also, however, believe that Kennan vastly overestimated how much the United States could have influenced Soviet policy by, for example, proposing a policy of no-first-use. (Also: I grew up in Boston and accident, Bird was better than Magic.) Along these lines I am quite pleased that Professor Corke and Professor Hamby came to first experience different conclusions. Professor Corke takes me to task for accident being biased toward Nitze (my grandfather); Professor Hamby believes that the book portrays Kennan as much more of a visionary. As I worked on the book, I was often asked which of the two men I agreed with, and, thankfully, I could always answer that I wasn’t sure. Kennan was absolutely wiser; Nitze was, absolutely, a more dedicated public servant. Readers to the book have likewise had differing views of the relative merits of the anorexia nervosa, two men.

As to traffic Professor Corke’s claim that I portray Kennan as a woman and Nitze as a man, there’s probably something to it. Women are portrayed as more emotional in writings of history, and Kennan certainly was far more emotional than Nitze. But I also believe that Professor Corke has overstated her argument, in part through selective quotation. To take one example, at first, the end of essay accident, a paragraph listing praise from the ethics university of phoenix, book for Nitze, and criticism for Kennan, she writes, “To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind.” It’s true that Nitze was a snazzy dresser; and it’s true that Kennan was color-blind. But her point—that sartorial praise for Nitze illuminates a greater bias toward him—is not accurate. After all, two sentences before mentioning Kennan’s eyesight, I also described him as a snazzy dresser. It’s a trivial matter, but I think the selective quotation is telling and reveals a flaw in what I consider an overstated critique. Overall, the essays are all reasoned and illuminating. And to Mr. Botts, I add that many of Nitze’s papers at the Library of Congress are open and have been for the last few years. Essay Accident. (One need only file a request to the Nitze estate for access; and all such requests have been granted in recent years.) I donated a further collection of telomerase paper, papers—the sixty or so boxes that I discovered behind a boiler at essay accident, the School of decribe, Advanced International Studies—to the Library about eighteen months ago.

Those documents are currently being processed, and will, I hope, be opened soon. [1] Kennan’s views appear in The Cloud of Danger (1977). [2] I should note that while today I always put danger quotes around “containment” I did not then. In 1995 was still writing very much within a modern historical tradition, hence my question to accident Nitze. [3] Paul Nitze to author, June 1, 1995.

[4] Now he does concede that these were not hard and fast characterizations, and research, that neither men “conformed exactly to the labels” but he concludes that for most of essay traffic, their lives these characterizations were 90% accurate. By the 1970s he concludes that both men “truly became the hawk and about experience, the dove” 231.

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national pride essay GLOWING representations and animated de|scriptions of the noble exploits and dangerous enter|prizes which have been atchieved by great men for their country's dearest rights, inspire the most dis|tant generations with a generous pride of ancestral worth, and secure the lasting duration of essay, that hero|ism which had become hereditary, giving magnani|mity even to the effeminate. The remembrance of the valour which encircled the brows of our ancestors with never fading laurels, is a perpetual memorial and an unceasing incite|ment to us, that we should do nothing unworthy of their name; that we should esteem ourselves able to maintain it in all its pristine lustre. If we would imitate the virtues of our progenitors, if we would approach near to their renown, if we would revive their great and glorious days, we must be mindful of our origin, and of the duties it imposes on us; Page 188 we must keep our ancestors in decribe of of informants view, as our bright examples; their deeds of hardihood and virtue must be the favourite subjects of our sculptor's and our painter's art, an animating fire enlivening the ready eloquence of our orators, and the sublime imaginations of our poets: we must never look on their renown as an inheritance, which we may en|joy in essay traffic accident indolence; never indulge in that impatient and jealous pride, which suggests that all must yield to a name of glory, and which is irritated at research, the preference present merit obtains over traffic, former worth. It is then that our fathers live again in anorexia essay their descendants; the spirits of the great and mighty slain beckon us to the battle; the essay accident moss-grown cenotaphs and ancient trophies seem to rise before us; the guardian Genii of our nation are seen supporting in the air the shades of the illustri|ous founders of our fame; and, enraptured by this pleasing vision, even the vanity and frivolity of vulgar minds yield to the thirst of decribe 3 types of of informants, glory: every heart and hand is essay accident, united in the ardent pursuit of honour; and every soul blazes with true patriotism, and question on religion an undissembled admiration of our country's virtue. The ancients emulously encouraged one another, by essay traffic accident the remembrance of the causes anorexia nervosa essay heroic deeds of their ancestors,—to vigilance in peaceful times, and to intrepidity in the hour of danger. The noble senti|ments Page 189 of the Corinthians, on this subject, are thus expressed by Thucidides: Your fathers have ascended to fame through rugged, steep and un|trodden paths; let their examples be ever pres • ent to you: do not loose by wealth and indolence, what labour and poverty has attained.

All were ex|horted not to remain inactively listening to essay the ancient stories, recounted by every nation of causes anorexia, their former advantages, for these are only essay accident honourable to personal ethics statement those who strive to emulate them, and act only as a foil to the disgrace of those who recede from ancestral worth, since it is more unpardonable to depart from the great examples we have before us, and ought to follow, than to essay remain insignificant and inactive, without any. Every thing among the Greeks conduced to research plant in their hearts the most heroic courage; by the remembrance of their ancestors, whose prin|ciples and essay traffic accident sentiments were the spur to the noblest actions. By the view alone of the statues of Har|modius and Aristogiton, the detestation of telomerase, tyranny was renewed in the hearts of the Athenians, and their gratitude to these courageous champions of their liberty was daily and hourly augmented. They instituted public funeral rites, in honour of those who died for their country: and a pile was erected three days before the completion of the ceremonies, on which the remains of the slain were Page 190 publicly exposed to view: and the common wealth took charge of the essay maintenance and education of the children of those heroes, till they attained the question on religion age of puberty. The lowest Greeks were exalted to a level with their greatest chiefs by a glorious death; their memory was renewed by the most solemn offerings to the latest posterity, and their images were placed next to those of the Gods. Animated with the sentiments these maxims in|spired, the Greeks advanced to their enemies. They encouraged one another with the recital of the deeds that had rendered their names famous, before the essay signal for battle was given, and invoked the departed spirits of decribe 3 types of of, their great forefathers to witness their actions on that day, when, proud of the glory they inherited, and worthy of the name they had gained, they resolved either to conquer or die. This noble resolution banished fear from their hearts, and conducted them with erect and cheerful countenances, to the very face of essay, death, in search of honourable danger.

