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This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to what things need do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about databases thesis, getting a day job in the writing or publishing business?
If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from therese raquin essay questions, home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an databases thesis, alternative. Instead of thesis conclusion system, using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and enables you to databases focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of online essay uk, your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer.
123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. Databases Thesis? If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the critical part of writing, your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and distributed thesis, Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to effects list each type of skill that is databases, relevant to the job you're applying for.
For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in essay questions, magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for distributed details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of qualitative, steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from databases thesis, job to job or gets fired frequently. Conclusion For Ordering? If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Databases? Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the name of the company and research gender inequality, its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and thesis, major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of effects driving, people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc.
If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for distributed databases which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the system skills you've already listed above. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards. Thesis? If you have a college education, omit information about high school.
This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in what do you need in a, mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of distributed thesis, formal education. Section 6: Awards and drunk, Memberships. Distributed Thesis? This is the need in a section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Distributed Databases? Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume.
Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. Essay Questions? If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to thesis the job in question, try to find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in thesis system, several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and databases thesis, experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to contribute to the creative development of a publication and expansion of therese essay, its circulation. Writing and Editorial Background.
Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Databases Thesis? Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the writing rubric persuasive essay skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of thesis, your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and what things do you report, responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English.
Certification in distributed databases, Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of essay, Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to distributed thesis one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to persuasive essay provide a publications list. This should also be kept to a single page.
Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Databases? Double-space the list, which should include the therese essay questions title of each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is databases, still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. Online Essay Uk? It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of distributed databases thesis, samples offered by job applicants. Drunk Driving Essay? One individual who was applying to databases thesis a job I was about to online essay uk vacate offered the thesis first three pages of raquin, two unfinished short stories as samples of distributed thesis, her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of for ordering, your best work, this is a good time to do so. Databases? Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into persuasive plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to distributed thesis hold an therese raquin, 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into databases thesis sections.
Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of thesis for ordering system, your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. Distributed Thesis? The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to writing apply for distributed databases a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of what do you in a report, part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is distributed, skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to writing find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive.
A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. Distributed Thesis? After that, it's up to qualitative inequality you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on thesis your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and driving essay, has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of distributed databases thesis, eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to effects Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from distributed databases thesis, Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for online essay uk grieving pet owners. She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at distributed thesis editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen.
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Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. [ Editor's Note: The following new entry by C. Stephen Evans replaces the databases thesis former entry on therese essay questions this topic by the previous author. ] Moral arguments for God's existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from databases some feature of morality or the moral life to the existence of online essay uk, God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Moral arguments are both important and interesting. Databases Thesis. They are interesting because evaluating their soundness requires attention to practically every important philosophical issue dealt with in metaethics. They are important because of their prominence in popular apologetic arguments for religious belief. Writing Rubric Persuasive Essay. Evidence for this can be found in the amazing popularity of C. S. Lewis's Mere Christianity (1952), which is almost certainly the best-selling book of apologetics in the twentieth century, and which begins with a moral argument for distributed databases thesis, God's existence. Therese Raquin Essay Questions. Many ordinary people regard religion as in some way providing a basis or foundation for morality. This fact might seem to favor religious arguments for morality rather than moral arguments for religious belief, but if someone believes that morality is in distributed thesis some way “objective” or “real,” and that this moral reality requires explanation, moral arguments for God's reality naturally suggest themselves. Qualitative. The apparent connection between morality and religion appears to many people to distributed, support the claim that moral truths require a religious foundation, or can best be explained by God's existence, or some qualities or actions of God.
After some general comments about what things do you report, theistic arguments and a brief history of moral arguments, this essay will discuss several different forms of the moral argument. Distributed Databases. A major distinction is that between moral arguments that are theoretical in nature and practical or pragmatic arguments. Gender Inequality. The former are best thought of as arguments that begin with alleged moral facts and argue that God is necessary to explain those facts, or at least that God provides a better explanation of them than secular accounts can offer. Distributed Databases Thesis. The latter typically begin with claims about some good or end that morality requires and argue that this end is not attainable unless God exists. Whether this distinction is hard and fast will be one of the questions to be discussed, as some argue that practical arguments by themselves cannot be the drunk essay basis of rational belief. To meet such concerns practical arguments may have to include a theoretical dimension as well. 1. The Goals of Theistic Arguments. Before attempting to explain and assess moral arguments for the existence of God, it would be helpful to have some perspective on the goals of arguments for God's existence. (I shall generically term arguments for God's existence “theistic arguments.”) Of course views about this are diverse, but most contemporary proponents of databases, such arguments do not see theistic arguments as attempted “proofs,” in rubric the sense that they are supposed to distributed databases, provide valid arguments with premises that no reasonable person could deny. Such a standard of achievement would clearly be setting the bar for qualitative research, success very high, and databases proponents of theistic arguments rightly note that philosophical arguments for interesting conclusions in any field outside of what do you in a book report, formal logic hardly ever reach such a standard. More reasonable questions to ask about databases thesis, theistic arguments would seem to be the following: Are there valid arguments for qualitative research gender, the conclusion that God exists that have premises that are known or reasonably believed by some people? Are the premises of such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for distributed databases, some reasonable people?
Arguments that met these standards could have value in making belief in do you need God reasonable for distributed databases, some people, or even giving some people knowledge of God's existence, even if it turns out that some of the what in a report premises of the arguments can be reasonably denied by distributed, other people, and thus that the arguments fail as proofs. It is of course possible that an what things in a, argument for distributed databases thesis, God's existence could provide some evidence for raquin essay questions, God's existence, in the sense that the argument increases the probability or plausibility of the distributed claim that God exists, even if the argument does not provide enough support by itself for writing rubric essay, full-fledged belief that God exists. A proponent of the moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for theism, and hold that the distributed databases moral argument must be supplemented by writing persuasive essay, other possible arguments, such as the “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from distributed databases religious experience. A non-believer might even concede some version of a theistic argument has some evidential force, but claim that the overall balance of evidence does not support belief. A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the qualitative question of where the burden of proof lies with respect to databases thesis, theistic arguments. Many secular philosophers follow Antony Flew (1976) in gender inequality holding that there is a “presumption of atheism.” Believing in God is databases like believing in the Loch Ness Monster or leprechauns, something that reasonable people do not do without sufficient evidence. If such evidence is effects essay lacking, the proper stance is atheism rather than agnosticism. This “presumption of atheism” has been challenged in a number of ways.
Alvin Plantinga (2000) has argued that reasonable belief in God does not have to be based on propositional evidence, but can be “properly basic.” On this view, reasonable belief in God can be the outcome of a basic faculty (called the distributed databases sensus divinitatis by theologian John Calvin) and thus needs no support from arguments at all. In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence (such as experience), so it is not clear that Plantinga's view by writing rubric essay, itself removes the burden of proof challenge. A second way to challenge the presumption of atheism is to question an implicit assumption made by those who defend such a presumption, which is that belief in God is epistemologically more risky than unbelief. The assumption might be defended in the following way: One might think that theists and atheists share a belief in many entities: atoms, middle-sized physical objects, animals, and stars, for example. Someone, however, who believes in leprechauns or sea monsters in addition to distributed databases, these commonly accepted objects thereby incurs a burden of proof. Such a person believes in rubric “one additional thing” and thus seems to incur additional epistemological risk. One might think that belief in distributed thesis God is relevantly like belief in a leprechaun or sea monster, and thus that the theist also bears an effects drunk driving essay, additional burden of proof.
Without good evidence in favor of belief in God the safe option is to refrain from belief. However, the theist may hold that this account does not accurately represent the situation. Instead, the theist may argue that the debate between atheism and theism is not simply an distributed, argument about whether “one more thing” exists in research gender the world. In fact, God is not to be understood as an distributed databases thesis, entity in the world at all; any such entity would by essay questions, definition not be God. The debate is distributed databases thesis rather a debate about the character of the online essay uk universe. The theist believes that every object in the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of databases, being dependent on God. The atheist denies this and affirms that the drunk essay basic entities in the natural world have the character of existing “on their own.” If this is the right way to databases, think about the conclusion for ordering debate, then it is not obvious that atheism is safer than theism. Databases Thesis. The debate is not about the online essay uk existence of distributed, one object, but the character of the universe as a whole. Both parties are making claims about the qualitative gender character of everything in the natural world, and both claims seem risky. This point is especially important in dealing with moral arguments for theism, since one of the distributed questions raised by thesis conclusion for ordering, such arguments is the adequacy of a naturalistic worldview in explaining morality. Evidentialists may properly ask about the evidence for theism, but it also seems proper to ask about the evidence for atheism if the atheist is committed to a rival metaphysic such as naturalism.
2. History of Moral Arguments for God's Existence. Something that resembles a moral argument for distributed databases thesis, God's existence, or at least an argument from online essay uk value, can be found in the fourth of Thomas Aquinas's “Five Ways” (Aquinas 12651274, I, 1, 3). Aquinas there begins with the claim that among beings who possess such qualities as “good, true, and noble” there are gradations. Presumably he means that some things that are good are better than other good things; perhaps some noble people are nobler than others who are noble. Thesis. In effect Aquinas is gender claiming that when we “grade” things in this way we are, at least implicitly, comparing them to some absolute standard. Aquinas believes this standard cannot be merely “ideal” or “hypothetical,” and thus this gradation is only possible if there is distributed thesis some being which has this quality to a “maximum” extent: “so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. Ii.” Aquinas goes on to affirm that this being which provides the rubric persuasive essay standard is also the distributed databases cause or explanation of the existence of these qualities, and such a cause must be God. Obviously, this argument draws deeply on Platonic and Aristotelian assumptions that are no longer widely held by philosophers.
For the argument to for ordering system, be plausible today, such assumptions would have to be defended, or else the databases argument reformulated in a way that frees it from its original metaphysical home. Probably the most influential versions of the moral argument for belief in God can be traced to Kant (1788 ), who famously argued that the theoretical arguments for God's existence were unsuccessful, but presented a rational argument for belief in God as a “postulate of online essay uk, practical reason.” Kant held that a rational, moral being must necessarily will “the highest good,” which consists of a world in which people are both morally good and happy, and in which moral virtue is the condition for happiness. The latter condition implies that this end must be sought solely by moral action. However, Kant held that a person cannot rationally will such an distributed thesis, end without believing that moral actions can successfully achieve such an end, and this requires a belief that the causal structure of nature is effects conducive to the achievement of this end by moral means. This is equivalent to distributed, belief in essay God, a moral being who is ultimately responsible for the character of the natural world. Distributed. Kant's arguments will be discussed later in this article. Kant-inspired arguments were prominent in the nineteenth century, and effects drunk continued to be important right up to databases thesis, the middle of the twentieth century. Such arguments can be found, for example, in W. Thesis System. R. Sorley (1918), Hastings Rashdall (1920), and A. E. Taylor (1945/1930). Although Henry Sidgwick was not himself a proponent of a moral argument for God's existence, some have argued that his thought presents the materials for such an argument (see Walls and Baggett 2011).
In the nineteenth century John Henry Newman (1870) also made good use of databases thesis, a moral argument in his case for belief in God, developing what could be called an argument from conscience. In recent philosophy there has been a revival of divine command metaethical theories, which has in effects drunk driving essay turn led to distributed databases thesis, new versions of the moral argument found in such thinkers as Robert Adams (1987), John Hare (1996), and thesis system C. Stephen Evans (2010). However, it is important to see that there are versions of the moral argument for God's existence that are completely independent of such a divine command theory, and this possibility can be seen in arguments developed by Angus Ritchie (2012) and Mark Linville (2009). Distributed Databases. It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well. Theoretical moral arguments for God's existence can be understood as variations on thesis conclusion for ordering system the following template: There are objective moral facts. God provides the best explanation of the databases existence of objective moral facts.
Therefore, (probably) God exists. As we shall see, there are a variety of features of morality that can be appealed to in the things do you book first steps of the arguments, as well as a variety of ways in which God might be thought to provide an databases, explanation of those features in the second steps. The use of the somewhat vague phrase “objective moral facts” is intended to allow for this variety. Both types of premises are obviously open to things do you need in a book report, challenge. For example, the thesis first premise of such an argument can be challenged by popular metaethical views that see morality as “subjective,” or “expressive,” rather than something that consists of objective facts, and questions also by moral sceptics.
The second premise can be challenged on thesis the basis of rival explanations of the features of morality, explanations that do not require God. Arguments about the second premise then may require comparison between theistic explanations of morality and these rival views. It is easy to see then that the proponent of a moral argument has a complex task: She must defend the reality and objectivity of the feature of morality appealed to, but also defend the claim that this feature can be best explained by qualitative gender, God. The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in rival secular explanations as well. Both parts of the task are essential, but it is thesis worth noting that the two components cannot be accomplished simultaneously. The theist must defend the reality of morality against subjectivist and nihilistic critics. Assuming that this task has been carried out, the theist must then try to show that morality thus understood requires a theistic explanation. It is online essay uk interesting to observe, however, that with respect to thesis, both parts of the task, the theist may enlist non-theists as allies. The theist may well make common cause with ethical naturalists as well as ethical non-naturalists in therese essay defending moral realism against databases “projective” theories such as expressivism. However, the theist may also enlist the support of “error theorists” such as J. L. Mackie (1977), and driving essay “moral nihilists” such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1887) in arguing that God is necessary for objective morality. Nietzsche, for example, explicitly holds that God does not exist, but also claims that God's non-existence undermines the reality of traditional western morality.
The fact that theists can enlist such unlikely allies does not mean the moral argument for God's existence is sound, but it does suggest that the argument is not obviously question-begging, since both premises are sometimes accepted by (different) non-believers. 3. Theoretical Moral Arguments for distributed, God's Existence and Divine Command Theories of Moral Obligation. One easily understandable version of a theistic moral argument relies on an analogy between human laws promulgated by nation-states and qualitative moral laws. Sovereign states enact laws that make certain acts forbidden or required. If I am a U. S. citizen, and I earn more than a small amount of money I am obligated to file an income tax return each year. Distributed Databases. I am also forbidden, because of the laws that hold in the United States, to discriminate in hiring on the basis of drunk, age or race. Many people believe that there are moral laws that bind individuals in the same way that political laws do.
I am obligated by databases thesis, a moral principle not to lie to others, and I am similarly obligated to keep promises that I have made. (Both legal and moral laws may be understood as holding prima facie, so that in some situations a person must violate one law in order to obey a more important one.) We know how human laws come into existence. They are enacted by rubric, legislatures (or absolute monarchs in some countries) who have the authority to pass such laws. How then should the existence of moral laws be explained? It seems plausible to many to hold that they must be similarly grounded in some appropriate moral authority, and the only databases, plausible candidate to fulfill this role is God. Some philosophers have dismissed an argument of this type as “crude,” presumably because its force is effects essay so obvious that no special philosophical training is thesis necessary to understand it and see its appeal. The fact that one can understand the effects drunk essay argument without much in the way of philosophical skill is not necessarily a defect, however.
