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Research essay intro

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AS/A Level Psychology Unit 1 Model Essay Answers 7181. The new AQA AS/A level psychology Unit 1 model essay answers ebook that#8217;s going to make your revision so much easier. This covers the NEW AQA AS/A level psychology specification for first teaching from September 2015 onwards and provides A-grade answers to every single possible essay question in the AS and A level psychology exam for the AQA exam board. This ebook becomes available to download instantly after checkout within your account. Everything is 100% secure during payment. Essay Intro? Covering the new AS specification from September 2015 onwards. AQA AS/A Level Psychology Unit 1 A* Model Essay Answers (New Spec 7181) What does this AS Psychology ebook provide? A* grade model essay answers for every single possible question for the AS and A level psychology paper 1 exam and information presented in a nice and easy to understand way. At over 120 pages it is the biggest, most comprehensive revision ebook I have ever written. Essays are split in phd thesis a nice and easy to understand way distinguishing theory (AO1) and evaluation (AO3) so students and teachers can pick and essay intro, choose the information they wish to use for their own work. How will this ebook help you for your psychology revision?

This ebook covers every single possible essay question in the exam and presents to phd thesis in statistics, you enough information for the theory and evaluation sections to score an A grade. Last year thousands of students used my resources for AS and intro, A level psychology to score some fantastic grades. This ebook is the most comprehensive I have ever written and covers every single essay you need to proposal in statistics, know and presents to you a model essay answer for intro you to source from. Perception Essay? This unit 1 AS/A Level ebook follows the AQA A specification exactly. The hardest part in writing your essay answers is sourcing all the information, structuring it and rewording it in coherent sentences; this makes your job infinitely easier as all the intro information is broken down in a nice and easy to understand way for you to the slave thesis, use. What#8217;s inside and what essays does this ebook cover? Types of conformity: internalisation, identification and compliance.

Explanations for conformity: informational social influence and research essay intro, normative social influence, and variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and breeding, task difficulty as investigated by Asch. Conformity to social roles as investigated by Zimbardo. Explanations for obedience: Agentic state and legitimacy of authority, and situational variables affecting obedience including proximity, location and uniform, as investigated by Milgram. Dispositional explanation for obedience: the Authoritarian Personality. Essay Intro? Explanations of resistance to social influence, including social support and locus of perception control. Minority influence including reference to consistency, commitment and flexibility. Essay? The role of social influence processes in social change. The multi-Store Memory Model: Sensory register, short-term memory, long-term memory.

Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration. Types of long-term memory: Episodic, semantic, procedural memory. The working memory model: Central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. Features of the model: coding and capacity. Tfl Business Plan? Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference and research, retrieval failure due to absence of cues. Experience By Ralph Emerson? Factors affecting the accuracy of research intro eyewitness testimony: Misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion: anxiety. Improving the whats up essay accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the research use of the cognitive interview.

Caregiver-infant interactions in comparative thesis humans: Reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Research Intro? Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer. Multiple attachments and the role of the plan father. Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow Explanations of attachment: Learning history and Bowlby#8217;s Monotropic theory. The concepts of a critical period and an internal working model.

Ainsworth#8217;s “strange situation”. Types of attachment: Secure, Insecure-avoidant and essay, insecure-resistant. Cultural variations in attachment, including Van Ijzendoorn. Bowlby#8217;s theory of tfl business plan maternal deprivation. Romanian orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation. The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of an internal working model. Psychopathology (A level Psychology Students) Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from research, social norms, failure to function adequately, statistical infrequency and deviation from ideal mental health. The behavioural, emotional and phd thesis proposal in statistics, cognitive characteristics of phobias, depression and OCD.

The behavioural approach to explaining and treating phobias: the research essay intro two-process model, including classical and operant conditioning: systematic desensitisation, including relaxation and use of in statistics hierarchy: flooding. The cognitive approach to explaining and treating depression: Beck’s negative triad and Ellis’s ABC model: cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), including challenging irrational thoughts. The biological approach to explaining and treating OCD: genetic and research, neural explanations: drug therapy. Click here to get a better overview of the new AS/A level psychology unit 1 exam itself. This outlines what the first paper entails in better detail. This ebook is for your own personal use only and by ralph emerson essay, must not be shared, uploaded or any of its contents distributed in any form as it is subject to copyright. Latest posts by Saj Devshi (see all) 7 reviews for research intro AS/A Level Psychology Unit 1 Model Essay Answers 7181. I only just ordered it and looking through it, i am actually excited to revise! It is proposal, visually so good and the notes are so helpful. i can#8217;t wait to analyse the essay model answers and phd thesis, create my own.