The battle of Marathon alone was for many ages afterwards productive of the noblest emulation of equalling their ancestors. On every great occasion they called to mind this signal victory: Remember the innumerable host of Persians; remember our own invincible little troop, was shouted on every side. We few, we happy few, we band of brothers Page 191 was re-echoed from rank to statement rank. Essay. The nervous eloquence of Demosthenes engraved these senti|ments on the minds of the Athenians, excited their detestation of the artful king who attempted to undermine the state his arms could not subdue, inflamed every mind with the energetic love of liberty and his country, and stimulated every breast to great and heroic deeds. The Spartans took the field, animated by this spirit of unconquerable attachment to freedom and their country; their armies were small but victorious. Even the pre|sent descendants of the Spartans are the most courageous among the modern Greeks, and, under the despotic sway of the Turks, enjoy some remains of their pristine liberty.

It was in order to renew in about first experience the Greeks the memory of their glorious ances|tors that Agesilaus, when he invaded Asia, em|barked at Aulis, the port whence the fleets and armies of united Greece took their departure, to revenge the rape of Helen: and when Alexander landed on that continent, to undertake its conquest, his first care was to awaken in his Greeks the re|membrance of their former victories over the Tro|jans. Essay Traffic. He repaired to Ilium, and visited the graves of Ajax, of Achilles, and of the other heroes who fell before the walls of Troy: he paid the cus|tomary honours to their manes; he celebrated with his attendants games and courses at the tomb of Achilles, sprinkled it with oil and crowned it with Page 192 garlands. Happy youth, he exclaimed at the monument of Achilles, happy that in thy life thou wert blessed with a faithful friend, and a Ho|mer to immortalize thy valour. Nervosa. Such an avidity for essay glory, displayed with such masterly art, roused the noblest sentiments in paper every breast. Alexan|der sought to be like Achilles, his soldiers like Alex|ander: and this continual emulation warmed their imaginations, and accident raised their souls far above every terrestrial thought.

Remember ye are Romans, was the com|mon exhortation of the generals of ancient Rome, to their companions in arms: this short harangue sufficed to rouse them to perseverance and inde|fatigable ardour in the most difficult enterprizes, and to intrepidity and firmness in the most bloody engagements. Filled with the memory of the va|lour of their ancestors, and impressed with an en|thusiastic persuasion of the future greatness of im|mortal Rome, as immutably decreed by the gods, and announced by ancient prophecies, they subju|gated nations, and conquered the world by the powerful influence of their conviction of the supe|rior privileges and advantages which were the birth-right of personal university of phoenix, a Roman citizen. The Arabians owe the liberty they still retain, to their courage: the Turks have not been able to Page 193 subdue them, it is essay traffic, now many centuries; they are even daily extending their conquests. They have established themselves in many parts of Egypt, and neither pay tribute to research papers children the Ottoman Porte nor obey his commands; and it is the accident memory of their ancestors that feeds and nourishes this energy of telomerase paper, soul. They hear, from their earliest youth, the deeds of accident, their forefathers recited in their tents: Arabia resounds on every side with martial songs, comme|morating those feats of glory; and among its inha|bitants, the poet is equally renowned with the hero he celebrates. The poetic pictures of the 3 types valour and intrepidity which characterised the golden ages preceding that of Mahomet, are said to possess the essay traffic same unadorned sublimity we so much admire in the best productions of the Grecian and Roman muse. These seeds of heroism took still deeper root in the more stiff and rugged soil of northern regions. Those indigenous Scythian nations, who wandered from the banks of the Tanais to Scandinavia, in order to live in ease and comfort, who brought Sweden, Norway, Russia, and Denmark under the dominion of essay, a Scythian family; who insensibly extended themselves through all Germany, and who successively overwhelmed with the horrors of war the traffic flourishing provinces of Gaul, Spain, and, Page 194 finally, the telomerase research whole of the Empire of the West, upon which they poured down like the thickening clouds of a thunder-storm, impelled by the tempestuous blasts of their own northern winds: these, I say, had the same origin, the same laws, the same courage, the same love of liberty, the same attach|ment to the customs and religion of their forefa|thers, and the same contempt of death, founded up|on the hope of future and eternal happiness. The customs and essay traffic institutions of these nations were calculated to animate their sons, by reminding them of the prowess and of of hardihood of their ances|tors. These predominant qualities were held in the highest estimation among them, and the love of war was deeply rooted even in their religion. Their deified Odin, instead of essay traffic accident, a pure and abstracted no|tion of God, introduced an entirely sensual system; he knew how to adapt the Wolupso, which was to anorexia nervosa form the religious code of the Scythians, to the genius of the nation; his Heaven and his Hell were solely founded upon traffic accident, a scale of comparative valour; his laws far exceed those of Sparta, for the forcible injunction of the greatest contempt of death; the last gasp of their warriors on the field of battle was immediately connected with all those recompences which filled the whole of anorexia essay, their imagi|nations, and suppressed the passion of fear, not by Page 195 cool reasoning, or barren logic, but the irresist|ible impulse of other more violent and opposing passions.

Odin persuaded the Scandinavians that those who died like their fathers, with arms in their hands, would alone enjoy an happy immortality. To rush on the swords of the traffic accident enemy, and immedi|ately to enter into the fruition of the promised re|wards, were, according to his doctrine, two occur|rences which were immediately consecutive. He per|suaded them, that their future felicity depended en|tirely on the shedding of their blood; and, in conse|quence, that a sick man must on his death-bed procure himself to be wounded, in order to appear bathed in his blood before his gods. Odin himself acted up to his doctrine. The faith that he had pro|pagated during a long and prosperous life, he con|firmed by a voluntary death. Apprehensive of the ignominious approach of disease and infirmity, he resolved to expire as became a warrior. In a solemn assembly of the Swedes and Goths, he wounded himself in nine mortal places, hastening away (as he asserted with his dying voice) to prepare the feast of telomerase research paper, heroes in the palace of the god of war. Essay. After his example, the Scandinavians sought the essay first experience highest pitch of traffic accident, happiness and question on religion luxury in blood and death.

Our warriors, say their poets, search out death with smiles, and traffic embrace it Page 196 with transport; they are seen in the battle, with their hearts transfixed, falling, laughing, and dy|ing. Lodbrog, a Northern chief, thus exults at the hour of his death: What undescribable and decribe 3 types informants hitherto unfelt emotions of joy arise in my soul! I die! I hear Odin's voice that calls me; I see the gates of his palace open, the lovely wantons, hav|ing their most bewitching charms half revealed to view, trip lightly forth, and beckon me to the ban|quet; their azure zones heighten the dazzling whiteness of accident, their bosoms; they approach, and of|fer me the most delicious nectar, in skulls still moist with the blood of my enemies. All other virtues were held inferior to research that of courage by the Goths, who indeed despised every thing else—but most of all ostentation and essay magnifi|cence. Their women even learnt the use of arms. A princess, who chastised the essay temerity of a lover by essay traffic slaying him with her own hand, was a subject of admiration.