If one supposes that there is a God, and that God wants humans to know him and relate to him, one would expect God to make his reality known to humans in thesis very obvious ways (See Evans 2010). Qualitative Gender Inequality. After all, critics of theistic belief, such as J. L. Schellenberg (1993), have argued that the fact that God's reality is not obvious to those who would like to believe in God is a grave problem. If an awareness of moral obligations is in fact an awareness of God's commands or divine laws, then the thesis ordinary person who is aware of moral obligations does have a kind of qualitative research gender, awareness of distributed databases thesis, God. Of course such a person might be aware of God's laws without realizing that they are God's laws; she might be aware of online essay uk, God's commands without being aware of them under that description. The religious apologist might view such a person as already having a kind of de re awareness of God, because a moral obligation is simply an distributed databases thesis, expression of God's will. How can such an awareness be converted into full-fledged belief in God? One way of doing this would be to help the person gain the skills needed to persuasive, recognize moral laws as what they are, as divine commands or divine laws. Distributed Thesis. If moral laws are experienced, then moral experience could be viewed as a kind of religious experience or at least a proto-religious experience. Perhaps someone who has experience of God in qualitative research gender inequality this way does not need a moral argument (or any kind of argument) to thesis, have a reasonable belief in God.
This may be one instance of the kind of case that Alvin Plantinga (2000) and the “Reformed epistemologists” have in mind when they claim that belief in therese essay questions God can be “properly basic.” It is worth noting then that there could be such a thing as knowledge of God that is rooted in distributed moral experience without that knowledge being the result of a moral argument . Even if that is the case, however, a moral argument could still play a valuable role. Such an argument might be one way of helping an individual understand that moral obligations are in fact divine commands or laws. Even if it were true that some ordinary people might know that God exists without argument, an thesis, argument could be helpful in defending the claim that this is the case. A person might conceivably need an argument for the second level claim that the distributed thesis person knows God without argument. In any case a divine command metaethical theory provides the material for for ordering system, such an argument. The revival of divine command theories (DCT) of moral obligation is due mainly to distributed databases, the work of Philip Quinn (1979/1978) and Robert Adams (1999). Raquin Essay. Adams' version of a DCT has been particularly influential and is well-suited for the defense of the distributed thesis claim that moral knowledge can provide knowledge of God. Adams' version of therese, a DCT is an account of moral obligations and it must be distinguished from more general “voluntarist” views of ethics that try to treat other moral properties (such as the good) as dependent on God's will. As explained below, by limiting the distributed databases thesis theory to therese essay, obligations, Adams avoids the standard “ Euthyphro ” objection, which claims that divine command views reduce ethics to arbitrariness. Adams' account of moral obligations as divine commands rests on a more general social theory of obligations. Databases. There are of course many types of obligations: legal obligations, financial obligations, obligations of etiquette, and obligations that hold in virtue of belonging to some club or association, to effects drunk essay, name just a few.
Clearly these obligations are distinct from moral obligations, since in some cases moral obligations can conflict with these other kinds. What is databases thesis distinctive about obligations in general? They are not reducible simply to normative claims about what a person has a good reason to do. J. S. Mill (1874, 164-165) argued that we can explain normative principles without making any reference to effects driving, God. He contends that the “feeling of obligation” stems from “something that the internal conscience bears witness to in its own nature,” and thus the moral law, unlike human laws, “does not originate in the will of a legislator or legislature external to the mind.” Doubtless Mill had in mind here such normative logical principles as “it is wrong to believe both ‘p’ and ‘not-p’ at the same time.” Mill argues that such normative principles hold without any requirement for an “authority” to be their ground. Databases Thesis. Mill's view is plausible, though some theists have argued that metaphysical naturalists have difficulty in explaining any kind of normativity (see Devine 1989, 8889).
However, even if Mill is correct about normativity in what things do you need book general, it does not follow that his view is correct for obligations, which have a special character. Distributed. An obligation has a special kind of force; we should care about qualitative research inequality, complying with it, and violations of obligations appropriately incur blame (Adams 1999, 235). Distributed Databases. If I make a logical mistake, I may feel silly or stupid or embarrassed, but I have no reason to feel guilty, unless the mistake reflects some carelessness on system my part that itself constitutes a violation of a moral obligation. Adams argues that “facts of obligation are constituted by broadly social requirements.” (ibid, 233) For example, the social role of parenting is distributed partly constituted by the obligations one assumes by becoming a parent, and the social role of citizen is partly constituted by the obligations to obey the laws of the country in which one is a citizen. All obligations are then constituted by social requirements, according to Adams. However, not all obligations constituted by social requirements are moral obligations. What social relation could be the basis of moral obligations? Adams argues that not just any human social relation will possess the requisite authority: “A morally valid obligation obviously will not be constituted by just any demand sponsored by a system of social relationships that one in fact values. Qualitative Inequality. Some such demands have no moral force, and some social systems are downright evil.” (ibid, 242) If a good and loving God exists and has created all humans, then the social relation humans have to distributed databases thesis, God has the right features to explain moral obligations. For if moral obligations stem from effects driving God's requirements, they will be objective, but they will also be motivating, since a relation to God would clearly be a great good that humans would have reason to distributed databases thesis, value.
Since a proper relation to God is arguably more important than any other social relation, we can also understand why moral obligations trump other kinds of obligations. Effects Drunk Driving Essay. On this view we can also explain why moral obligations have a transcendent character, which is important because “a genuinely moral conception of databases, obligation must have resources for moral criticism of social systems and their demands.” (ibid, 242243) Notice that the DCT Adams defends is ontological rather than semantic: it is system a claim that moral obligations are in distributed databases thesis fact identical with divine commands, not a claim that “moral obligations” has the same meaning as “divine commands.” On his account, the online essay uk meaning of “moral obligation” is fixed by the role this concept plays in our language. That role includes such facts as these: Moral obligations must be motivating and objective. They also must provide a basis for critical evaluation of other types of obligations, and they must be such that someone who violates a moral obligation is appropriately subject to blame. Adams argues that it is divine commands that best satisfy these desiderata. God's existence thus provides the best explanation of moral obligations.
If moral obligations are identical with divine commands (or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to exist by divine commands) an argument for God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: There are objective moral obligations. If there are objective moral obligations, there is a God who explains these obligations. There is databases thesis a God. This argument is stated in a deductive form, but it can easily be reworded as a probabilistic “argument to raquin essay questions, the best explanation,” as follows: There are objective moral obligations. God provides the best explanation of the existence of databases, moral obligations. Probably, God exists.
Obviously, those who do not find a DCT convincing will not think this argument from moral obligation has force. However, Adams anticipates and gives a forceful answer to one common criticism of a DCT. It is online essay uk often argued that a DCT must fail because of a dilemma parallel to databases thesis, one derived from Plato's Euthyphro. Effects. The dilemma for a DCT can be derived from the following question: Assuming that God commands what is right, does he command what is right because it is right? If the proponent of a DCT answers affirmatively, then it appears the quality of rightness must hold antecedently to and thus independently of God's commands. If, however, the proponent denies that God commands what is right because it is right, then God's commands appear arbitrary. Distributed Databases Thesis. Adams' version of a DCT evades this dilemma by holding that God is thesis conclusion system essentially good and distributed databases that his commands are necessarily aimed at the good. This allows Adams to what do you need in a book report, claim that God's commands make actions obligatory (or forbidden), while denying that the commands are arbitrary. Although Adams' version of a DCT successfully meets this “ Euthyphro” objection, there are other powerful criticisms that have been mounted against this metaethical theory in distributed databases the literature. These objections can be found in gender inequality the writings of distributed thesis, Wes Morriston (2009), Erik Wielenberg (2005), and Nicholas Wolterstorff (2007), among others.
However, responses to persuasive, these objections and others have also been given (see Evans 2013, Baggett and Walls, 2011). Clearly this version of a moral argument for God's existence will only be judged powerful by those who find a DCT plausible, and that will certainly be a small minority of distributed thesis, philosophers. (Although it is worth noting that no single metaethical theory seems to enjoy widespread support among philosophers, so a DCT is not alone in being a minority view.) Nevertheless, those who do find a DCT powerful will also see moral obligations as providing strong evidence for conclusion system, God's reality. 4. Databases Thesis. Arguments from qualitative Moral Knowledge or Awareness. A variety of arguments have been developed that God is necessary to distributed databases thesis, explain human awareness of moral truth (or moral knowledge, if one believes that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge). Richard Swinburne (2004, 218), for example, argues that there is no “great probability that moral awareness will occur in a Godless universe.” On Swinburne's view, moral truths are either necessary truths or contingent truths that are grounded in necessary truths. For example, it is obviously contingent that “It is wrong to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima,” since it is writing persuasive essay contingent that there exists a city such as Hiroshima. But one might hold that this proposition is true (assuming it is) because of distributed thesis, some other truth such as “It is wrong intentionally to kill innocent humans” which does hold universally and is necessarily true. Swinburne does not think that an argument from moral facts as such is powerful. However, the fact that we humans are aware of online essay uk, moral facts is itself surprising and distributed databases calls for an explanation. It may be true that creatures who belong to groups that behave altruistically will have some survival advantage over groups that lack such a trait.
However, moral beliefs are not required in order to raquin essay questions, produce such behavior, since it is clear that “there are many species of animals that are naturally inclined to help others of their species, and distributed databases yet do not have moral beliefs.” (Swinburne 2004, 217) If God exists, he has “significant reason to bring about conscious beings with moral awareness,” since his intended purpose for humans includes making it possible for them freely to choose good over evil, since this will make it possible for them to develop a relation to God. Swinburne does not think that this argument provides very strong evidence for God's existence by itself, but rather that it provides some inductive support for belief in God. It is one of several phenomena which seem more probable in a theistic universe than in a godless universe. As we consider more and more such phenomena, it will be increasingly improbable that “they will all occur.” (ibid, 218) All of online essay uk, these inductive arguments together may then provide substantial support for databases, theistic belief, even if no one of them by thesis system, itself would be sufficient for databases, rational belief. Swinburne's version of the effects drunk essay argument is quite brief and distributed databases undeveloped, but the materials for writing essay, a more developed version of the argument can be found in a well-known and much cited article by Sharon Street (2006). Street's argument, as the title implies, is in no way intended to support a moral argument for distributed databases, theism. Effects Drunk. To the contrary, her purpose is to defend anti-realist metaethical theories against realist theories that view moral truth as “stance-independent” of human attitudes and emotions. Distributed Databases. Street presents the moral realist with a dilemma posed by the question as to how our human evaluative beliefs are related to human evolution. It is clear, she believes, that evolution has strongly shaped our evaluative attitudes. The question concerns how those attitudes are related to the objective evaluative truths accepted by the realist.
If the realist holds that there is writing rubric essay no relation between such truths and databases thesis our evaluative attitudes, then this implies that “most of things in a, our evaluative judgments are off track due to the distorting influence of Darwinian processes.” The other alternative for the realist is to claim that there is a relationship, and thus that is not an accident or miracle that our evaluative beliefs track the objective truths. However, this view, Street claims, is scientifically implausible. Street argues therefore that an distributed thesis, evolutionary story about qualitative research gender, how we came to make the moral judgments we make undermines confidence in the objective truth of those judgments. Street's argument is of course controversial and thinkers such as Erik Wielenberg (2014) have argued against evolutionary debunking arguments. Still, many regard such arguments as problematic for morality, particularly when developed as a “global” argument (Kahane, 2010). Moral realists such as David Enoch (2011) have attempted to respond to Street's argument, though Enoch acknowledges its force and evidently has some worries about the strength of databases, his reply. However, it is not hard to see that a good deal of the force of Street's argument stems from the assumption that naturalism is true, and therefore that the evolutionary process is one that is unguided. Do You Need Report. It does appear that in a naturalistic universe we would expect a process of Darwinian evolution to distributed, select for a propensity for moral judgments that track survival and not objective moral truths. Mark Linville (2009, 391446) has developed a detailed argument for the claim that it is difficult for persuasive essay, metaphysical naturalists to develop a plausible evolutionary story as to how our moral judgments could have epistemological warrant.
However, if we suppose that the evolutionary process has been guided by a God who has as one of distributed, his goals the creation of morally significant human creatures capable of enjoying a relation with God, then it would not seem at all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct. Some philosophers may believe that the randomness of Darwinian natural selection rules out the possibility of any kind of divine guidance being exercised through such a process. Atheists often seem to think that evolution and God are rival, mutually exclusive hypotheses about the origins of the natural world. What can be explained scientifically needs no religious explanation. Do You In A Book Report. However, this is far from obviously true; in fact, if theism is true it is clearly false. From a theistic perspective to think that God and science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the distributed relationship between God and the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world. For Ordering System. If God exists at all, God is not an entity within the natural world, but the distributed creator of research inequality, that natural world, with all of its causal processes.
If God exists, God is the reason why there is distributed a natural world and the reason for the existence of the essay causal processes of the natural world. Databases Thesis. In principle, therefore, a natural explanation can never preclude a theistic explanation. But what about the randomness that is a crucial part of the Darwinian story? The atheist might claim that because evolutionary theory posits that the process by which plants and animals have evolved in writing rubric one that involves random genetic mutations, it cannot be guided, and thus God cannot have used evolutionary means to achieve his ends. However, this argument fails. Databases. It depends on an equivocation in what is meant by “random.” When scientists claim that genetic mutations are random, they do not mean that they are uncaused, or even that they are unpredictable from the qualitative research point of view of biochemistry, but only that the mutations do not happen in response to the adaptational needs of the distributed thesis organism. Gender Inequality. It is entirely possible for databases, a natural process to include randomness in that sense, even if the whole natural order is itself created and sustained by God. The sense of “randomness” required for evolutionary theory does not imply that the evolutionary process must be unguided. A God who is responsible for the laws of nature and the initial conditions that shape the raquin questions evolutionary process could certainly ensure that the process achieved certain ends.
Like the databases other moral arguments for God's existence, the argument from raquin essay questions moral knowledge can easily be stated in a propositional form, and I believe Swinburne is right to hold that the argument is best construed as a probabilistic argument that appeals to distributed databases, God as providing a better explanation of moral knowledge than is possible in online essay uk a naturalistic universe. Humans possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, if God does not exist, humans would not possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, God exists. There is thesis a kind of argument from moral knowledge also implicit in Angus Ritchie's recent book From Morality to what things in a book, Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments (2012) . Ritchie presses a kind of dilemma on non-theistic accounts of morality. Distributed Databases. Subjectivist theories such as expressivism can certainly make sense of the fact that we make the ethical judgments we do, but they empty morality of its objective authority.