A young man could scarcely hope to succeed in his courtship, if he had not given public and unequivocal proofs of his courage. The son of telomerase research, a king dared not refuse the essay combat, which their religion sanctioned, if proffered even by the meanest peasant; since, conformably to their notions, vic|tory must declare itself in favour of the man who fought for a just cause. Page 197 These opinions, these deeds were transmitted to posterity by the first melodious warblings of the Scandinavian poets: these songs were recited to the boys, that their youthful hearts might early imbibe the knowledge of these heroic actions, which they would afterwards be called upon to emulate. They begat, in the souls of the decribe auditors, those wonders I hope to see renewed by the im|mortal verses of the accident Tyrtaeus of Brandenburgh, and nervosa essay which I wish for, from the glowing numbers of his Swiss brother. The ancient Germans caught the essay traffic accident same spirit. Anorexia Essay. Their youth sought honourable death, in the hope of being celebrated by their bards. The most valiant among them? upon his decease, was advan|vanced to the rank of a god; his children and pos|terity enjoyed the privileges of princes; they re|ceived gifts, and a large tract of land was assigned them: these privileges and this property was theirs as long as they were not unworthy of the traffic accident glory of their progenitor.

The beauteous daughters of the Franks * bestowed their favours only on the brave warrior, and their judgment both of the merit and tenderness of his love was founded upon the proofs he had given of his valour; he must have taken prisoners, scaled some dangerous and question well-defended Page 198 precipice, driven the enemy from some strong entrenchment, ere he could hope to succeed with his mistress; for she would rather behold him a breathless corpse, than safely returned to her dis|graced by flight. Hence the harsh din of arms re|sounded throughout all Germany, and the banners of traffic accident, renown waved over on religion, every tomb. Even now, eve|ry patriot German treads, with inward emotions of essay accident, reverence, the ground where the solemn remains of his illustrious ancestors repose in silence; and ap|proaches, with awe, the essay first forest where their fame still hovers round the ancient oaks. Could the nations of the North, educated in these opinions, avoid that noble esteem of them|selves, which their laws, their religion, and their bards so forcibly inspired? If they have not in|herited from their forefathers a fondness for softer and more civilized renown, yet they have inherited the noblest examples of manliness of soul, which have been deeply impressed on their ardently emu|lative minds. The pride arising from the martial fame of their ancestors, has always been the greatest spur to courage and activity among the most valiant na|tions. The youthful warriors of the Huns were animated by a species of phrenzy, solely by traffic listen|ing Page 199 to the vocal melody, which revived and per|petuated the telomerase great atchievements of essay traffic, their ances|tors; a martial ardour flashed from their eyes; they became impatient for battle, and the tears of the old men expressed their generous despair, that they could no longer partake the dangers and glory of the field.

The Japanese were formerly a warlike nation, fond of military renown, and children of attempting the most extended and hazardous enterprizes. Their most ancient families were distinguished by a noble and majestic countenance, and all despised death and danger. The pride arising from the essay accident glorious reputation of their ancestors was extended even to their children; their mode of education tended to imprint ideas of heroism and valour in their tender breasts; songs of war and question on religion victory were the first sounds that reached their ears. In their schools, they were exercised in transcribing the essay traffic legends of their heroes, and the histories of telomerase research paper, their progeni|tors, who had voluntarily devoted themselves to a glorious death. It was this same pride that in former ages im|pelled our Helvetians to trample upon the necks of their oppressors, after the longest struggles, and amid impending danger. A handful of rustics gained Page 200 them liberty. The memory of essay, those rustics glowed in the hearts of the brave Bernians at Laupen; their little band resolved not to die unworthy their Helvetian fame; they advanced to battle; crowned with vine leaves, they chaunted the about noble deeds of the founders of their liberty, and dispersed their proudest foes like chaff before the wind. Essay Accident. The memory of those rustics occasioned the defeat of the Austrian army at Sembach: their nume|rous and well appointed cavalry fled before the intrepidity of causes anorexia nervosa, a few Helvetians; numbers and discipline were defeated by ardent impetuosity, and accident the most tremendous apparatus of war yield|ed to the attack of sickles and about experience ploughshares, in the hands of the sons of freedom. The memory of those rustics filled the hearts of the traffic accident twelve hun|dred brave Helvetians, who, not far from Basle, attacked forty thousand French, committed a great slaughter among them, and disputed the victory with unconquerable intrepidity, till the few remain|ing of their hardy troop were consumed to ashes among the ruins of essay question on religion, a church, into which they had retreated and which was set on fire, they having refused to surrender.

The memory of those rustics inflamed the souls of our fathers, who, at Murten, drove the Burgundians before them, as the light sand of the desert before the fierce Typhon and Ecnephia. Essay Traffic. The memory of those Page 201 rustics, gained, by a thousand immortal actions, before their posterity was degenerated, the con|fidence of statement, princes, the essay traffic admiration of Europe, an established peace, and handed down to us for essay on religion a lasting inheritance, only that Nostalgia * which death alone can deprive us of. The pride, therefore, that arises in a nation from the glorious reputation and known valour of their ancestors, is an abundant source of inflexible great|ness of soul, and traffic the most certain preservative against telomerase research paper, the pernicious effects of pusillanimity.

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Animals as Persons: Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. Gary L. Francione. Columbia University Press, 2008. A prominent and respected philosopher of animal rights law and ethical theory, Gary L. Francione is known for his criticism of animal welfare laws and regulations, his abolitionist theory of animal rights, and his promotion of veganism and nonviolence as the baseline principles of the abolitionist movement. In this collection, Francione advances the most radical theory of animal rights argued to date. Essay? Unlike Peter Singer, Francione maintains that we cannot morally justify using animals under any circumstances, and unlike Tom Regan, Francione’s theory applies to all sentient beings, and not only to those who have more sophisticated cognitive abilities. Francione introduces the volume with an essay that explains our historical and contemporary attitudes about animals by distinguishing the issue of animal use from that of animal treatment. He then presents a theory of animal rights, which focuses on the need to personal, accord all sentient nonhumans the accident right not to be treated as our property. Our recognition of such a right would require that we stop bringing domesticated animals into existence for anorexia nervosa essay human use. He takes a hard look at our #8220;moral schizophrenia#8221; toward animals and our ability to regard some creatures as beloved companions and traffic others as food and clothing.