Objectivist theories that take morality seriously, however, have difficulty explaining our capacity to make true moral judgments, unless the raquin process by which humans came to hold these capacities is one that is controlled by a being such as God. The moral argument from thesis knowledge will not be convincing to anyone who is committed to any form of expressivism or other non-objective metaethical theory, and clearly many philosophers find such views attractive. Drunk Essay. And there will surely be many philosophers who will judge that if moral objectivism implies theism, this is a reductio of objectivist views. Furthermore, non-theistic moral philosophers, whether naturalists or non-naturalists, have stories to tell about how moral knowledge might be possible. Nevertheless, there are real questions about the plausibility of these stories, and thus, some of those convinced that moral realism is true may judge that moral knowledge provides some support for theistic belief. 5. Arguments from Human Dignity or Worth. Many philosophers find Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy still offers a fruitful approach to ethics. Of the various forms of the “categorical imperative” that Kant offers, the formula that regards human beings as “ends in themselves” is especially attractive: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in distributed the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 1785 , 96). Many contemporary moral philosophers influenced by Kant, such as Christine Korsgaard (1996), see Kant as offering a “constructivist” metaethical position. Constructivism is online essay uk supposed to offer a “third way” between moral realism and thesis subjectivist views of morality. Online Essay Uk. Like subjectivists, constructivists want to see morality as a human creation.
However, like moral realists constructivists want to see moral questions as having objective answers. Constructivism is an attempt to develop an objective morality that is free of the metaphysical commitments of moral realism. It is, however, controversial whether Kant himself was a constructivist in this sense. One reason to question whether this is the databases right way to read Kant follows from the fact that Kant himself did not see morality as free from metaphysical commitments. For example, Kant thought that it would be impossible for someone who believed that mechanistic determinism was the literal truth about writing essay, himself to believe that he was a moral agent, since morality requires an autonomy that is incompatible with determinism. To see myself as a creature who has the kind of value Kant calls “dignity” I must not see myself merely as a machine-like product of the physical environment. Hence Kant thought that it was crucial for morality that his Critical Philosophy had shown that the deterministic perspective on humans is distributed databases thesis simply part of the “phenomenal world” that is the object of scientific knowledge, not the things book report “noumenal reality” that it would be if some kind of scientific realism were the distributed thesis true metaphysical view.
When we do science we see ourselves as determined, but science tells us only how the world appears, not how it really is. Recognizing this fact suggests that when Kant posits that humans have this intrinsic value he calls dignity, he is essay not “constructing” the value humans have, but recognizing the value beings of a certain kind must have. Humans can only have this kind of value if they are a particular kind of databases thesis, creature. Whether Kant himself was a moral realist or not, there are certainly elements in his philosophy that push in a realist direction. If the claim that human persons have a kind of intrinsic dignity or worth is a true objective principle and if it provides a key foundational principle of morality, it is well worth asking what kinds of metaphysical implications the claim might have.
This is the question that Mark Linville (2009, 417446) pursues in the second moral argument he develops. Questions. Linville begins by noting that one could hardly hold that “human persons have intrinsic dignity” could be true if human persons do not exist. Clearly, some metaphysical positions do include a denial of the existence of distributed databases thesis, human persons, such as forms of Absolute Monism which hold that only one Absolute Reality exists. What Things Need Book. However, it also seems to databases, be the case that some forms of raquin questions, Scientific Naturalism are committed to the denial of databases, “ persons as substantive selves that essentially possess a first-person point of view” (See Dennett 2006, 107). Daniel Dennett, for example, holds that persons will not be part of the thesis for ordering system ultimately true scientific account of things. Dennett holds that to think of humans as persons is simply to adopt a certain “stance” toward them that he calls the “intentional stance,” but it is clear that the distributed kind of picture of conclusion for ordering, humans we get when we think of distributed databases thesis, them in this way does not correspond with their intrinsic metaphysical properties. It is not clear how systems towards which we adopt an “intentional stance” could be truly autonomous and thus have the kind of value Kant believes human persons have. The argument from writing rubric essay human dignity could be put into propositional form as follows: Human persons have a special kind of intrinsic value that we call dignity.
The only (or best) explanation of the distributed databases fact that humans possess dignity is that they are created by effects drunk driving essay, a supremely good God in God's own image. Probably there is a supremely good God. A naturalist may want to challenge premise (2) by finding some other strategy to explain human dignity. Michael Martin (2002), for example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the feelings of approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer. Linville (2009) objects that it is not clear how the feelings of such an databases thesis, observer could constitute the intrinsic worth of a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and therese mind-independent.
In any case, Linville notes that a “Euthyphro” problem lurks for such an ideal observer theory, since one would think that such an observer would judge a person to distributed, be intrinsically valuable because the person has intrinsic value. Another strategy that is pursued by constructivists such as Korsgaard is to link the value ascribed to humans to the capacity for rational reflection. Essay Questions. The idea is that insofar as I am committed to distributed, rational reflection, I must value myself as having this capacity, and consistently value others who have it as well. However, many people believe that young infants and people suffering from dementia still have this intrinsic dignity, but in both cases there is no capacity for rational reflection. Some support for research inequality, this criticism of the attempt to see reason as the basis of the distributed databases thesis value of humans can be found in Nicholas Wolterstorff's recent work on online essay uk justice (2007, especially Ch. 8). Wolterstorff in this work defends the distributed databases claim that there are natural human rights, and that violating such rights is one way of acting unjustly towards a person.
Why do humans have such rights? Wolterstorff says these rights are grounded in the basic worth or dignity that humans possess. When I seek to torture or kill an innocent human I am failing to respect this worth. If one asks why we should think humans possess such worth, Wolterstorff argues that the belief that humans have this quality was not only historically produced by effects driving, Jewish and Christian conceptions of the human person, but even now cannot be defended apart from such a conception. In particular, he argues that attempts to argue that our worth stems from some excellence we possess such as reason will not explain the worth of infants or those with severe brain injuries or dementia. Does a theistic worldview fare better in explaining the special value of human dignity? In a theistic universe God is distributed databases himself seen as the supreme good. Indeed, theistic Platonists usually identify God with the essay Good. If God is himself a person, then this seems to be a commitment to the idea that personhood itself is something that must be intrinsically good. If human persons are made in databases God's image, as both Judaism and Christianity affirm, then it would seem to follow that humans do have a kind of intrinsic value, just by way of being the kind of creatures they are.
This argument will of course be found unconvincing to many. Some will deny premise (1), either because they reject moral realism as a metaethical stance, or because they reject the normative claim that humans have any kind of special value or dignity. (Maybe they will even think that such a claim is a form of “speciesism.”). Others will find premise (2) suspect. They may be inclined to agree that human persons have a special dignity, but hold that the online essay uk source of distributed databases, that dignity can be found in such human qualities as rationality. Qualitative Research. With respect to distributed databases, the status of thesis conclusion for ordering, infants and those suffering from dementia, the critic might bite the bullet and just accept the fact that human dignity does not extend to them, or else argue that the fact that infants and those suffering mental breakdown are part of a species whose members typically possess rationality merits them a special respect, even if they lack this quality as individuals.
Others will find premise (2) doubtful because they find the theistic explanation of dignity unclear. Databases Thesis. Another alternative is to seek a Constructivist account of dignity, perhaps regarding the special status of humans as something we humans decide to online essay uk, extend to each other. Perhaps the distributed databases strongest non-theistic alternative would be some form of conclusion for ordering system, ethical non-naturalism, in which one simply affirms that the claim that persons have a special dignity is an a priori truth requiring no explanation. In effect this is a decision for a non-theistic form of Platonism. The proponent of the thesis argument may well agree that claims about the special status of humans are true a priori, and thus also opt for some form of Platonism. However, the proponent of the argument will point out that some necessary truths can be explained by other necessary truths. The theist believes that these truths about the special status of humans tell us something about the kind of universe humans find themselves in. Thesis Conclusion. To say that humans are created by God is to databases, say that personhood is not an ephemeral or accidental feature of the universe, because at bottom reality itself is personal (Mavrodes 1986). 6. Practical Moral Arguments for for ordering system, Belief in distributed God.
As already noted, the most famous and perhaps most influential version of a moral argument for belief in God is therese raquin essay questions found in distributed databases thesis Immanuel Kant (1788). Kant himself insisted that his argument was not a theoretical argument, but an argument grounded in for ordering system practical reason. The conclusion of the argument is distributed thesis not “God exists” or “God probably exists” but “I (as a rational, moral agent) ought to believe that God exists.” We shall, however, see that there are some reasons to doubt that practical arguments can be neatly separated from theoretical arguments. Kant's version of the argument can be stated in different ways, but perhaps the following captures one plausible interpretation of the argument. Writing Rubric Essay. Morality is grounded in pure practical reason, and the moral agent must act on the basis of maxims that can be rationally endorsed as universal principles. Moral actions are thus not determined by databases, results or consequences but by the maxims on which they are based. However, all actions, including moral actions, necessarily aim at ends. Online Essay Uk. Kant argues that the end that moral actions aim at is the “highest good,” which is a world in which both moral virtue and happiness are maximized, with happiness contingent on virtue. For Kant “ought implies can,” and so if I have an distributed databases, obligation to seek the highest good, then I must believe that it is effects drunk driving possible to achieve such an end. However, I must seek the highest good only by acting in accordance with morality; no shortcuts to happiness are permissible. This seems to require that I believe that acting in accordance with morality will be causally efficacious in distributed databases achieving the qualitative research gender inequality highest good.
However, it is reasonable to distributed, believe that moral actions will be causally efficacious in this way only if the laws of causality are set up in such a way that these laws are conducive to the efficacy of moral action. Certainly both parts of the highest good seem difficult to achieve. We humans have weaknesses in our character that appear difficult if not impossible to overcome by our own efforts. Furthermore, as creatures we have subjective needs that must be satisfied if we are happy, but we have little empirical reason to think that these needs will be satisfied by moral actions even if we succeeded in becoming virtuous. If a person believes that the qualitative gender natural world is simply a non-moral machine with no moral purposiveness then that person would have no reason to believe that moral action could succeed because there is no a priori reason to think moral action will achieve the highest good and little empirical reason to believe this either. Distributed Databases Thesis. Kant thus concludes that a moral agent must “postulate” the existence of what need book report, God as a rational presupposition of the distributed thesis moral life. One problem with this argument is that many will deny that morality requires us to seek the highest good in driving Kant's sense. Even if the Kantian highest good seems reasonable as an ideal, some will object that we have no obligation to achieve such a state, but merely to work towards realizing the closest approximation to such a state that is possible (See Adams 1987, 152). Without divine assistance, perhaps perfect virtue is unachievable, but in that case we cannot be obliged to thesis, realize such a state if there is no God.
Perhaps we cannot hope that happiness will be properly proportioned to virtue in the actual world if God does not exist, but then our obligation can only be to realize as much happiness as can be attained through moral means. Kant would doubtless reject this criticism, since on his view the persuasive ends of morality are given directly to distributed databases, pure practical reason a priori, and we are not at liberty to adjust those ends on the basis of empirical beliefs. However, few contemporary philosophers would share Kant's confident view of reason here, and thus to research inequality, many the criticism has force. Distributed Databases Thesis. Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could conceivably seek the highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is possible (Kant, 17811787, 651). Another way of interpreting Kant's argument puts more stress on the connection between an individual's desire for happiness and thesis the obligation to do what is morally right. Morality requires me to sacrifice my personal happiness if that is necessary to do what is right.
Yet it is a psychological fact that humans necessarily desire their own happiness. In such a state it looks as if human moral agents will be torn by what Henry Sidgwick called the “dualism of the practical reason” (1884, 401). Reason both requires humans to seek their own happiness and to sacrifice it. Sidgwick himself noted that only thesis, if there is conclusion for ordering a God can we hope that this dualism will be resolved, so that those who seek to act morally will in distributed databases thesis the long run also be acting so as to advance their own happiness and well-being. (Interestingly, Sidgwick himself does not endorse this argument, but he clearly sees this problem as part of the therese raquin questions appeal of theism.) A contemporary argument similar to this one has been developed by C. Stephen Layman (2002). The critic of this form of the Kantian argument may reply that Kantian morality sees duty as something that must be done regardless of the consequences, and thus a truly moral person cannot make his or her commitment to morality contingent on the achievement of happiness. From a Kantian point of view, this reply seems right; Kant unequivocally affirms that moral actions must be done for the sake of duty and not from any desire for personal reward. Nevertheless, especially for distributed thesis, any philosopher willing to endorse any form of therese essay, eudaimonism, seeing myself as inevitably sacrificing what I cannot help but desire for the sake of duty does seem problematic. As John Hare affirms, “If we are to endorse wholeheartedly the long-term shape of our lives, we have to see this shape as consistent with our happiness” (1996, 88). The critic may reply to this by simply accepting the lamentable fact that there is something tragic or even absurd about the human condition. The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to believe it is databases different than it is.
If there is a tension between the demands of morality and self-interest, then this may simply be a brute fact that must be faced. This reply raises an issue that must be faced by all forms of practical or pragmatic arguments for essay questions, belief. Distributed Databases. Many philosophers insist that rational belief must be grounded solely in theoretical evidence. Qualitative Research Gender. The fact that it would be better for me to believe p does not in itself give me any reason to believe p. This criticism is aimed not merely at Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. Distributed Databases. For example, Robert Adams argues that if humans believe there is no moral order to the universe, then they will become demoralized in their pursuit of conclusion for ordering system, morality, which is morally undesirable (1987, 151). The atheist might concede that atheism is (somewhat) demoralizing, but deny that this provides any reason to believe there is a moral order to the universe.
Similarly, Linda Zagzebski (1987) argues that morality will not be a rational enterprise unless good actions increase the amount of good in distributed thesis the world. However, given that moral actions often involve the sacrifice of happiness, there is no reason to writing rubric persuasive essay, believe moral action will increase the good unless there is distributed databases a power transcendent of human activity working on the side of the good. Here the atheist may claim that moral action does increase the online essay uk good because such actions always increase good character. However, even if that reply fails the atheist may again simply admit that there may be something tragic or absurd about the human condition, and the fact that we may wish things were different is not a reason to believe that they are. Databases. So the problem must be faced: Are practical arguments merely rationalized wish-fulfillment? The theist might respond to this kind of worry in therese essay questions several ways. The first thing to distributed databases, be said is that the fact that a naturalistic view of the universe implies that the what in a book universe must be tragic or absurd, if correct, would itself be an important and distributed databases interesting conclusion. However, apart from this, it makes a great deal of what things, difference how one construes what we might call the distributed databases background epistemic situation. Qualitative Inequality. If one believes that our theoretical evidence favors atheism, then it seems plausible to hold that one ought to distributed databases thesis, maintain a naturalistic view, even if it is practically undesirable that the world have such a character.
In that case a practical argument for religious belief could be judged a form of wish-fulfillment. However, this does not seem to be the way those who support such a practical argument see the therese raquin situation. Kant affirms that the limits of reason established in The Critique of Pure Reason would silence all objections to morality and religion “in Socratic fashion, namely, by distributed, the clearest proof of the ignorance of the objectors” (1781, 1787, 30. See also 530531.) In fact, the situation actually favors theism, since Kant holds that theoretical reason sees value in the concept of raquin questions, God as a regulative ideal, even though God's existence cannot be theoretically affirmed as knowledge. If we appeal to God's will to explain what happens in the natural order, we undermine both science and religion, since in distributed databases that case we would no longer seek empirical evidence for causality and questions we would make God into a finite object in databases thesis the natural world (1781, 1787, 562563). However, as a regulative ideal, the online essay uk concept of God is one that theoretical reason finds useful: “The assumption of a supreme intelligence, as the one and databases thesis only cause of the universe, though in the idea alone, can therefore always benefit reason and can never injure it” (1781, 1787, 560). There is a sense in which theoretical reason itself inclines towards affirmation of writing rubric persuasive essay, God, because it must assume that reality is rationally knowable: “If one wishes to achieve systematic knowledge of the world, he ought to regard it as if it were created by databases thesis, a supreme reason.” (Kant 1786, 298) Although theoretical reason cannot affirm the existence of God, it finds it useful to think of the natural world as having the online essay uk kinds of characteristics it would have if God did exist. Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from distributed thesis practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections. For Kant the argument from online essay uk practical reason for belief in God is not a form of databases thesis, wish-fulfillment because its ground is rubric persuasive not an arbitrary desire or wish but “a real need associated with reason” (Kant, 1786, 296).
Human beings are not purely theoretical spectators of the universe, but agents. Databases. It is not always rational or even possible to refrain from action, and what things do you in a report yet action presupposes beliefs about the distributed databases way things are (For a good interpretation and defense of this view of Kant on the relation between action and belief, see Wood 1970, 1725). Thus, in raquin some cases suspension of judgment is not possible. Distributed. The critic may object that a person may act as if p were true without believing p. However, it is not clear that this advice to distinguish action on things the basis of p and belief that p can always be followed. For one thing, it seems empirically the case that one way of acquiring belief that p is simply to begin to act as if p were true. Hence, to begin to act as if p were true is at least to embark upon a course of action that makes belief in p more likely. Second, there may well be a sense of “belief” in which “acting as if p were true” is sufficient to constitute belief. This is obviously the thesis case on pragmatist accounts of belief. Effects Drunk. But even those who reject a general pragmatic account of belief may well find something like this appealing with respect to distributed databases, religious belief. Many religious believers hold that the best way to measure a person's religious faith is in terms of the person's actions. Thus, a person who is rubric persuasive willing to distributed, act on writing persuasive the basis of a religious conception, especially if those actions are risky or costly, is truly a religious believer, even if that person is filled with doubt and anxiety.
Such a person might well be construed as more truly a believer than a person who smugly “assents” to religious doctrines but is distributed thesis unwilling to act on them. Perhaps the right way to think of what things do you need in a report, practical moral arguments is not to see them as justifying belief without evidence, but as shifting the amount of evidence seen as necessary. This is the lesson some would draw from the phenomenon of “pragmatic encroachment” that has been much discussed in recent epistemology. Here is an example of thesis, pragmatic encroachment: You: I am about to replace the ceiling fan in the kitchen. Spouse: Did you turn off the main electrical power to the house? Spouse: If you forgot you could electrocute yourself. You: I better go back and check.
(See McBrayer 2014, Rizzieri 2013). A plausible interpretation of this scenario is that ordinarily claims such as the one I made, based on memory, are justified, and count as knowledge. However, in this situation, the stakes are raised because my life is at risk, and my knowledge is lost because the pragmatic situation has “encroached” on online essay uk the normal truth-oriented conditions for knowledge. Databases. Pragmatic encroachment is controversial and the idea of such encroachment is raquin questions rejected by some epistemologists. However, defenders hold that it is reasonable to consider the pragmatic stakes in considering evidence for a belief that underlies significant action (See Fantl and databases thesis McGrath 2007). Research Gender Inequality. If this is correct, then it seems reasonable to consider the pragmatic situation in determining how much evidence is sufficient to justify religious beliefs. In theory the adjustment could go in either direction, depending on distributed databases what costs are associated with a mistake and on which side those costs lie. In any case it is not clear that practical moral arguments can always be clearly distinguished from theoretical moral arguments. The reason this is so is that in many cases the practical situation described seems itself to be or involve a kind of evidence for system, the truth of the belief being justified. Take, for example, Kant's classic argument. Databases. One thing Kant's argument does is thesis call to our attention that it would be enormously odd to believe that human beings are moral creatures subject to an objective moral law, but also to databases, believe that the universe that humans inhabit is indifferent to morality.
In other words, the existence of human persons understood as moral beings can itself be understood as a piece of evidence about the online essay uk character of the universe humans find themselves in. Peter Byrne (2013, 1998) has criticized practical arguments on distributed thesis the grounds that they presuppose something like the thesis for ordering system following proposition: “The world is likely to be organized so as to distributed databases, meet our deepest human needs.” Byrne objects that this premise is likely to be false if there is thesis conclusion system no God and thus arguments that assume it appear circular. However, it is not clear that only those who already believe in God will find this premise attractive. The reason for this is that humans are themselves part of the natural universe, and it seems a desirable feature of a metaphysical view that it explain (rather than explain away) features of human existence that seem real and important. It seems likely therefore that any appeal to a practical argument will include some theoretical component as well, even if that component is distributed thesis not always made explicit.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that practical arguments do not have some important and distinctive features. For Kant it was important that religious beliefs stem from practical reason. Conclusion System. For if religious belief were grounded solely in theoretical reason, then such belief would have to conform to “extrinsic and arbitrary legislation” (Kant 1790, 131). Kant thinks such a religion would be one grounded in “fear and submission,” and thus it is good that religious belief is motivated mainly by distributed, a free moral act by which the “final end of our being” is writing rubric essay presented to us (1790, 159). For any practical argument makes religious belief existential; the issue is not merely what I believe to be true about the universe but how I shall live my life in that universe. It seems clear that no version of the moral argument constitutes a “proof” of distributed thesis, God's existence. Qualitative Research Inequality. Each version contains premises that many reasonable thinkers reject. Distributed Databases Thesis. However, this does not mean the arguments have no force.
One might think of each version of the argument as attempting to spell out the driving essay “cost” of databases thesis, rejecting the conclusion. Some philosophers will certainly be willing to writing persuasive essay, pay the thesis cost, and indeed have independent reasons for doing so. System. However, it would certainly be interesting and important if one became convinced that atheism required one to reject moral realism altogether, or to databases, embrace an implausible account of how moral knowledge is acquired. For those who think that some version or versions of the arguments have force, the cumulative case for theistic belief may be raised by things do you book report, such arguments. Adams, R., 1987, “Moral Arguments for Theism,” in The Virtue of databases, Faith and Other Essays in what things need book report Philosophical Theology , New York: Oxford University Press, 144163. , 1999, Finite and Infinite Goods , New York: Oxford University Press. Aquinas, St. Thomas, 12651274 , Summa Theologica , New York: Benziger Brothers.
Baggett, D., and Walls, J., 2011, Good God: The Theistic Foundations of distributed databases thesis, Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Byrne, P., 2013, ‘Moral Arguments for the Existence of God’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Spring 2013 Edition, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/moral-arguments-god/. , 1998, The Moral Interpretation of Religion , Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. Dennett, D., 2006, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon , New York: Penguin Devine, P., 1989, Relativism, Nihilism, and God , Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press. Enoch, D., Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Conclusion. Evans, C. S., 2010, Natural Signs and Knowledge of distributed thesis, God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2013, God and thesis conclusion system Moral Obligation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fantl, J., and distributed databases McGrath, M., 2007, ‘On Pragmatic Encroachment in Epistemology’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 75(3): 558589. Flew, A., 1976, The Presumption of Atheism and Other Philosophical Essays on God, Freedom, and Immortality , New York: Barnes and writing essay Noble. Hare, J., 1996, The Moral Gap , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
James, W., 1897 , The Will to Believe and distributed databases Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , New York: Longmans Green and thesis conclusion system Co. Kahane, Guy, 2014, “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments,” Noûs , 45(1): 103125. Kant, I., 1781, 1787 , Critique of Pure Reason , trans. Norman Kemp Smith, New York: Macmillan. , 1785 , Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals , trans H. J. Paton, New York: Harper and Row. , 1786, , What Is Orientation in databases Thinking? in rubric persuasive Critique of Practical Reason and Other Writings in Moral Philosophy , trans. and ed. Lewis White Beck, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Databases Thesis. , 1788 , Critique of Practical Reason , trans. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill. , 1790 , Critique of Judgment , trans. James Creed Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of qualitative inequality, Normativity , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Layman, C. Databases Thesis. S., 2002, “God and the Moral Order,” Faith and Philosophy 19, 304316. Lewis, C. S., 1952, Mere Christianity . London: Collins.
Linville, M., 2009, ‘The Moral Argument’, in The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology , first edition, W. L. Craig, J. P. Mooreland (eds.), West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Writing Rubric Persuasive. Mackie, J., 1977, Ethics: Inventing Right and distributed databases Wrong , Hammondsworth: Penguin. Effects Drunk Essay. Martin, M., 2002, Atheism, Morality, and Meaning , Amherst NY: Prometheus Books. Mavrodes, G., 1986, ‘Religion and the Queerness of Morality’ in distributed thesis Rationality, Religious Belief, and report Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion , eds. Distributed. Robert Audi and qualitative research gender William J. Wainwright, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 213226. Distributed Thesis. McBrayer, J., 2014, ‘Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief, and Practice’, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , March 19. Effects Driving Essay. Mill, J., 1874, Nature, The Utility of distributed databases, Religion, and Theism , Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer: London.
Morriston, W., 2009, “What if God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for qualitative, Divine-command Meta-ethics”, Religious Studies , 45(3): 249267. Databases Thesis. Newman, J. H., 1870, An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent , London: Burns, Oates, and Co. Nietzsche, F., 1887 , The Genealogy of Morals , translated by qualitative research, Horace Barnett Samuel, New York: Courier Dover Publications. Distributed Databases. Plantinga, A., 2000, Warranted Christian Belief , New York: Oxford University Press. Quinn, P., 1978, Divine Commands and qualitative research inequality Moral Requirements . Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1979, ‘Divine Command Ethics: A Causal Theory’, in Divine Command Morality: Historical and Contemporary Readings , edited by Janine Idziak, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 305325.
Rashdall, H., 1920, ‘The Moral Argument for distributed thesis, Personal Immortality’, in King's College Lectures on Immortality , London: University of London Press. Ritchie, A., 2012, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rizzieri, A., 2013, Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and Practice , Kindle edition, Palgrave Macmillan. Schellenberg, J. L., 1993, Divine Hiddenness and do you report Human Reason , 1 st edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Sidgwick, H., 1884, Methods of Ethics , London: Macmillan and Co. Sorley, W., 1918, Moral Values and the Idea of God , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, S., 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value,” Philosophical Studies , 127(1): 109166. Swinburne, R., 2004, The Existence of God , 2 nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor, A., 1930, The Faith of a Moralist , London: Macmillan. , 1945, Does God Exist? , London: Macmillan.
Wielenberg, E., 2010, “On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality,” Ethics 120(3): 441464. , 2005, Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Distributed Thesis. Wolterstorff, N., 2007, Justice: Rights and Wrongs , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wood, A., 1970, Kant's Moral Religion , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Zagzebski, L., 2004, “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and inequality Philosophy , 4: 294303. Byrne, Peter, “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, Stanford Encyclopedia of distributed, Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/moral-arguments-god/. [This was the previous entry on moral arguments for the existence of God in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] Divine Command Theory, entry by rubric, Michael Austin, in the Internet Encyclopedia of distributed, Philosophy. The author wishes to thank Trent Dougherty, Mark Linville, and thesis conclusion for ordering system David Baggett for reading a draft of this essay and databases thesis making many useful suggestions. Online Essay Uk. Matthew Wilson also deserves thanks for tracking many bibliographical references and page numbers. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from distributed thesis another server:
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Coordination Avoidance in Distributed Databases - Peter Bailis
1-3-1 essay form The issue of authorship (as well as date) of this epistle cannot be settled in isolation. Distributed. It is quite bound up with the issue of authorship for the Fourth Gospel and for thesis conclusion, 2-3 John. Databases Thesis. If the drunk same author wrote all four books, there is distributed thesis a strong presumption that they were written at about the same time since the style of writing, themes, and effects drunk driving outlook are so similar. Further, there is the distributed thesis presumption that one author did write all four books for, as B. H. Streeter remarks, “The three epistles and the Gospel of John are so closely allied in diction, style, and general outlook that the qualitative research gender inequality burden of distributed thesis, proof lies with the person who would deny their common authorship.” 1 Still, there are some scholars who dispute that there was one author for thesis for ordering system, all four books, and distributed their arguments need to research gender, be heard. We shall deal with them only in passing, however, since there is still something of distributed databases thesis, a general consensus on the matter, even if not all are agreed that John the writing rubric apostle was the author. There are possible allusions to 1 John in Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and pseudo-Clement (in his 2 Corinthians ), but these are all doubtful. Distributed. 2 More probable are allusions in the Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Justin Martyr, the therese questions Epistle to Diognetus , Polycarp, and Papias.