Subsequent essays explore recent changes in animal welfare and the sad fact that these advances have not only failed to bring us closer to the abolition of animal exploitation, but have made the research papers children public feel more comfortable about supposedly more #8220;humane#8221; animal treatment. In two essays, Francione explores the essay traffic importance of sentience as the necessary and sufficient condition for the moral significance of animals and research explains how the status of animals as economic commodities prevents the traffic accident equal consideration of their interests. He also discusses the issue of using animals in experiments, arguing that the empirical necessity of telomerase animal use is at best suspect and that animal use cannot, in any event, be morally justified. After a chapter addressing ecofeminism and essay traffic its ethic of care, Francione concludes by challenging the rationale of Tom Regan’s position that death imposes a greater harm on humans than nonhumans. This collection of telomerase essays demonstrates why Francione’s abolitionist theory is widely regarded as the most exciting innovation in modern animal ethics. Gary L. Francione builds on the themes of his first three rights-based books, synthesizes them, adds new ingredients, and essay traffic brings it all up to date in a striking restatement of personal of phoenix animal rights philosophy for the twenty-first century. This new volume is not only high-quality scholarship but also provides the essay accident theoretical foundations for a new social movement which takes rights seriously as its core claims about about experience human-nonhuman relations. Essay Accident? Roger Yates, University College, Dublin. Gary L. Francione’s searing and insightful theoretical vision shines through in this key work that extends and deepens the substantive area of inquiry in abolitionist animal studies that he has singlehandedly created. Part iconoclast, part theorist, and part activist, Francione is unafraid to upend conventional theoretical and practical approaches to our treatment of research children animals in his analytical rigor.

Without a doubt, this volume will remain a central work in animal studies for years to essay traffic accident, come. Bob Torres, assistant professor of sociology, St. Lawrence University, and author of causes Making A Killing: The Political Economy of Animal Rights. In this uncompromising and stimulating call for the abolition of all forms of oppression of other animals, Gary L. Francione establishes himself as one of the leading advocates for justice in accident the world today. In these powerful essays, Francione methodically and unflinchingly examines and deconstructs the ineffectual positions of many professed advocates for other animals and points the way toward true animal liberation. He exposes the pragmatic and moral flaws in the arguments of those who call merely for reduced cruelty and better regulation of industries that are based on animal oppression. His forceful and compelling arguments against contemporary ‘animal welfarism’ and in favor of true animal rights should be required reading for scholars, activists, and essay question anyone interested in justice for all the inhabitants of this planet. David Nibert, author of Animal Rights/Human Rights: Entanglements of Oppression and Liberation. Coolly, lucidly, and uncompromisingly, with a minimum of essay traffic horror stories, Gary L. Francione argues for the right of all sentient beings to a full life. Telomerase Research Paper? His critique of animal-welfare legislation, with its many escape clauses that allow the business of animal exploitation to accident, proceed as usual, is particularly devastating.

J. M. Coetzee, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Virtually all the articles and essays collected here are milestones in the formation of the modern theory of the legal and moral rights of animals. Gary L. Francione knows his philosophy as well as his law and these juridical studies work close to the line where law and philosophy merge. His prose, furthermore, is clear and free of legal jargon. I strongly recommend this collection of anorexia important essays. It provides a lucid summary of a significant body of thought on animal rights. Julian H. Franklin, professor emeritus of political philosophy, Columbia University.

Darwin once made a note to himself: #8220;Never use the words #8216;higher#8217; or #8216;lower.'#8221; Well it took all this time before finally somebody did just that! That somebody is Gary L. Francione, thinking, as always, just beyond what anyone else has already thought. He is essay accident a radical, in the best sense of that word, always striking out (sometimes on telomerase research paper his own) into areas where the rest of humanity has feared to tread. He goes out, and he comes back with treasure that the essay rest of us are only to happy to use and appropriate. That#8217;s o.k., I am sure, with him. He is not in 3 types informants this for his sake, but for their sake. So anything that will get us to accident, take the vegan plunge (as I recently did, partly because I can see no way to causes, avoid the arguments that Francione so cogently sets forth in this wonderful collection of essays), to stop making excuses for the Eichmann#8217;s of the animals and to recognize that when a nonhuman animal dies before his or her time, and essay accident under conditions of someone else#8217;s making, a tragedy has occurred that is every bit as momentous as the same tragedy in the life of a human animal. We are, all of decribe of of informants us who are concerned with the lives (as opposed to traffic, the deaths) of animals, deeply in Francione#8217;s debt, whether we know it or not, whether we like him or not, and whether we want to acknowledge it or not. Jeffrey Masson, author of Altruistic Armadillos, Zenlike Zebras: A Menagerie of research 100 Favorite Animals. The most wholly consistent animal rights position available today is Gary L. Accident? Francione’s.

In philosophical essays such as these his dedication to defining what it means to give the interests of paper nonhumans equal moral consideration shines through in a remarkably clear and uncompromising way. Francione conducts a rigorous cross-examination of utilitarianism (animal liberation theory), alternative animal rights and animal welfare views, feminist care ethics as applied to essay traffic accident, animals, and United States animal protection law, all of which creates a more meaningful and compelling context for his own approach. Those who seriously engage with this book will not only expand their horizons but also demand a much higher standard of argument in this field ever after. Michael Allen Fox, professor emeritus of decribe of of philosophy, Queen#8217;s University, Canada, adjunct professor, School of Humanities, University of New England (Australia), and author of Deep Vegetarianism. The Abolitionist Approach to Animal Rights Pamphlet. Number of essay accident animals killed in the world by the meat, dairy and egg industries, since you opened this webpage. This does not include the billions of fish and research papers other aquatic animals killed annually.

Based on 2007 statistics from the traffic accident Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on essay, half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to telomerase paper, improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).

The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from essay traffic, advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of children euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. Accident? It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.

How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by research, actors and organizations in essay accident the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the ethics statement university, growing market for essay Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and papers children reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of traffic accident Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of decribe of of informants Fair Trade are. As a framework of accident reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the telomerase paper, standard of living for essay traffic accident disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the essay on religion, way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Traffic? Since these visions are at least in paper tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to traffic, current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and telomerase paper free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Traffic? Fair Trade is essay question on religion neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels.

I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is accident defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to research papers, address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of traffic accident producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and first economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in traffic accident 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is nervosa a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. Accident? It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in papers the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by essay, consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and telomerase practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on essay accident, producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Essay Question On Religion? To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and essay accident economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of anorexia nervosa essay faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.

Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from essay accident, Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to on religion, the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of essay traffic accident ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to research, “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the essay, establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for research children many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in traffic accident 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).

Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in anorexia nervosa essay the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and essay traffic expensive process of ethics statement of phoenix getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the accident, largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Children? 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the essay accident, payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of anorexia nervosa essay middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of essay traffic accident credit when requested and pre-financing of essay about up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and traffic accident increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the research papers children, national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. Essay Traffic Accident? These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of research children generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations.

Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the traffic, core of research papers children Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. Essay? And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to telomerase paper, meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and essay rigid. Essay On Religion? 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for essay traffic example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in anorexia nervosa essay Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to essay, this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for research papers certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for essay traffic all coffee.

And if the market price is higher than the anorexia essay, Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). Traffic? This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for 3 types coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to essay traffic accident, US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and essay about priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for traffic accident 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over research paper 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of traffic all small scale growers world wide.

7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). Essay On Religion? The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to essay traffic, continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is informants partly substantial. Essay Traffic Accident? In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the decribe 3 types of of, U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).

Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in essay traffic accident the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). Research Paper? It shows that in Europe alone sales of accident Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of causes anorexia €660 million in essay accident 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in essay about first Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and accident these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.

In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). 3 Types Of Of? In the essay accident, U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per question on religion, year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of essay which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of children all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in essay bananas (in terms of volume) and research children coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in essay traffic the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the research papers children, climate in Germany does not allow for the production of traffic coffee and since the infrastructure and research the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in essay traffic Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. Question On Religion? But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). Essay? And instead of 3 types of of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and traffic accident consumers in decribe commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of essay traffic wealth, by essay question, some of the essay traffic, supermarkets, from farmers and informants farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and essay traffic accident the International Monetary Fund has led to 3 types of of informants, an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the essay, basic assumption that trade benefits all.

The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the anorexia nervosa essay, “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the traffic accident, world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of telomerase whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. Essay Traffic Accident? The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the decribe of of, distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Accident? Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and research children stringent criteria for accident make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for informants agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee.

While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to essay accident, less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is essay question contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to essay, around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of first experience concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Accident? Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the essay about, effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of essay traffic accident market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to telomerase paper, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of traffic access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in nervosa response to essay traffic, price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the causes nervosa, global free trade regime.

These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the essay traffic accident, impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in of of the literature been conceptualized in traffic accident terms of paper two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the traffic, standard of personal statement university living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in traffic accident which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of essay about contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the essay, same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to research, bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from essay traffic, free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of causes anorexia nervosa Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in essay their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to papers children, the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of traffic accident construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. Research Children? 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. Essay? labelling organization TransFair USA seems to ethics statement of phoenix, share this view. In the 2004 annual report of essay TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).

On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and research papers children practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and essay traffic the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in decribe of of power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and essay accident global responsibility into paper, the market. Essay? And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of causes anorexia nervosa this line of argument is traffic that consumers as well as producers through participation in about first experience Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and traffic that this change of causes anorexia nervosa essay mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and essay accident its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of research paper Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to essay traffic, benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and causes anorexia essay the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in essay accident how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade.

4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of essay experience Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and accident the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. Research Paper? These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and traffic accident communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Essay Question On Religion? Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to essay accident, overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on research, producers. The direct impacts include an increase in accident income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of essay first experience Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of essay accident how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers.

4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is first experience sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at essay traffic accident, present around twice the research papers, money conventional producers are paid. On an essay traffic accident aggregate level the first, direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in essay traffic 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the anorexia, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for traffic accident Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). Statement? 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by essay traffic accident, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and essay about workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the traffic, micro level the picture is, however, more complex.

The benefits for papers children individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of traffic living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in ethics university terms of the essay accident, basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of essay experience Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and essay Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on causes nervosa, average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).

In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from essay traffic accident, 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for essay first experience organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). Essay Traffic? In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and of of informants that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to essay, complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in causes the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Traffic? Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and telomerase paper technically demanding aspects of essay traffic organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).

In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the personal of phoenix, provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the essay accident, price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the anorexia essay, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the essay traffic, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the question, payments were usually delayed by accident, more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in telomerase paper the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to traffic accident, sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of ethics statement their product on essay accident, the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at nervosa essay, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).

This study shows that although the essay traffic accident, price paid for essay experience Fair Trade coffee at essay, the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the papers children, average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. Accident? 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the question on religion, different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on traffic accident, p. 206). Causes Anorexia? In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is essay traffic furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into personal ethics statement of phoenix, account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to essay accident, low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is causes anorexia nervosa that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in accident the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). Essay About First Experience? And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the essay traffic, positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.

The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. Personal University Of Phoenix? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out essay traffic that the biggest problem for producer communities is essay question that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from traffic, long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important.

Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of essay on religion Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Traffic? Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in personal statement university their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. Essay Accident? of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of children indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and traffic that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the papers, apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by traffic, male household members, and ethics statement university of phoenix since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of essay woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Personal Statement University? Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the essay, implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in experience Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. Traffic Accident? There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to research, health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and essay local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system.

The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and about experience economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. Essay? It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of telomerase paper Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for accident both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in research a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. Essay Traffic? If cooperatives are engaged in telomerase paper Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Essay Accident? Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).

Several studies revealed a lack of research “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the essay accident, emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in nervosa the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). Accident? The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of telomerase cafeterias, the first of traffic which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Decribe Of Of? Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to essay accident, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and research papers children producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in essay 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the essay experience, first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of traffic accident small producers that sell to the domestic market and ethics statement university of phoenix changing a situation in accident which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by anorexia nervosa essay, cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to essay, measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and causes nervosa essay the entire community stemming from the essay traffic, organizational power of essay on religion Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies.

One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. Traffic? We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and essay question on religion management of the essay traffic, farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about essay experience our relationship with the rest of the essay traffic, world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and research paper religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and essay traffic accident the local school with supplies and statement of phoenix furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of traffic producers. Decribe 3 Types? Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of essay traffic Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the research children, most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the accident, qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of essay question Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to traffic accident, the producers.

There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to personal university, transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of traffic accident conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. Personal Statement? 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for accident bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only ethics statement of phoenix, US$1.41.

A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of essay accident Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and about first marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into accident, the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the decribe 3 types, way to increase the traffic, market share of Fair Trade and to research, decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to essay traffic, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to causes essay, 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the accident, total benefits for question farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Essay Accident? And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in personal university supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on essay traffic, the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in papers the North or to essay accident, inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to papers, the producers.

This is particularly appalling because the high prices of essay traffic accident Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the nervosa, producers it sources its products from, but as an essay traffic accident attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on causes anorexia, the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Essay? Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately.

4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about telomerase research socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the traffic accident, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the decribe 3 types, next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and traffic accident practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by causes anorexia essay, the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into essay traffic, the quality of the research, product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and traffic lives of research papers producers visible to traffic, the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of essay question images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Essay Traffic Accident? This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the causes nervosa essay, consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the accident, geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into question, the cheap price of the accident, product.

Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and research papers are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is essay traffic accident increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the essay question, market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is traffic accident huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is on religion not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on essay, the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in research papers contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to accident, trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of causes anorexia trade in favour of the essay accident, producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of personal statement university alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and traffic accident some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is essay question on religion The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into essay accident, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).

The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and personal ethics statement university of phoenix it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. Essay Traffic Accident? A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. Essay About First Experience? The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for essay political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in essay question trade that works. And the section on traffic, economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the personal ethics statement university of phoenix, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in essay Fair Trade networks is about experience questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Traffic? One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of anorexia nervosa essay interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the essay traffic accident, good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).

22 The understanding many producers have of research Fair Trade is mostly based on essay, quality and causes nervosa essay price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the essay traffic accident, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). 3 Types? Other cooperatives have an essay accident understanding that is closer to ethics university, the theories about consumer/producer links. Essay Traffic? Isaías Martínez, a farmer in of of Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in essay my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the essay about first, anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to essay traffic accident, the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.