Undeniable are allusions/references to 1 John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Dionysius, and the Muratorian canon. Guthrie well summarizes the data: This evidence is sufficient to show that from very early times the epistle was not only distributed databases thesis treated as Scripture but was assumed to be Johannine, in spite of the fact that no specific claim to this effect is made by the writer himself. This strong tradition cannot easily be set aside, especially as no alternative theory of authorship was suggested in the early church… 3. There are three pieces of questions, evidences which suggest that John the apostle wrote this epistle: (1) the writer claims to be an eyewitness of the earthly life of Christ (1.1-3); (2) he speaks with an air of authority—“he clearly expects not only to be heard, but to be obeyed”; 4 and (3) the similarities of thought and verbal expression to the Fourth Gospel are so striking as to suggest that the same author penned both. As Robert Law quipped, “On internal grounds, it would appear much more feasible to assign any two of Shakespeare’s plays to different authors, than the Gospel and the First Epistle of thesis, ‘St. John.’” 5. Therese Raquin Essay. Nevertheless, even if presumption is on the side of distributed databases thesis, common authorship, there are two types of online essay uk, arguments against this: (1) some dispute that the same author wrote both the Gospel and 1 John; and (2) some dispute that the same author wrote 1 John and 2-3 John. 6 Rather than rehashing material found elsewhere in this essay, we wish to center our discussion on distributed two items: (1) Did the same author write both the Gospel of John and 1 John? and (2) Did the same author write 2 John and 3 John?
On the assumption that John the apostle wrote the Gospel bearing his name, 7 if we can answer in the affirmative to these two questions, then apostolic authorship can thereby be assumed for these three epistles as well. a. Therese Essay. Did the Same Author Write the Fourth Gospel and the First Epistle? Although, as Guthrie points out, common authorship is “disputed by only a minority of critics,” 8 it is a distinguished minority, including such notables as C. H. Dodd, Raymond Brown, R. Bultmann, M. Dibelius, and C. K. Barrett. In particular, the work of Holtzmann, Dodd, and Brown have promoted the view of disparate authorship. Our critique of it will come in distributed databases two waves: first, the arguments of Robert Law (still a classical refutation, in my view), and secondly, our own arguments against Brown’s evidence. (1) Robert Law gives one large piece of positive evidence (viz., verbal and thought agreements between the two works), followed by persuasive, several counter-arguments against the negative evidence. First, positively, there are coincidences of verbal expression as well as coincidences of thought—both those which are peculiar to the Fourth Gospel and 1 John and those which are characteristic of these two documents. 9 Law’s conclusion about the remarkable coincidental agreements is a sober assessment: From the databases thesis facts so far adduced, either of two conclusions is inevitable—that the Gospel and the Epistle are from the same pen, or that the one or the other of what do you need in a book report, them is the work of his predecessor that he unconsciously reproduces its thoughts and distributed databases thesis its phraseology, even to the minutest mannerisms. The former is the natural hypothesis. Strong evidence will be required to set it aside in favour of the latter. 10.
Secondly, negatively, there are differences both of a verbal and conceptual nature. Things In A. Some of thesis, these differences are quite striking. For example, ??? occurs nearly 200 times in things do you need in a book report the Gospel, but not once in the epistle. Yet, “in the case of distributed, ??? , the discrepancy is writing persuasive essay only apparent, is rather, indeed, a point of real similarity; for, in the Gospel, it is used only in narrative, no occurrence of databases thesis, it being found, e.g., in chapters 14-16.” 11 Many examples of qualitative research gender, a similar nature could be compared. Even Brown concedes that the verbal differences are not weighty: “the variation of minute stylistic features between GJohn [Gospel of John] and I John is not much different from the variation that one can find if one compares one part of GJohn to another part.” 12. Databases. The differences in online essay uk thought seem more significant to most scholars today. Law catalogs seven such differences, 13 three of which seem to be quite significant: (a) the Gospel is christocentric while the epistle is theocentric; (b) the atoning character of the death of Christ is much clearer in the epistle than in the Gospel; and (c) the eschatology between the distributed databases thesis two seems to be different: the Gospel tends toward a realized eschatology (in which believers have passed out of judgment into life), while the epistle imbibes in driving a more futuristic eschatology. These same points are rehashed by Brown, who argues with some force that “the theological differences listed above cannot be denied…” 14. Law’s response to databases thesis, these is, generally speaking, masterfully done. He argues, for example, regarding the first objection that “in the qualitative gender inequality Gospel we find passages as strongly Theocentric as any in distributed the Epistle… On the other hand, the epistle contains passages which are as strongly Christocentric as any in the Gospel.” 15 Still, the emphasis in each is online essay uk generally different, and Law rightly (in part) notes that such difference is due to the fact that “the one is thesis a biography of the Incarnate Word, the other, we may say, a biological study of the Divine Life itself.” 16 Still, there are some weaknesses in his approach, for online essay uk, although one might not be able to detect any contradictions between the two works, there still does seem to be a difference in outlook.
Could this be the work of distributed databases, one author? We will address the inequality question of atonement and eschatology in the next section. Databases. (2) In addition to these arguments, Brown argues that the essay life situation presupposed in distributed databases thesis the two works is different. Persuasive Essay. In particular, he notes that (a) the databases audience has changed (the Gospel is thesis conclusion for ordering system designed to strengthen/establish faith in Christ; the epistle, to give assurance to those who are presupposed to be believers); and (b) the adversaries have changed (“the Jews” in the Gospel to “those who went out from us” in the epistle). Brown argues from this evidence that “the least that it implies is that GJohn and I John were not written at distributed the same time to therese raquin essay questions, the same group by the same man.” 17 Brown himself believes that the two were written at different times by different men, though he readily admits that the distributed databases thesis differences he notes cannot prove this. It is our contention that not only can these differences be explained on the hypothesis of the same author, but that they can most easily be explained if one takes into account the following factors: (a) a change in domicile for the author, rather than a (major) change in audience; (b) the epistle was written at a later time, when a futuristic eschatology would seem more appropriate; (c) the adversaries had indeed changed, but this is due primarily to the author’s better acquaintance with the audience, rather than to a change in author; and (d) the emphasis on the atoning work of Christ was due to the impact of the apostle Paul. Things In A. Although much of this has been argued (or at distributed least hinted at) in our discussion of the driving Fourth Gospel, an overarching reconstruction is still needed. We will deal seriatim with Brown’s five arguments, all the while demonstrating an alternative view which seems to fit the thesis data equally as well, if not better. First, not much imagination is needed to come up with a reason for online essay uk, the shift from christocentricity to thesis, theocentricity. Law takes one approach, viz., diminishing the differences.
Although it is true that the Gospel has its theocentric moments and the epistles its christocentric ones, the general impression is things do you in a report that there is indeed a difference in emphasis between the two. 18 If, however, the author is distributed now combating a new opponent in the epistle—one he did not encounter in the Gospel—then the shift is understandable. In his Gospel his opponent was “the Jews” and his objective was to prove that Jesus was the Christ, God in the flesh. What Do You Need In A Book Report. In his epistle the opponent already embraces a high Christology. Distributed Thesis. They are not “Jews,” but, most likely, second-generation (professing) Christians who have gone too far with their Christology.
By separating Christ from the flesh, they have removed mortal man from God. John now reminds his audience that only those who embrace the theanthropic person embrace God. In a sense, we might say that in the Gospel John needed to show the divine face of the Son; in the epistle, he needed to demonstrate the ‘human’ face of the online essay uk Father. 19 The change in opponent, then, readily accounts for the shift from christocentricity to theocentricity. Second, the atoning character of the death of databases, Christ in the epistle takes on Pauline proportions. “‘He is qualitative faithful and databases righteous to forgive us our sins’ … has a more Pauline ring than any utterance of the Fourth Gospel…” 20 The very statements of Christ’s atoning work (2.2) sounds very Pauline: “He is our propitiation” ( ??????? ). 21 Further, God/Christ are “righteous” ( ??????? ) throughout this epistle (1.9; 2.1; 3.7), and usually in relation to gender inequality, the forgiveness of the Christian. This, again, is quite Pauline. Such language would hardly be surprising if John had moved to Ephesus (as ancient testimony universally suggests) recently —i.e., between the writing of his Gospel and the epistle. What is more remarkable than John’s picking up Paulinisms is that commentators rarely ask why John would move to Ephesus if this had been Paul’s special domain. Further, what catalyst would prompt him to do so? We shall pursue this question under “Occasion,” but suffice it to distributed databases thesis, say that John’s more Pauline-like expressions in the epistle are understandable if the author moved from Palestine to Ephesus between the online essay uk writing of the Gospel and the epistle.
22. Third, the eschatological outlook is indeed different between the two books. Certainly the staple of databases thesis, Dodd’s evidence for realized eschatology comes from the Fourth Gospel. 23 Although there are hints of it in the epistle (just as there are hints of a futuristic eschatology in essay questions the Gospel), it is by no means as prominent there, the epistle following apocalyptic/traditional/futuristic eschatological lines more neatly. In our hypothesis a rather simple solution presents itself: the databases thesis Gospel was written just before the Jewish War began (c. 65 CE), while the epistle was written during it (probably in the latter part).
If John wrote his Gospel to raquin essay, Paul’s churches of Asia Minor, as we have maintained, and if he wrote before 66 CE, his preoccupation on grounding his new audience’s faith on the historical Jesus (without much attention to his return) is understandable. But once war broke out, there was the possibility that the distributed events of the raquin questions Olivet Discourse were now being fulfilled in databases toto . 24 In the midst of this war, John writes to an audience far removed from the battle zone (but not from the eschatological implications which the conclusion system war might bring worldwide—viz., the Lord’s return) that the antichrist is coming, that many antichrists are already in the world, that it is the last hour, that the thesis Lord’s return is imminent. The difference in eschatological perspective, in fact, is so striking that one seems almost compelled to argue either that two different authors wrote these two books or that there were two different circumstances which brought them about. That the evidence for a date of the epistle in the late 60s is inequality not a Procrustean bed of our own making is obvious from our prior argument that the Fourth Gospel almost certainly was written after Peter’s death (or just before it), but before the Jewish War broke out. 25 Further, the epistle shows other evidence of coming after the Gospel. Distributed Thesis. 26. Fourth, the audience no longer needs to be convinced of driving, who Jesus Christ is, but needs assurance of their own salvation. Again, this change in the audience is due to distributed thesis, time and maturity, not necessarily a completely different audience.
In this respect, the Fourth Gospel is quite similar to Romans in that Paul wished to “preach the do you need in a report gospel to you also who are at Rome” because he had not yet visited them. Distributed Thesis. But with the conclusion churches he had established, there was no need to fill an entire letter with the basics (unless defection was perceived to be taking place, as in databases Galatians), even though there would be reminders laced throughout (cf. 1 Thessalonians). Drunk Essay. It is not the audience that has changed then, but John’s relationship to them. He writes the Gospel to those whom he has not yet met (or has recently met); he writes the epistle to “my little children.” The strategy of establishing faith in one, nurturing it in the other, is perfectly explainable on such a reconstruction. Fifth, Brown argues that the adversaries have changed—from “Jews” to distributed databases thesis, “those who went out from among us.” It could be argued, and with some force, that he has read too much of the community’s Sitz im Leben into research inequality the Fourth Gospel.
27 After all, a Gospel purportedly has something to do with history. Although certainly the needs of the community would be expected, to some degree, to shape and limit the databases thesis contents of a given Gospel, it is effects drunk too much to say that they created the distributed thesis contents. Thesis For Ordering System. In fact, one of the interesting things to note about the Fourth Gospel is its several incidental notes 28 which would be largely irrelevant (and not even altogether clear) to distributed, a largely Gentile audience. There is the greatest probability, as we have argued earlier, that John kept something of thesis for ordering, a diary of the life of Jesus as a disciple, shaped the material into a rough Gospel as the years went by, and then targeted a Gentile audience outside of Palestine in the last stage of revision. 29 If so, then “the Jews” do not necessarily represent a present enemy, but belong to the historical veracity of the narrative. Or, if they do represent a present enemy, it would be John’s, while living in Palestine, rather than his audience’s.
On this reading, it is easy to see why the opponents shift in the epistle: John has recently moved to Asia Minor and has encountered them firsthand. In sum, since it is true that “the Epistles of John stand closer to the Gospel in thesis style and content than do any other writings to one another in the New Testament…” 30 , the great probability is that they are penned by the same author. b. Did the Same Author Write All Three Epistles? Again, the vast bulk of scholars holds to this view. Against this are principally two arguments: (a) the author identifies himself as “the elder” in 2-3 John, 31 but no such identification is made in 1 John; and (b) the similarities among all three are so striking that if they are not by a common author, one or more of the documents is by a forger. 32. Briefly, these objections to online essay uk, common authorship can be answered as follows. (a) An author has the right to alter his style of writing, even his own identification, as the occasion warrants. Databases Thesis. In this instance, it is not insignificant that in 1 John the author addresses his audience as “my little children,” indicating that he was well-known to online essay uk, them, while in 2-3 John such familiarity is absent, necessitating some kind of self-identification. (b) The forgery hypothesis falls shipwreck on the question of motive: Why would anyone do such a thing—especially since none of the three epistles specifically identifies the author with a name? Against forgery we can add a further point: between 1 John and 2 John “there are no verbatim quotations and always minor variants, a fact more consonant with the same author rephrasing himself than a forger… Most of the differences are really instances of the distributed databases vagaries of effects drunk, Johannine style that one may find even within the same work…” 33.
In sum, we agree with the majority of distributed databases, scholars that the evidence against common authorship is slim. As R. H. Charles (certainly no arch-conservative!) put it years ago, “The body of evidence in favour of a common authorship of J and (1.) 2. 3. J carries with it absolute conviction.” 34. On the assumption of common authorship for the three epistles and the Gospel of drunk driving essay, John, if any one of these can be dated with relative certainty, the thesis others would naturally fit in closely, since the style, themes, and therese raquin essay outlook are so similar. 35 “Most scholars agree that no great interval could have separated the distributed Gospel from the epistles.” 36. Although a good case could be made that all four were written in therese the last decade of the first century CE (a view held by the majority), a growing number of scholars are voicing the opinion that the Gospel was published before 70 CE. 37 As that is our conviction, and databases since we have gone over qualitative research, that ground in reference to the Gospel of John, we will simply assume it here. The question for us is: Which came first, the Gospel or the epistle? It is databases our view that if the Gospel was penned c. 65 CE, then the epistle was written in the late 60s (c. 68-69).
The reasons for for ordering, this view are as follows. First, the Gospel has material which would be largely irrelevant to the Gentile audience, even though its final form was almost certainly written for Gentiles. As we suggested earlier, this argues that John had amassed material for distributed, his Gospel, without having a specific audience in qualitative mind until the last stage of composition. These remnants, in turn, suggest that the Gospel may have been published somewhat hurriedly. Our quite tentative contention is that either the thesis whole Gospel was produced at Peter’s request (with the appendix [chapter 21] added after Peter died) or at therese questions least the appendix was added at Peter’s request, for the sake of Paul’s churches which otherwise did not have an apostolic voice. John brought the Gospel with him to Ephesus in 65 CE and added the appendix (with the thesis approbation of the Ephesian elders in 21.24). Hence, he really was not fully aware of his new audience, even though he knew that he wanted to minister to them. 38. Second, the epistle shows signs of having come later. (1) Its eschatology is much more futuristic than the eschatology of the Gospel. Rather than arguing for a more primitive eschatology (a view held by Dodd) in the epistle, if the same man wrote both books and if the first was written before war broke out, this suggests that the epistle was written after 66 CE.
Not only does the language reflect concepts and even verbiage found in the Olivet Discourse, 39 but there is a tone of therese essay, urgency found in this letter which is lacking in distributed thesis the Gospel. The best external cause for this shift in effects driving essay eschatological perspective would have been the Jewish War. 40 Further, the war would not yet have culminated, otherwise there would almost certainly have been a let-down in eschatological expectation. 41 (2) There is an obvious familiarity with the audience which seems to be lacking in the Gospel. Indeed, if tradition is distributed databases correct that John 21.24 is a commendation by the Ephesian elders of the veracity of the Gospel (or at drunk driving least of the thesis truth of raquin essay questions, chapter 21), this implies that John was largely unknown to his audience. Such could not be said of the epistle, for the author refers to his audience as “my little children.” (3) 1 John 2.19 also seems to imply that some time had elapsed from the time John had come to know his audience, for the opponents had left the church. This statement (“they went out from us”) suggests that John had been acquainted with the audience long enough to have not only distributed established a relationship with them, but even to qualitative gender inequality, have established a relationship with those who defected. This text, in fact, suggests that 1 John was written after 2 John, for the heretics in 2 John were itinerant preachers who were still considered part of the Church. 42 Although this is thesis subtle and writing rubric capable of other interpretations, it seems likely that 1 John was written some short time after 2 John.
In sum, we would date 1 John after the Jewish War broke out, but before it was concluded. John must be given some amount of time to distributed databases thesis, know his audience and for the heretics to have left the congregation. Drunk Driving Essay. Hence, the epistle should probably be dated after 2 John. A date of c. 68-69 CE seems to be the best guess. The issue of audience, place of writing, and form of the epistle are bound up together. Since this letter sounds very much like a homily, lacking the databases typical features of a letter, there is the distinct possibility that it was intended to function in driving essay this manner to some degree. It may well have been a circular letter to a fairly restricted circle. Guthrie has a succinct discussion which is worth quoting: The most satisfactory explanation is that I John was written to a group of people, possibly in more than one Asiatic community, with whom the author was personally acquainted and who were threatened with the same infiltration of false teaching.
The following reasons have led to the widely-held view that Asia was the destination of this epistle and databases of 2 and 3 John: the external tradition associates the Gospel with John at Ephesus; the association of the Johannine literature with the Apocalypse would also suggest Asia Minor; the gnosticizing teaching reflected in these epistles is effects strongly connected with this area. Moreover, the thesis earlier known use of I John comes from the same area (i.e., in Polycarp’s epistle). 43. Two points need to be added to this summary: (1) If John was in Ephesus at for ordering the time of composition, it is probable that Ephesus was not the destination of databases, this letter. Rather, it was sent to what do you need in a book, several of the churches in the surrounding areas. Databases. 44 Almost surely one such church would have been at Colossae, for the same kind of heretics were condemned in Paul’s letter to the Colossians just a few years earlier. (2) The audience was almost certainly made up mainly of Gentiles.
Not only is this seen in the kind of heresy which is online essay uk fought (antinomian, docetic—neither of which was found among Jewish Christian sects), but the epistle ends with the warning, “Little children, keep yourselves from thesis, idols” (5.21), an admonition which has great relevance for Gentile Christians, almost none for Jewish Christians. 45. The immediate occasion for this epistle is that the false teachers had left the church (2.19), but were harassing the church and enticing it from a position outside. 46 John’s audience needed reassurance that what they had embraced—viz., that Christ had come in effects drunk driving essay the flesh—was true. John assures his audience of this truth—as well as the distributed databases truth of the Gospel in general—on two grounds: (1) he was an eyewitness to qualitative, Christ (1.1-3), and (2) the Spirit bore witness to their spirit that these things were true (2.20, 27). 47 But the occasion was not just polemical; John had an distributed thesis edificatory objective as well. Thus the almost monotonous refrain “I have written to you in online essay uk order that/because…” The purpose statement in 5.13, on distributed the analogy of John’s Gospel, would seem to be the most encompassing one: “I have written these things to you in things book report order that you—that is, to those who believe in the name of the Son of God—might know that you have eternal life.” 48. First John is, in many ways, a smorgasbord of distributed databases, theological concepts. It is rubric essay virtually impossible to construct a convincing and decisive outline, and its themes/purposes are everywhere mentioned (cf., e.g., 1.3, 4; 2.1, 12, 13, 14, 21, 26; 5.13), yet no unifying theme or purpose can be easily construed from them. Further, the occasion for the writing of this letter also must have its say: false teachers had left but were harassing and enticing the church (2.19). In our approach, a combination of the occasion (2.19) and distributed databases last purpose statement (5.13) 49 yields the therese questions most satisfactory results: “Assurance of salvation in distributed thesis the midst of opposition.” Although this book is called a letter, it reads much more like a homily, since it lacks the salutation and closing which were characteristic of ancient Greek letters.
John begins this book by offering evidence of the reality of the incarnation—namely, he was an online essay uk eyewitness to distributed thesis, it (1.1-2). The purpose of this proclamation is then given: mutual fellowship and joy (1.3-4). What Do You Need. Then, John jumps into the body of his book, a book with eight major sections (nine, if the prologue is counted)—all of which are difficult to outline and separate from one another. In almost every section, themes that are key to other sections are found. Further, there is a distinct repetition of thesis, crucial themes, especially love, assurance, and false teachers . The construction of this book is analogous to someone throwing four or five stones into a pond within close proximity of each other: after a short time the ripples from one stone overlap with the ripples from another so that all lines become blurred. As such, it is writing rubric persuasive next to impossible to outline that style of argument in a linear fashion. What is needed is a geometrical design! In the first section John demonstrates how fellowship is motivated by what God has done for databases, us (1.5–2.17). This is roughly similar to effects essay, Paul’s typical first half of letters in which he articulates the indicatives of the faith. John looks at fellowship from five angles. (1) The basic principle of fellowship is that since God is distributed databases thesis light believers are to walk in the light (1.5-10), though whether this means moral light or simply transparency is difficult to tell (though most commentators insist on moral light, I find Law’s defense of transparency the most satisfying view; in writing rubric persuasive essence, God expects honesty [=transparency] of his children as the basis for holiness). Thesis. (2) Fellowship with God is qualitative research gender inequality possible even when we sin (cf.
1.7) because of the distributed atoning work of Christ (2.1-2). (3) Fellowship is demanded because of this provision, and is motivated by this principle—and anyone who claims to know God but does not obey his commands is a liar (2.3-11). (4) Fellowship with God is effects drunk driving possible only for genuine believers, for they have been forgiven (justification) and have overcome the evil one (sanctification) (2.12-14). (5) Finally, fellowship with God is squelched when believers give in to the impulses of the flesh; hence they are warned not to love the world (2.15-17). The second section involves a natural transition, for John had just finished discussing the impulses of the flesh as standing against love for God; now he turns to a concrete example of this: false teachers (2.18-27). He will deal with false teachers in two major sections and it is distributed databases quite frankly difficult to see how the second section adds substantially to the content of the effects driving essay first. But it must be remembered that this book is a Jewish homily (even if clothed in Greek garb), in distributed thesis which the rubric persuasive essay author is fond of repeating the same ideas and motifs over and over again. 50 John begins this section with an databases thesis eschatological note: “It is the last hour” (2.18). Thesis Conclusion For Ordering System. If so, then believers should expect false teachers (antichrists) to arise.
John has located them. He gives three proofs that the false teachers are indeed false: (1) socially: they abandoned the church and formed their own group (2.19), (2) doctrinally: they deny that Jesus is the Christ (2.20-23); and (3) spiritually: believers have the anointing of the Spirit to guide them in recognizing these false teachers (2.24-27). The rise of these “antichrists” is an obvious indicator that believers are in databases thesis the last hour. This is the dark side of the eschaton. The third section reveals the bright side of the eschaton: since we are in the last days, our hope of Christ’s imminent return should produce godly living (2.28–3.10). John first articulates how such an eschatological hope should produce holiness (2.28–3.3). Then, without marking that his discussion is qualitative still in the same vein, he gives a proleptic view of distributed thesis, sanctification (3.4-10)—that is, he gives a hyperbolic picture of believers vs. unbelievers, implying that even though believers are not yet perfect, they are moving in what need in a that direction (3.6, 9 need to be interpreted proleptically), while unbelievers are moving away from truth (3.10; cf. 2.19).
Thus, John states in an absolute manner truths which are not yet true, because he is speaking within the context of eschatological hope (2.28–3.3) and eschatological judgment (2.18-19). The fourth section now addresses assurance more explicitly than had been done previously (3.11-24), though this is hardly a new topic. John will outline two bases for distributed databases, assurance in online essay uk this epistle: love and faith. He will also address love as a major motif twice, though on the second occasion he will relate it more to sanctification than to justification. John begins this fourth section by defining what love is databases thesis not, using the example of Cain (3.11-15), followed by a definition of what love is, using the example of Christ (3.16-17). But this is inequality not mere academia, for with the definition comes obligation: because Christ laid down his life for us, we ought to lay our lives down for each other (3.16-17). After this definition, John addresses our subjective apprehension of this truth, viz., the distributed thesis witness of the Spirit (3.18-24).
Even if our own feelings tell us that God does not love us, “God is greater than our hearts” (3.18-20); further, the indwelling Spirit constantly reminds us that we are God’s children, giving us confidence before God (3.21-24). In the fifth section John once again returns to gender, the false teachers (4.1-6). He makes a natural transition between the two sections, for distributed thesis, not only does the Spirit who dwells within us testify to our status before God, the same Spirit also testifies to the deception of the therese raquin questions heretics. Believers are exhorted to test the spirits (of prophets) with two tests: external (doctrine) and distributed thesis internal (witness of the Spirit). The doctrinal test is a simple question: Has Jesus Christ come in the flesh (4.1-3)? The spiritual test ends up being just as simple: Do the writing essay prophets heed John (4.4-6)? This question can be asked because John is God’s spokesman (4.6).
The sixth section once again picks up the distributed databases motif of love (cf. 3.11-14), only this time the emphasis is on sanctification more than assurance of inequality, salvation (4.7-21). This love is thesis shown in Christ’s death (4.7-12; cf. 3.16-17), which in turn is witnessed by the Spirit as a display of things in a book, God’s love (4.13-16a; cf. Databases. John 3.16). Writing Rubric Persuasive Essay. Once God’s love is truly grasped—both by the evidence of history and the witness of the thesis Spirit—it necessarily removes all fear, for need book report, “perfect love casts out fear” (4.16b-18). And once we grasp the truth of this perfect, divine love, we should be motivated to love our brothers (4.19-21). In the seventh section John returns to assurance, though he now bases it on faith more than on love, though the two are intermingled throughout this section (5.1-12). Once again, the twin themes of distributed thesis, external basis and internal basis are prevalent. The external basis of assurance is faith (creed) and love (conduct) (5.1-2). The result of this productive faith is that the therese raquin essay questions true believer overcomes the world (5.3-5).
The internal basis is the witness of the Spirit (5.6-12)—a witness within our hearts (5.9-10), borne by distributed databases thesis, the Spirit who is true (5.6). To what does he bear witness? The truth of the creed (5.11-12; cf. 5.1). John concludes his epistle with a reminder of conclusion, Christ’s present work, advocacy of our standing before God (5.13-21). This advocacy gives believers certainty of salvation (5.13), confidence in their prayers (5.12-15), and thesis concern for sinning brothers—to the point that they themselves become intercessors, just as Christ is an intercessor (5.16-17). Finally, John restates many of his themes—e.g., the conduct of the believer (5.18), assurance of salvation (5.19), truth about Christ (5.20), and drunk driving implicit denial of the heretics’ doctrines (5.21). I. Prologue: The Reality of the distributed thesis Incarnation (1.1-4) II. Fellowship: Motivated by God’s Dealings in the Past (1.5–2.17) A. The Principles of Fellowship: Walking in the Light (1.5-10) B. The Provision of Fellowship: The Death of Christ (2.1-2) C. The Imperatives of Fellowship: Obeying God’s Commands (2.3-11) D. The Prerequisites of Fellowship: The Status of the Believers (2.12-14) E. The Impulses against Fellowship: Loving the World (2.15-17) III. False Teachers: Recognition of Deception (2.18-27) A. First Proof: Their Abandonment (2.18-19) B. Second Proof: Their Denial that Jesus is the qualitative research Christ (2.20-23) C. Third Proof: Our Anointing of the distributed databases Spirit (2.24-27) IV.
Eschatological Hope: Motivation for Holy Living in the Present (2.28–3.10) A. Hope Produces Holiness (2.28–3.3) B. A Proleptic View of Sanctification (3.4-10) V. Love as Basis for Assurance: Definition and Discernment (3.11-24) A. Definition (3.11-17) 1. Negatively Stated: The Example of thesis for ordering system, Cain (3.11-15) 2. Positively Stated: The Example of Christ (3.16-17) B. Databases Thesis. Discernment: The Witness of the Spirit (3.18-24) 1. Qualitative Inequality. The Condemnation by thesis, our Hearts (3.18-20) 2. The Confidence we can have before God (3.21-24) VI. False Teachers: Discernment of False Spirits (4.1-6) A. Objective Test: Doctrine (4.1-3) B. Subjective Test: The Witness of the online essay uk Spirit (4.4-6) VII. Love: Essential to Sanctification (4.7-21) A. Love Displayed in the Death of Christ (4.7-12) B. The Death of Christ Witnessed by the Spirit (4.13-16a) C. Databases. Love Removes Fear (4.16b-18) D. Divine Love Prompts Brotherly Love (4.19-21) VIII. Faith: Assurance in our Hearts (5.1-12) A. Faith and therese essay External Evidence: Overcoming (5.1-5) B. Faith and Internal Assurance: Witness of the Spirit (5.6-12) IX.
The Advocacy of Christ: Basis for Present Confidence before God (5.13-21) A. The Advocacy of Christ (5.13-17) B. Summary: Assurances Restated (5.18-21) 1 B. Distributed. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels (rev. Essay. ed.; London: Macmillan, 1930), 460. It is distributed thesis significant that even Brown, who argues against common authorship, agrees with this dictum. 2 See Raymond Brown, The Epistles of John (Anchor Bible), 6-9, for a discussion. Although Ignatius does not apparently quote from/allude to 1 John, he almost certainly knew of the Gospel of John. 3 Donald Guthrie, Introduction to the New Testament (rev. ed.), 859.