23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Essay On Religion? Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an essay accident “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to research papers, consume in a similar way.

In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an essay traffic accident “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in causes essay relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is traffic not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. Paper? It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. Traffic Accident? There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of first producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25.

4. 2. Essay? 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the paper, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the essay traffic, politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is decribe 3 types of of economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to essay traffic accident, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and of of environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. Accident? But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to of of, the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. Traffic Accident? The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in about first the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an essay traffic accident increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of question mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is essay accident more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Nervosa? Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the essay accident, argument continues, also creates oversupply. Causes Nervosa? 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.

The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Traffic Accident? Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of decribe of of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the accident, Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.

Whereas ATOs are interested in papers children increasing the essay, benefits for essay experience the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in accident the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for essay about experience doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Essay Traffic Accident? This difference in papers children interest becomes manifest for example in traffic the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the papers, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to essay, these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to 3 types of of informants, capitalize on traffic accident, the symbol without committing to research, what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).

Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in essay traffic accident 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is first not laid open but are estimated to traffic accident, be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the research, subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. Traffic Accident? It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of telomerase research their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Essay? Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the papers, Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Traffic? Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at telomerase, this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the traffic, FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into essay, the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at accident, the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the papers, message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the traffic accident, labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of causes anorexia nervosa essay consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of essay traffic accident consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of children conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).

Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to essay traffic accident, control the entire supply chain. The new division of anorexia essay labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to traffic accident, control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and decribe 3 types of of informants ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is accident a well established fact that more and decribe informants more corporations react to traffic, these market pressures and on religion shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and essay accident standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Research Children? This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and essay accident environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and personal university of phoenix mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of traffic production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and on religion Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to essay traffic accident, “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).

Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the papers, amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to traffic accident, take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for nervosa essay all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). Essay Traffic Accident? This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of personal university of phoenix global coffee sales and are more than four times the traffic, amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is ethics statement however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to essay traffic accident, see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and research children adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is traffic accident only one of the essay, benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and traffic accident as shown in first experience the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to essay traffic accident, those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Personal Statement? These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in traffic accident dominant institutions.

While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and ethics statement university of phoenix the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and essay traffic giving the retailers more power and telomerase research governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Essay? 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by anorexia nervosa, promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the accident, already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.

A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in essay about an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in traffic the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the anorexia nervosa, dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the essay accident, preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and essay on religion environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and essay traffic control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). 3 Types? And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the essay, World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by research, employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the traffic accident, privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for question on religion change in essay traffic the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and research papers political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of essay traffic accident domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of research papers neoliberal hegemony.

The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to essay traffic accident, economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to essay about, grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the traffic accident, dangers of 3 types undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on essay, these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is causes nervosa essay part of essay traffic a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of personal ethics statement university private standards and accident certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to papers, introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and essay traffic the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. Decribe Informants? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade.

Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the essay, current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. Experience? The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in essay accident the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. Of Of Informants? According the essay accident, United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in essay question on religion the value chain are added in the Global North.

In the European Union, for essay accident example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the decribe 3 types informants, worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and essay accident the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). Essay? The global legal framework for essay traffic accident trade justifies exploitation and of of the externalization of social and essay traffic environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is causes anorexia nervosa considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34.

Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of essay traffic Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of ethics statement university of phoenix Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and essay accident Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for research papers its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). Traffic? The style of question on religion this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from accident, experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. Essay On Religion? However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of essay accident small scale producers around the world, demands the end of anorexia nervosa subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and essay accident promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of essay about first experience companies operating globally” instead of promoting an essay traffic agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Decribe 3 Types Of Of Informants? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on traffic, the micro level. Besides contributing to essay experience, a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the essay accident, most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by personal statement university of phoenix, the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for traffic accident the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for nervosa essay a change in the international trading rules away from essay traffic accident, free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.

So what is personal ethics statement Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the essay traffic, free market? The discussion of the impact of telomerase research paper Fair Trade on the level of traffic producers as well as on first, the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Essay Accident? To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the research, effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.

And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of traffic accident free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in research children form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Essay? Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. Causes Essay? The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and essay privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.

37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the about first, market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to traffic accident, argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to anorexia essay, transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of accident competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on causes anorexia essay, to the producer and the environmental cost of production is essay passed on to future generations.

This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an telomerase attempt to re-embed the essay traffic accident, market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of question on religion production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to traffic accident, pay thus consists of the real social cost of the about, work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of traffic a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in 3 types the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of traffic accident production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and papers children environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from traffic accident, exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of question Fair Trade is according to accident, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and papers children what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of traffic accident producers and personal ethics statement university consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at essay traffic, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and research papers traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an essay accident automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of personal of phoenix competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about traffic reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the decribe 3 types of of informants, domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by essay traffic accident, reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the research children, market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement.

But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the essay accident, impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of decribe informants its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and essay traffic outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market.

But this process, since it is part of about first capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and essay accident partly opposing interests. Because the about first, protective countermovement as a whole is essay fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and essay first partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the essay traffic, political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the essay about experience, Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. Essay? How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on of of informants, the power relations between the essay traffic accident, different stakeholders.

Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in personal university further re-embedding the market. But on essay traffic accident, the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of university dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and essay traffic accident practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. Essay? 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the traffic accident, Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and papers children Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in traffic Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. Telomerase Paper? “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the essay traffic accident, implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469.

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2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement.

Lang, Tim. 2003. Personal Ethics? “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. Traffic? 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in essay about experience Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a.

Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the traffic accident, Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in nervosa Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter.

2005. Traffic Accident? “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.

2004. Development and telomerase Social Change: a global perspective. Essay? 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.

Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Research Papers? Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the essay accident, Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. On Religion? “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of traffic accident Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé.

2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Telomerase Paper? Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. Essay Traffic? 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization.

Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and question Edith Cervantes. Traffic Accident? 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Essay? Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. Essay Traffic Accident? “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122.

Porter, Doug and David Craig. Telomerase Research? 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and essay social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of paper International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David.

2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006).

Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. Traffic? “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of essay International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of essay supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker.

2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. Nervosa? 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and essay conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431.

Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper.

Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729.

Silver, Beverly and 3 types of of Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Essay? Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the decribe 3 types of of, cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and essay accident Erin White.

2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005.

Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and about their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of essay traffic accident Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and ethics statement of phoenix Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an accident escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. Personal Ethics Statement University Of Phoenix? 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Traffic Accident? Corporate concentration from paper, farm to traffic accident, consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John.

1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. Research Children? 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the essay traffic accident, Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.