5 Robert Law, The Tests of Life: A Study of the online essay uk First Epistle of St. John (3d ed., reprinted; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968), 340. Of course, in Law’s day unity of authorship for Shakespeare’s plays was assumed! 6 In this case, common authorship for 2-3 John is almost always assumed true, since the length, style, opening and closing, and distributed databases thesis identification of the author as “the elder” all point rather decisively in this direction. It is precisely because 1 John does not so identify its author that some have disputed common authorship among these three letters. 7 See our discussion of the conclusion authorship of the Fourth Gospel. 11 Ibid., 345-46. It should be noted that this is true except for the narrative “seams” in these three chapters. 12 Brown, The Epistles of John , 24. 14 Brown, 28. Cf.
25-28 for databases thesis, his arguments. 16 Ibid., 356 (italics added). 18 Law’s argument aptly illustrates that there is no contradiction, but it still does not explain the different emphases well. Further, it could be argued that his classical biography/biology distinction is more rhetoric than substance, for is not Christ our life as well as our example? If one were to effects, compare this with Paul’s writings, he would note, for example, a curious lack of reference to “in God,” while his main epistles are replete with references to databases, “in Christ.” Thus, although Law is thesis conclusion for ordering moving in the right direction, I do not feel that he has completely answered the problem. 19 Cf. 1 John 2.9-11; 3.14-18; 4.7-12; and 4.20 (“the one who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen”). All these references connect love for each other with spirituality. From this it seems that the opponents in this letter, in thesis the least, did not allow their theology to affect their lives.
Or to put it another way, if God did not come in writing persuasive essay the flesh, they need not be concerned about flesh and blood either. John’s point, on the other hand, is that one cannot be so spiritual that he neglects/denies the physical aspects of reality—either for Christ or for one’s fellow Christian. 21 The cognate, ?????????? , is used only twice in the NT, once by Paul (Rom 3.25) and once by the author of Hebrews (9.5), whom we have argued is an associate of Paul’s. Distributed Databases Thesis. 22 This is not to deny a strong strain of Paulinisms in the gospel, for that too was shaped/occasioned by the need to communicate to Paul’s churches in raquin essay Asia Minor. 23 It is not insignificant that this is the main argument Dodd used to demonstrate disparate authorship for the Gospel and epistle, for the epistle largely lacks this same perspective. 24 What confirms that John’s Gospel was written before the war started, rather than during it (assuming that a date up to databases, 70 CE is correct) is that it lacks the Olivet Discourse, and a generally futuristic eschatology. For other arguments, see our discussion of the Fourth Gospel. 25 See discussion in John. 26 This will be discussed under date. 27 Not only gender inequality Brown, but the vast bulk of scholars do the same.
One could read just about distributed any commentary on John 9.22 to see this. 28 See discussion in John. 29 One might liken the process to a writer who has a manuscript ready to things need book, go but is distributed databases thesis lacking a publisher. When one is found, certain changes are made to suit his needs, with the writing essay result that not a few extraneous remnants are left intact. 30 I. H. Marshall, The Epistles of John (NICNT), 33. 31 If 2-3 John are not by the apostle, “John the elder” (mentioned by Papias) is the normal candidate next in line. Although there is some credibility for distributed databases thesis, this with reference to writing rubric persuasive essay, Revelation, almost none exists for 2-3 John precisely because the language is so similar to that of 1 John. 32 There is a third objection to distributed thesis, common authorship which Moffatt raises: 2-3 John involve “several resemblances to Pauline language” which are absent from 1 John (J. Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament , 479-81).
But the reverse phenomenon is also true: 1 John resembles Paul in certain points where 2-3 John do not. Again, in our hypothesis, Pauline resemblances in these letters would be due to John’s move into Pauline circles in Asia Minor, for the purpose of personally picking up the ministry that was left behind after Paul died. Drunk Essay. (Whether the resemblances are conscious or subconscious or whether John employed an amanuensis is a question worth pursuing, but beyond the scope of this essay.) 33 Brown, 17, 19. Incidentally, this same argument can be used to support unity of distributed databases, authorship between Ephesians and drunk driving Colossians. 34 R. H. Charles, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on databases thesis the Revelation of John (2 vols.; ICC) l:xxxvii. 35 This contrasts with the gender Revelation, which almost certainly has to have been written by databases, a different author or, if by the same author, written at a different time. 37 See our discussion of online essay uk, John. 38 See discussion in John for details. 39 Although John uses terms such as “antichrist” instead of distributed, “false Christs,” the concept is gender quite similar. Further, he speaks of this being “the last hour,” of our hope of his return, and of judgment on the world. All of thesis, these are themes which, though not missing in the Gospel entirely, are greatly suppressed in favor of a more realized eschatology.
40 This parallels, to therese raquin essay, some degree, the thesis raison d’etre of the writing of 2 Peter and Jude. 41 Once the war with Rome was over, there would in all probability arise speculation as to whether Christ would indeed return. As long as the things do you in a book war was going on, the eschatological hope would most likely be felt by all Christians. 42 In this I am not suggesting that both epistles were sent to thesis, exactly the same audience, but that there was a general consensus in 1 John that they were known in the region to have defected, while in 2 John John warns his readers of heretics who were still itinerating among the Asia Minor congregations. Online Essay Uk. Indeed, there is the possibility (as more than one commentator has suggested) that 2 John was the tool which unmasked these heretics, thereby producing the effect spoken of in 1 John 2.19! 44 If our hypothesis about Jude’s destination is correct (viz., Ephesus),then there is subtle confirmation here: if both letters were written at about the same time, since the heretics Jude is attacking were apparently different than the ones John is thesis attacking (licentious vs. docetic), it is probable that they lived in different areas. 45 The probability of a Gentile audience once again confirms that John has picked up the ministry left in Asia Minor after Paul’s death. In particular, as one reads the Acts, the picture that emerges is that Paul alone among the apostles is actively and intentionally ministering to the Gentiles. 46 See Guthrie, 864-66, for a development of this. 47 Although not often noticed in what things do you need in a introductory matters, here is distributed another parallel with Paul’s thought (cf.
Rom 8.16). Another point of interest, though along different lines: the difference between 2 Peter’s appeal and 1 John’s is that 2 Peter appeals on the basis of an established authority (Paul’s letters—3.15, 16), while John appeals to the inner testimony of the Spirit. One reason for this might be that when Peter wrote there were no apostles left in Asia Minor and hence appeal to authority was strongly needed (the same applies to Jude). For Ordering System. But when John wrote, since he was an apostle—and since he knew that the heretics did not recognize his authority—appeal was made to an even higher authority. (This also seems to conform to their personalities: Peter lifts Paul up to his level by calling him “brother,” while John takes a more ostensibly humble approach, by databases, submitting his literary/historical efforts to the scrutiny of the Ephesian elders [John 21.24] and by appealing to the witness of the Spirit over against his own authority.) 48 This again suggests the posteriority of 1 John to John, for the Gospel seems to be more of an invitation to thesis conclusion for ordering, faith, or an distributed establishment of what is the gospel (20.31), while the epistle is thesis system more reassuring of those who are perceived to be believers. 49 The last one seems to be most crucial, on the analogy of distributed, John’s style in his gospel (20.31).
Of course, he does not give any earlier statements, showing that the analogy may break down at this very point. 50 One of the problems with outlining a book such as this is do you need book report that we too often approach the biblical text from a logical/academic view, rather than from a homiletical/cardial view. Databases Thesis. This book—as so much of the NT—appeals to online essay uk, the heart more than to the mind. How does one outline the language of worship? Or a hymn?
Even the title “Argument” which we have euphemistically given to this section of the essay hardly does justice to databases thesis, this document, nor to so much of the Bible. 51 As we suggested under the theme, this book is virtually impossible to outline. John’s thought is simply not nearly as neat and tidy as is Paul’s. In some respects, John is building his argument via expanding concentric circles of thought, though each new development is not merely an expansion; rather, it is often taking the online essay uk thought in databases thesis a new direction, or merely developing one sub-theme. Our outline will accordingly be quite imprecise and artificial, reflecting the somewhat fluid (amorphous?) structure.
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federal it resume Working for databases thesis, the Federal Government - Benefits. Pay is only part of the compensation you will earn working for the Federal Government. The Federal government offers a broad array of benefits programs and family friendly flexibilities to meet the needs of you and your family. Here are some highlights. Look for additional information along with links to pages that spell out the details below. The Federal health insurance program is a nationally recognized model that offers federal employees choice and flexibility along with a substantial employer contribution to premiums. And employees can pay their share of premiums as well as their out-of-pocket costs with pre-tax dollars. The Federal leave policy provides ample time off to raquin, take care of employee’s personal, recreational and health care needs. In addition to 10 paid holidays every year, employees will accumulate 13 days of sick leave each year along with from 13 to 26 vacation days, depending on distributed databases, their years of employment. To help employees manage responsibilities outside of their jobs and enhance their peace of gender inequality mind while at work, Federal agencies offer a range of family friendly flexibilities including flexible work schedules, telework; child care and databases thesis, elder care resources; adoption information and incentives programs; child support programs, including subsidies and dependent care flexible spending accounts; and effects driving, employee assistance programs.
In addition to these programs, the Federal Government recognizes the need for income replacement and income support benefits down the distributed road. The Federal government’s 3-part retirement program includes a social security benefit, a 401(k) type plan, and a defined benefit component based on years of writing rubric persuasive employment and salary history. Distributed Databases! In addition to online essay uk, retiree health insurance benefits under the databases FEHB Program, federal workers also will be eligible for Medicare. Thesis Conclusion! Federal employees will be able to distributed thesis, choose among several options for life insurance coverage for online essay uk, both them and their family members. The Federal government offers the largest group long-term care insurance program in the country. As a new employee, you can apply by answering just a few simple questions. And you can tailor your benefits package to distributed databases thesis, your own needs. As a new employee, individuals may be eligible for some special bonuses such as a recruitment bonus or a relocation bonus. This will be at the discretion of the employing agency. Other beneficial federal programs employees may want to what things do you in a book report, ask about include: incentive awards; employee development programs; student loan repayment programs; retention allowances; and interagency transfers.
All agencies support community service and distributed thesis, encourage participation in the annual combined Federal campaign. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHB) The Government's health benefit program has about 180 health plan options throughout the United States , including consumer-driven health care and preferred provider network options. At least a dozen plan choices are available to each employee, which allows for a broad choice so that employees can select the plan that best meets their own individual health care needs. While specific benefits vary among FEHB plans, none can impose a waiting period or require a medical exam to enroll in online essay uk, their plan. Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) FSAs allow employees to increase their disposable income because the amounts they contribute are not subject to Federal income, FICA, State or local income taxes. The Federal Government offers both a Health Care FSA and a Dependent Care FSA. Employees can use the Health Care FSA for expenses that are tax-deductible, but not reimbursed by any other source, including out-of-pocket expenses and non-covered benefits under their FEHB plans. Some examples are non-covered dental services, lasik surgery, health plan deductibles, and co-payments and coinsurance. FSAs for dependent care are available for distributed thesis, employees with dependent children or qualifying dependent adults when the care is necessary to allow the employee to work.
Federal employees are entitled to thesis, at least 13 days of vacation leave as well as 13 days of sick leave each year. Depending on years of service, employees can earn up to distributed databases thesis, 26 days of vacation leave each year. Effects! In addition, Federal employees get 10 days paid holiday each year. This allows employees time to spend with their families and to pursue their own individual interests and distributed databases thesis, avocations. Family Friendly Flexibilities. The Federal Government provides many programs for qualitative research, workers to support their needs for individual flexibility. For example, Flexible Work Schedules allow employees to adjust their work hours in order to take a day off each pay period. Employees can enjoy twenty-six 3-day weekends ! Also, the Federal Government's Alternative Work Schedule (AWS) allows employees to select certain arrival and departure times that best suit their needs within their working day. Agencies are encouraged to allow eligible employees the opportunity to Telework either at home or at distributed databases thesis, a remote location at least one day a week. Conclusion! Family Friendly Leave Policies provide flexibility for military leave, allow employees to care for a sick family member or flexibility in the event of a disaster or emergency. In addition, while specific programs may vary, agencies also offer Employee Assistance Programs (EAP); Part-Time Job Sharing Positions; Resources for Child Elder Care Resources, Information and Incentives for distributed databases, Adoption, and other Child Support Services.
Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS): Retirement benefits are based on things need in a, your years of service and salary history. With the Thrift Savings Plan, individuals can self-direct their retirement savings program through multiple investment options. This Plan is very similar to a 401(k) plan. Federal employees will earn Social Security credit while working with the Government. Social Security provides for individual’s future retirement benefits, provides disability protection, and allows for survivor benefits protection.
New employees who had previous Government service may be eligible to participate in the Civil Service Retirement System. Check opm’s website for eligibility. Government employees are automatically eligible for Medicare Part A at no cost beginning at age 65. Federal Employees Group Life Insurance (FEGLI): FEGLI is thesis a group term life insurance program. It consists of Basic life insurance coverage and thesis, three options. In most cases, if you are a new Federal employee, individuals are automatically covered by distributed databases, Basic life insurance and your payroll office deducts premiums from your salary unless you waive the what need book coverage. In addition to the Basic, there are three forms of Optional insurance that you can elect. Distributed! (Standard, Additional, and thesis system, Family). The program offers the opportunity to retain your coverage for your entire life. Long Term Care Insurance Program:
As a new federal employee, you have the opportunity to apply for long term care insurance under the distributed databases Federal Program with minimal underwriting. However, a limited number of medical conditions will prevent a new employee from being approved for what things do you need in a book, coverage. Long term care helps people to perform daily activities if they have an ongoing illness or disability. This Program offers a choice of benefits that can provide a variety of services, including but not limited to: nursing home care, assisted living facility care, adult day care and at databases, home care. Please see the link for specific information. There are many other benefit programs that make the thesis for ordering system Federal Government a model employer and a top ranking career choice. Distributed Thesis! The following is for ordering system a list of additional programs offered by many of the thesis agencies: Lump-sum bonus to newly appointed employees for online essay uk, difficult-to-fill positions. Up to distributed databases, 25% of do you book basic pay may be paid prior to employee entering on thesis, duty. What Need In A Book Report! Service agreement with repayment plan if service time not fulfilled.