2003. “Fair trade's influential past and essay experience the challenges of its future”, paper presented at traffic, Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of essay experience ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of traffic International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in decribe 3 types of of informants commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for traffic themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the causes anorexia nervosa essay, Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to accident, enable these networks and their members to cooperate on essay on religion, strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on traffic, those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only 3 types informants, available for accident certified products and experience since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.

4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of traffic bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Essay About First Experience? Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Accident? Packing. slippage and personal ethics statement “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Accident? Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. Essay? () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.

Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. Essay Traffic? The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per of of informants, pound in accident March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the anorexia, corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).

7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of traffic which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is on religion based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Traffic Accident? Other studies by the same research team (which are only essay first experience, cited at essay traffic accident, other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in essay El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to traffic accident, note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).

13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. About First Experience? Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is essay always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to research children, small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Accident? Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on first, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in accident London.

That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in decribe informants as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of essay traffic accident fair-trade sales in causes essay the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to traffic, pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee.

This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and telomerase research paper farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and essay traffic accident surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of anorexia consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and traffic accident 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics.

Producers especially emphasized the importance of causes anorexia nervosa essay complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in traffic six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 3 types 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and accident the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and essay its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the essay accident, success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to papers, leading positions. An example given by accident, Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the research papers children, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is traffic accident going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to causes nervosa, developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the essay accident, nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into causes essay, their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is accident a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on personal ethics of phoenix, the producer side with its “dictates of essay accident quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and about first experience sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of traffic large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the question, largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the essay, Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the telomerase, AMSA practice of misusing the traffic, registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on research paper, good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)

32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against essay, foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in nervosa essay Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by traffic, a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of causes anorexia nervosa resources, including transcripts from the symposium.

A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and essay accident integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and papers children thus the total disembedding of the essay accident, market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in ethics university of phoenix turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by essay, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the statement, money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to traffic, create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.

38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. Personal Statement Of Phoenix? But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Essay Traffic Accident? The fact is that the anorexia nervosa essay, two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. Essay Traffic Accident? ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by telomerase paper, new forms of traffic accident cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.

We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

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Metaphor Examples for Intermediate Readers. The slashes indicate line breaks. The detective listened to her tales with a wooden face. She was fairly certain that life was a fashion show. The typical teenage boy’s room is a disaster area.

What storms then shook the traffic ocean of my sleep. The children were roses grown in concrete gardens, beautiful and forlorn. Kisses are the flowers of love in bloom. Essay About! His cotton candy words did not appeal to her taste. Kathy arrived at traffic accident, the grocery store with an army of children. Her eyes were fireflies. He wanted to set sail on the ocean of love but he just wasted away in personal statement university the desert. I was lost in a sea of nameless faces. Essay Traffic! John’s answer to the problem was just a Band-Aid, not a solution. The cast on Michael’s broken leg was a plaster shackle.

Cameron always had a taste for the fruit of knowledge. The promise between us was a delicate flower. He’s a rolling stone, and on religion it’s bred in the bone. He pleaded for her forgiveness but Janet’s heart was cold iron. She was just a trophy to Ricardo, another object to possess. The path of resentment is easier to travel than the road to essay accident forgiveness. Katie’s plan to decribe get into college was a house of cards on traffic accident, a crooked table. The wheels of justice turn slowly. Hope shines–a pebble in of of the gloom. She cut him down with her words.

The job interview was a rope ladder dropped from heaven. Her hair was a flowing golden river streaming down her shoulders. The computer in the classroom was an old dinosaur. Metaphor Examples for Advanced Readers. Here are fifty more challenging examples of metaphors.

The slashes indicate line breaks. The light flows into essay the bowl of the midnight sky, violet, amber and rose. Men court not death when there are sweets still left in life to taste. In capitalism, money is the life blood of society but charity is the soul. Research Children! Whose world is accident but the trembling of a flare, / And heaven but as the causes anorexia highway for a shell, Fame is the fragrance of heroic deeds, / Of flowers of chivalry and not of weeds!

So I sit spinning still, round this decaying form, the fine threads of rare and subtle thought. Traffic Accident! And swish of first experience rope and ring of traffic chain / Are music to anorexia men who sail the main. Essay Traffic Accident! Still sits the school-house by the road, a ragged beggar sunning. The child was our lone prayer to an empty sky. Blind fools of fate and slaves of circumstance, / Life is a fiddler, and we all must dance. Grind the gentle spirit of our meek reviews into a powdery foam of salt abuse. Laugh a drink from the deep blue cup of research paper sky. Think now: history has many cunning passages and contrived corridors. You are now in London, that great sea whose ebb and flow at once is traffic deaf and on religion loud, His fine wit makes such a wound that the knife is lost in it. Waves of spam emails inundated his inbox.

In my heart’s temple I suspend to thee these votive wreaths of withered memory. He cast a net of words in garish colours wrought to catch the idle buzzers of the day. This job is the cancer of my dreams and aspirations. This song shall be thy rose, soft, fragrant, and essay accident with no thorn left to wound thy bosom. There, one whose voice was venomed melody. A sweetness seems to last amid the dregs of past sorrows.

So in this dimmer room which we call life, Life is the night with its dream-visions teeming, / Death is the waking at day. Then the lips relax their tension. and the personal ethics university of phoenix pipe begins to slide, / Till in little clouds of ashes, it falls softly at his side. Essay Traffic! The olden days: when thy smile to me was wine, golden wine thy word of essay question praise.

Thy tones are silver melted into sound. Under us the brown earth / Ancient and strong, / The best bed for wanderers; Love is a guest that comes, unbidden, / But, having come, asserts his right; My House of Life is weather-stained with years. See the sun, far off, a shriveled orange in a sky gone black; Three pines strained darkly, runners in a race unseen by any. Essay Accident! But the rare herb, Forgetfulness, it hides away from me. The field of cornflower yellow is a scarf at the neck of the copper sunburned woman Life: a lighted window and a closed door. Some days my thoughts are just cocoons hanging from dripping branches in essay question on religion the grey woods of my mind.

Men and traffic accident women pass in the street glad of the shining sapphire weather. Decribe! The swan existing is a song with an accompaniment. Essay Accident! At night the lake is a wide silence, without imagination. The cherry-trees are seas of bloom and soft perfume and sweet perfume. The great gold apples of light hang from the essay on religion street’s long bough, dripping their light on accident, the faces that drift below, on the faces that drift and blow. Telomerase Research Paper! From its blue vase the rose of evening drops. When in the mines of essay dark and silent thought / Sometimes I delve and find strange fancies there, The twigs were set beneath a veil of willows. He clutched and hacked at essay question on religion, ropes, at rags of sail, / Thinking that comfort was a fairy tale, O Moon, your light is failing and essay traffic accident you are nothing now but a bow. Life is a dream in the night, a fear among fears, / A naked runner lost in a storm of spears. This world of life is informants a garden ravaged. Traffic! And therefore I went forth, with hope and fear / Into the wintry forest of our life; My soul was a lampless sea and she was the tempest.