Lump-sum bonus for difficult-to-fill position in a different commuting area; up to 25% of basic pay. Service agreement with repayment plan if service time not fulfilled. Continuing payment to retain departing employees; up to 25% of basic pay. Monetary; Time off; Honorary; Non-monetary. Career Resource Centers; Training Opportunities. Annual Combined Federal Campaign. Transfer from one Federal agency/position to another without a break in service. Permits agencies to databases thesis, repay the student loans of Federal employees; used at effects driving, the discretion of the agency. Federal Employment Basics.
HOW FEDERAL JOBS ARE FILLED. Drafting an effective super-specialized federal resume to distributed thesis, meet current federal hiring and OPM requirements, one that will standout and actually be carefully read and seriously considered by human resources specialists who are overwhelmed with resumes and considered by hiring officials takes expert knowledge of federal personnel laws, as well as the federal hiring and what need in a, selection processes. Distributed Thesis! To complicate matters, each federal agency has their own hiring policies and procedures. Today, simply listing your experience, training, awards, qualifications, knowledge, skills and thesis system, abilities, etc., on paper no matter how good you think they are is distributed generally not enough to secure a highly competitive federal job. Online Essay Uk! With good paying jobs harder and harder to find, more and more people are turning to distributed, the federal government for effects driving essay, its benefits, job security and distributed databases thesis, diversity of work and career advancement opportunities. Online Essay Uk! Each of our expert editors are private consultants in their own right; having actually worked for the federal government themselves, each of our editors has the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities in virtually every facet of federal employment to effectively help any federal jobseeker applying to any federal position within the federal government. COMPETITIVE AND EXCEPTED SERVICE.
There are two classes of jobs in the Federal Government: 1) those that are in the competitive civil service, and 2) those that are in the excepted service. Competitive service jobs are under OPM's jurisdiction and subject to the civil service laws passed by Congress to ensure that applicants and distributed, employees receive fair and equal treatment in the hiring process. Essay Questions! These laws give selecting officials broad authority to review more than one applicant source before determining the best-qualified candidate based on distributed databases thesis, job-related criteria. A basic principle of Federal employment is that all candidates must meet the qualification requirements for the position for which they receive an online essay uk appointment. Excepted service agencies set their own qualification requirements and distributed databases, are not subject to the appointment, pay, and drunk driving, classification rules in title 5, United States Code. Distributed Databases! However, they are subject to veterans' preference. Online Essay Uk! Some Federal agencies, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) have only excepted service positions. Distributed Thesis! In other instances, certain organizations within an agency, or even specific jobs may be excepted from civil service procedures. Effects Driving! Positions may be in the excepted service by law, by executive order, or by action of distributed databases OPM. SOURCES OF ELIGIBLES.
In filling competitive service jobs, agencies can still generally choose from among 3 groups of candidates: Agencies make selections from within the effects driving essay highest quality category regardless of the number of distributed candidates (i.e., the rule of three does not apply any longer). However, preference eligibles receive absolute preference within each category. If a preference eligible is in the category, an thesis conclusion system agency may not select a non-preference eligible unless the agency requests to pass over the preference eligible in accordance with 5 U.S.C. Databases Thesis! § 3318, and drunk, the request is approved. If there are fewer than three candidates in the highest quality category, agencies may combine the highest category with the next lower category and make selections from the distributed databases thesis merged category. The newly merged category would then constitute the highest quality category. Online Essay Uk! Preference eligibles must be listed ahead of non-preference eligibles in databases, the newly merged category.
Once again, as long as a preference eligible remains in questions, the merged category, an agency may not select a non-preference eligible unless the databases agency receives approval to pass over the preference eligible in accordance with 5 U.S.C. § 3318. A list of eligibles who have civil service status consist of for ordering applicants who are eligible for noncompetitive movement within the competitive service because they either now are or were serving under career-type appointments in the competitive service. These individuals are selected under agency merit promotion procedures and distributed, can receive an appointment by promotion, reassignment, transfer, or reinstatement. A list of eligibles that qualify for a special noncompetitive appointing authority established by law or executive order. Examples of special noncompetitive appointing authorities include the Veterans' Readjustment Appointment (VRA), the special authority for 30% or more disabled veterans, and the Peace Corps. Agencies in the competitive service are required by law and OPM regulation to post vacancies with OPM whenever they are seeking candidates from outside their own workforce for online essay uk, positions lasting more than 120 days. (Agency, in this context, means the parent agency -- i.e., Treasury, not the Internal Revenue Service.) These vacancies are posted on OPM's USAJOBS and posted with State Employment Service Offices. The vast majority of our customers contact us after finding vacancy announcements they want to databases thesis, apply to on USAJOBS, the online essay uk Federal Government's Employment Information System. Once a suitable number of vacancy announcements are identified by the federal jobseeker, the appropriate staff expert editor with specialized knowledge of the target agency and position is assigned to distributed databases, create an effective federal resume for that particular agency’s hiring officials. We know the key is getting your foot in the door, once “you’re in,” it’s relatively easy to transfer or lateral within the do you need in a book federal system. Our concern is getting you in, once “you’re in” the distributed thesis federal system, we properly update and revise your federal resume for free throughout your entire federal career!
AND, our commitment to you does not stop there, as a FEDeral Resume Experts’ customer, you will be entitled to driving, the following free federal jobseeker services, all at NO COST: Free updating and databases, revising of your federal resume for life! Free Federal interview and job search coaching Free access to qualitative gender, the federal jobseeker newsletter Free Federal employment tips help 24 hrs 7 Days a week Free cover letter with every order (limit one per order) Free thank you letter with every order (limit one per order) Free access to your expert editor 24 hrs 7 Days a week. AREA OF CONSIDERATION. The area of consideration is listed on the vacancy announcement and is the source from which the agency will consider candidates. The agency may designate whatever area of consideration it considers appropriate. Distributed Databases Thesis! A candidate who is outside the area of consideration will not be considered.
Veterans' preference recognizes the economic loss suffered by citizens who have served their country in uniform in times of strife, restores veterans to a favorable competitive position for Government employment, and research inequality, acknowledges the larger obligation owed to disabled veterans. Historically, Congress has reserved preference for those who were either disabled, who served in combat areas or during certain periods of thesis time. Veterans who qualify as preference eligibles (meaning they typically must have served on online essay uk, active duty for at least 2 years during a period of war or in a campaign or expedition for distributed, which a campaign badge is authorized, or be disabled) are entitled to an additional 5 or 10 points added onto their earned rating in a competitive civil service examination. Rubric Essay! In all other situations (for example, selection from a merit promotion list or other internal action such as reassignment, transfer, or reinstatement), veterans' preference is not a factor. Veterans' preference was intended to give eligible veterans an extra assist in getting a job with the Government and in keeping it in the event of a reduction in force. Veterans' preference does not guarantee the veteran a job. Veterans' preference should not be confused with the special appointing authorities such as the distributed thesis VRA, which allow eligible veterans to drunk driving essay, be appointed noncompetitively to the competitive service. THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT (VEOA)
This act gave veterans who qualify as preference eligibles and veterans with 3 or more years of continuous active service access to jobs that might otherwise be closed to them. Distributed Databases! When an agency advertises for candidates outside its own workforce under merit promotion procedures, it must allow these veterans to apply. Of course, all applications are subject to any area of consideration that the agency has specified on the vacancy announcement. Thus, if the agency will only accept applications from status candidates within the local commuting area, veterans who are outside the commuting area are not eligible. AS OF: 10-30-00. Understanding the Federal Hiring Process.
Federal jobseekers ask us all the time, “why should I pay for a resume writing service when I can write my own Federal resume?” Answer : Anyone can write a resume or input his or her information to create a resume, but unfortunately not everyone who submits his or her resume to the Federal government gets a Federal job. While no one can legally guarantee you a Federal job, Federal employment is thesis system easily attainable provided you have a thorough knowledge of the Federal hiring process and know how to write an databases effective Federal resume for do you need in a book, the applicable vacancy announcement and for the particular Federal agency, WE DO! A properly formatted and worded Federal resume, which matches the targeted Federal agency and its dynamics, is distributed databases as important as a properly written KSA to get a Federal job. Not unlike people, all Federal agencies are not alike. Each agency has its own mission and essay, therefore its own dynamics. You do not, meet, greet, and speak to everyone you encounter on a daily basis the same because every situation is databases different and requires special handling; the same logic applies to things do you in a book report, the Federal application process. The only thing that should remain constant is change, not your Federal resume.
Nor should you submit the same Federal resume for databases thesis, each vacancy announcement. This is the #1 mistake made by Federal jobseekers! Automated hiring systems, like the one the thesis conclusion system U.S. Office of distributed thesis Personnel Management (OPM) utilizes to help candidates applying for effects drunk driving, Federal jobs, do not hire people, people do. Distributed Databases! Understanding Federal agencies, their people and the Federal hiring process is what things what we do. OPM’s automated hiring system is distributed thesis merely used to online essay uk, “identify” a pool of candidates through a cookie cutter approach that leaves every candidate’s application “looking” exactly the same.
However, people must still determine what attributes automated hiring systems will measure, determine how these systems will measure those attributes, monitor the operation of these systems, and ultimately make selection decisions. Although every Federal hiring official is responsible for complying with applicable OPM rules and regulations, each Federal agency is responsible for their own hiring processes. Understanding Federal agencies, their people and thesis, the Federal hiring process is what we know. Under Federal law, agencies make selections from within the highest quality category regardless of the number of candidates (i.e., the effects drunk driving rule of three does not apply any longer). Thesis! Once a hiring panel has rated and ranked the candidates and applied applicable veterans’ preference points, the panel begins calling best qualified candidates in for an interview. If a candidate with veterans’ preference is on the list, the selecting official cannot by law pass over thesis conclusion the veteran and select a lower ranking candidate without veterans’ preference unless the selecting official’s objection to hiring the veteran is sustained by OPM. 5 U.S.C.
Section 3318. Databases Thesis! However, this rarely happens and the candidate with veterans’ preference is normally selected over the non veterans’ preference candidate. This leaves the typical candidate in direct competition with potentially hundreds of other candidates with similar backgrounds and often times similar looking Federal resumes when a candidate uses an automated hiring system like OPM’s. Unless you are familiar with each agency’s hiring processes and are generally aware of what hiring officials in thesis conclusion system, each Federal agency typically look for in candidates to fill positions within their Federal agency, you have no discernable advantage over any other candidate applying for distributed thesis, the same Federal position when you write your own Federal resume or use an automated hiring system like OPM’s. Online Essay Uk! Understanding Federal agencies, their people and distributed databases thesis, the Federal hiring process is what we know best. FEDeral Resume Experts specialize in one thing, writing effective federal resumes that get results! The following charts outline the general Competitive Examining Process methodology for filling Federal job vacancies:
A monthly publication courtesy of the drunk essay Federal Resume Experts® Staff.
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experianced resume Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the databases thesis chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes.
Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to online essay uk, change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on distributed databases thesis top of the resume. Questions? Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the distributed databases rest of the content in qualitative, the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Distributed Databases? Many resumes usually contain four to research gender, five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. For the purpose of distributed databases thesis this article, I have concentrated on conclusion for ordering system these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for thesis several reasons. It’s the essay first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the databases prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the resume.
You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the area of legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and drunk driving writing skills.” Education. This section is an important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education. Distributed Thesis? If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus. Online Essay Uk? Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management.
You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in this section. List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in distributed thesis, those leadership roles. Therese Raquin Questions? If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an databases, article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee.
Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on writing rubric persuasive essay the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and thesis honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. Qualitative? While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and distributed databases responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship. Persuasive? If you have participated in more than one internship, list the databases most recent internship first with the relevant dates.
Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. Effects Drunk Driving? This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the databases organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity. Raquin? For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. Databases? This section of the conclusion resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the distributed thesis resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel?
Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in what, the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it.
Other relevant experience. Thesis? The last section of the what things do you need in a book resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the distributed thesis resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to whom you are writing, the essay questions company or organization and the relevant salutation.
Try to get the exact name of the person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the distributed databases cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out raquin essay, about the available position. For example, “I am writing to apply for distributed databases the position of paralegal as advertised in essay, the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at distributed thesis, the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and qualitative research gender experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume. Discuss why your qualifications and distributed databases experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company.
The final paragraph closes the what do you need report letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and databases thesis that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to need in a book, resumes for distributed thesis new paralegals. Drunk? Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to thesis, one page, if possible. Effects Driving Essay? Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and distributed Education. Career objective. This is important for online essay uk experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth.
Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the distributed Education section. You should provide your degree or the certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. Inequality? List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of databases experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the resume. Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the thesis conclusion for ordering resume is the most important information provided by the applicant in engaging the interest of the prospective employers.
The most common form of distributed databases presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in thesis conclusion system, the use of the verb tense. For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills.
This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in databases, word processing, and to be able to navigate e-mails and writing prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in thesis, other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience.
If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups. These all are activities to stress in your resume.
They demonstrate initiative, leadership and what need commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the cover letter is to encourage the employer to read your resume and invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and well-written.
The first paragraph of the distributed databases thesis cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over effects driving essay, 10 years of paralegal experience in distributed thesis, employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to why this experience will benefit the raquin essay questions law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the databases management of questions a law office. The final paragraph closes the letter by distributed thesis thanking the employers for their consideration of what things do you need in a book report your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview. Databases Thesis? Also indicate that your resume is online essay uk enclosed and that references are available upon request.
SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the distributed databases ABA Approved-paralegal program at qualitative research gender, Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to coursework in distributed, the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of litigation through my internship experiences.
I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in what things do you need book, using Westlaw to distributed databases thesis, perform research. Qualitative Research Gender Inequality? I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration.
I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for distributed this position. Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon writing rubric persuasive essay request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and distributed thesis Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for.
students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. Effects Driving? 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan.
2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in thesis, drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to apply for the position of online essay uk supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and comfortable in databases, the use of effects essay technology.
I am proficient in using Westlaw and databases thesis Lexis to perform research. Effects Driving? I have assisted the distributed databases thesis attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. I have become skilled in the use of online essay uk software applications to thesis, assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of things in a expertise in using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to consider me for databases this position. I look forward to online essay uk, speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is distributed databases thesis my resume and online essay uk I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS.
345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and distributed databases thesis administrative support for qualitative gender civil litigation firm. Supervise and databases train secretarial staff and student interns.
Implement an online billing system for effects clients. Draft legal memoranda and distributed thesis client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and online essay uk Lexis. Assist with document production and distributed trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings.
Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for drunk driving case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints.
Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and databases thesis the Legal Assistants Association of online essay uk New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in distributed thesis, New York City. Qualitative Research Inequality? She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to thesis, work as paralegals in the legal profession.
Professor Chin’s field of expertise is online essay uk employment and distributed thesis elder law.