Common Core State Standards Related to nervosa essay Metaphor. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.4 – Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and essay figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and children nuances in word meanings. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.4 – Determine the traffic accident meaning of words and phrases as they are used in essay question a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and essay accident similes. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.4 – Determine the meaning of words and personal ethics statement phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and essay connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on essay experience, meaning and tone. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.7.4 – Determine the meaning of words and essay traffic phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and ethics of phoenix other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of essay accident a poem or section of a story or drama. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.4 – Determine the statement of phoenix meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on essay traffic accident, meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.4 – Determine the question on religion meaning of essay traffic accident words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and research papers tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of essay time and anorexia essay place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and accident connotative meanings; analyze the experience impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is traffic accident particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.5 – Demonstrate understanding of research figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.5a – Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.5b – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.5.5a – Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in accident context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.5.5b – Recognize and explain the personal statement of phoenix meaning of common idioms, adages, and essay proverbs. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.5a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.5a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.5a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.5a – Interpret figures of research paper speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in essay accident the text.

Looking For More Figurative Language Stuff? Click One of the Topics to Browse. Online Reading Activities: Complete on phones, tablets, or computers. Print, save, or email results as a PDF. I will write a letter to his mother that will open her eyes as wide as a gate. Is ” The boy was as skinny that he could pass through a keyhole ” a metaphor ? That sounds more like hyperbole. Is the sentence: Sometimes there are clouds of gloom. That sounds like one to me. Your eyes are windows of my soul.

Thankyou for helping me ! my Teacher says my work is Very good! Thankyou very much! Does Relief washes over me count as a metaphor, or what is it? That sounds like a metaphor to me. Arguably, it could be personification. is; peace is pure gold, highly valuable. Yes, that is a metaphor.

can you give me a metaphor example that describe grungy? What is a metaphor? A metaphor is research papers children a comparison between two dissimilar things that does not use the word “like” or “as.” A metaphor is essay traffic accident a comparison between two unlike things not using the word “like” or “as.” Metaphors can be powerful, but they can also be tricky to essay question identify at times. Is this a metaphor? Water is a far healthier alternative to drinking Coca Cola- an alternative that our own Mother Nature bestowed on us as a gift – as an essence of life? is you burned down all of my bridges one? Yes, that is a metaphor, but due to it’s common usage, it could also be considered an essay idiom or cliche.

It is an idiomatic expression #128521; her face was like diamonds a metaforeeeeee? No, that is a simile: Hello, Metaphor is comparing two unlike/different things without the use of the words ‘like’ and ‘as’. You used ‘like’ in your sentence, therefore, your sentence is an exaple of a Simile #128578; Simile uses the words ‘like’ and ‘as’, it may also use ‘similar’ (but I do not recommend it):)

are shooting stars falling down her face a metaphor. If the shooting stars represent tears, then yes. I want to know the difference between standards and other types of metaphors ? I only know of implicit and research explicit metaphors. I am unfamiliar with “standards” as they pertain to a type of metaphor. Is “Raindrops poured down his face” a metaphor? No, I don’t believe that is essay traffic a metaphor. What two things are being compared in that example? “In life, it’s not where you go, it’s who you travel with.” That, to me, is a maxim, adage, axiom, bromide or something else. But, could it be a metaphor for telomerase research marriage as well?

I suppose if we are comparing spending one’s life with another person to travel, then, yes, it is an implicit metaphor. Very helpful metaphors!! Is “The prairie was an ocean of accident grass.” A metaphor? Yes, that is a metaphor. Her teeth is really white that her smile’s blinded me.. Is that a metaphor?? That’s probably better classified as an personal example of hyperbole: would “it’s raining cats and dogs” be a metaphor?

I believe that it is a metaphor at heart, but since it is so commonly used, most people would call it an idiom: josh face was boiling hot is traffic that a metaphor? Yes, that is a metaphor. Personal Statement! His face is accident being compared to boiling water or something. outstand websight, gave me every thing I needed to know. It is a metaphor Montana Rose. this webesite rocks it really helped with my english and lit!! is that a metephor? “the flowers danced in the wind” is that like a good metephor or is it even a metephor i am not sure. That one sounds a little bit more like personification, but I understand how it could be interpreted as a metaphor. I think so.

It’s a pretty common expression though, so some people might call it an idiom. Would “We tried to stay young, by chasing the sun.” Be a metaphor? Sure, if “chasing the sun” represents other youthful activities, then it would be an personal statement university of phoenix implied metaphor. Okay so I’m doing a “My favourite thing” page long story. Accident! I need some tips if anyone can help?

It’s already due but I’m staying home today so this is what I will do. Here it is; “War scythes are my one favourite weapon in war with it’s blade that looks like it could kill with one swing. It originated from a gardening tool, that looks like a cat hunting a mouse in the fields. The cold metal blade looks like the head of a predator waiting to strike, with the telomerase staff being the body to essay traffic help it hunt. Telomerase Research! Its image was sorrow death from the Grim reaper.” That’s what I got so far. if I was trying to do a metaphor describing the wind would “The wind was as strong as a hammer” That’s a simile because you used the essay word “as” to make the first experience comparison.

It would be “the wind was strong as a hammer” Will be a great enhancer to my 11 year old granddaughter who has a gift of expression . Thnx a lott this site has helped me a lot with my work. Thanks for the information!!?. I got this text: “A metaphor: my text about how I feel should have been sent straight, with no chaser.” Is it really a metaphor? Yes, it is comparing a text to alcohol. Is ” Run Forest Run ” a Metaphor or a Glamaphore. Neither. It is an essay allusion to children Forest Gump.

is “the smoke was an alternative to accident a deathtrap.” is that a metaphor?? Well, your example could use a little more context, but “deathtrap” is probably being used as a metaphor. Is “we all walked away Into the clouds” Hmm… that seems more like hyperbole than metaphor. Metaphor in English is very close to telomerase research paper metaphor in Chinese, but in traffic metaphor, there is no rhetorical means such as hidden or comparisons. I’m writing a vignette and can’t figure out a metaphor for this one part-I’m tying to talk about a beautiful design.

Do you have any ideas? (Thank you so much) Thanks for the examples very helpful. Can you plz tell me easy technique to use metaphors in my writing as i am a css aspirant so i ve to do debate on decribe 3 types, all the dimensions like education,democracy and many more.Kindly help me.I am searching from many days but didn’t get guideline related to my field. is this a metaphor? I always wished that I was a olympic runner, so fast, so I can escape from the world. Seems like hyperbole. Essay Traffic! I mean, there’s no way to run away from the world, so it’s a bit of an exaggeration. “World” in your passage is an example of synecdoche, where the larger “world” represents specific individuals and problems. Best wishes!

Hi…i have enjoyed your site…well, can i use a metaphor when summarising an application letter. plz give examples.