I wasn#8217;t that confident with psychology to begin with but after ordering this I hope to essay intro, see an improvement in my attitude and grades. Im planning to use this everyday. When will AS Unit 2 be out? I#8217;m currently writing unit 2 it should be out comparative critique, early November as its almost complete! It covers everything you need to know if your an AS student as well as if you choose to study the full A level (its the most comprehensive resource available!) Hope this helps, any questions drop me a message. Absolutely beautiful I was initially going to buy the CGP revision guide (which is actually more expensive?!) but after comparing them both, it didn#8217;t stand a chance. Thank you so much for this!! Hi Saj, this book is great, really easy to understand. Thank you for this.

I was wondering if you sell hard copy#8217;s? Thank you for the kind words and glad to hear its helping! I don#8217;t do hardcopies but you can print the research essay ebooks to make them all into hardcopies! Hi Saj excuse my previous comment. I meant to rate it 4 stars. Also do you know anything on how the second year of the specification will be like#8230;spec wise? Hi Saj, This book would be really helpful for me for my A Level Psychology Exam. i have read the description part and experience by ralph waldo emerson, i know its a ebook but is essay intro, there anyway i could get the actual book so that its not an whats up essay electronic version. Hi Abdul! You can print the ebook too to make it into a physical copy! It can be used on research any computer and printed off as a book too if you wish.

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 7182 Aggression Model Essay Answers. Copyright 2017 Loopa Psychology Revision. Essay? Studying AQA Psychology For 2017/18? You're At The Right Place! The #1 A Level Psychology Revision Website!

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Hi Point 916 C9 handgun and 995TS carbine, self defense on a budget. Hi Point 916 C9 handgun and 995TS carbine, self defense on a budget. I have been in contact with Hi-Point about a self defense on a budget article for a few months now and getting some ideas on the best and research essay least expensive way for someone on a tight budget to be able to whats up essay have a handgun for legal concealed carry and something for home defense. After a few emails and some brainstorming my friend at Hi-Point suggested the 916 C9, a handgun chambered in 9mm Luger and a 996TS carbine also chambered in 9mm Luger. Combined MSRP is $486 for both. Now Hi-Point also offers the pistols and carbines in research .40 Smith and Wesson and tfl business plan .45 Automatic but in essay intro keeping with the thoughts of the least expensive idea we went with the whats up essay, 9mm set. Hi-Point also produces a pistol in research essay .380 Automatic for MSRP $151 but no carbine in that caliber. So, we had a plan and phd thesis shortly thereafter I had the essay, two test samples.

The C9 holds eight plus one with a magazine holding ten rounds also available. The 995TS holds ten rounds standard. Now the cool part is the magazine for the carbine will work in the pistol but obviously will stick out the bottom a bit. Since the pistol magazine holds eight rounds it is too short to work in the carbine. The Hi Point pistols and carbines work on a straight blow back design, which is different than a locking breech design in that the plan, recoil spring and slide mass is essay intro, what resists movement during firing. The barrel is stationary which makes for a simple design that is perception essay, not prone to essay intro problems that can happen to thesis other link and essay linkless barrel designs. So, I will address the whats up essay, elephant in the room.

The C9 is not a very attractive pistol to some, but as we all know, ugly folks get married everyday and are happy. I would take an ugly pistol that runs over a beautiful pistol that is unreliable all day long. Essay. Talking with Hi-Point about some of these points I learned that part of their mission as a manufacture is to whats up essay provide firearms that are reliable and accurate at a price point where anyone could afford one. Yes, there are gun snobs that will run down the research intro, inexpensive firearms but to phd thesis in statistics me that is an issue they have. Intro. Think of the kid just out of college waiting tables while they are looking for a job, or the experience by ralph waldo emerson essay, single mother working two jobs to just make ends meet. They deserve viable options for reliable firearms just the same as anyone. Research. All that plus Hi-Point firearms are made in America and essay conclusion have a lifetime warranty. I took both test samples out to the range with some of my reloads using a 115gr Montana Gold JHP and Unique propellant as well as some factory defensive rounds to see how they would cycle. I also wanted to get some numbers on the difference between a pistol and intro a carbine in whats up essay the same round.

I measured velocity difference and ballistic gel penetration. Running several magazines through both samples I experienced no malfunctions. Sights were tried initially at twenty-five feet and essay intro they were right on. After a few magazines through each I loaded up a few Hornady Critical Defense 115gr, Hornady XTP 147gr, and tfl business plan Federal Guard Dog 105gr for intro the ballistic gel test. You can see those results by whats up essay following this link. Both the pistol and carbine ran just fine and gave no issues whatsoever. Recoil was very manageable with the pistol and almost nonexistent with the research, carbine. After about fifty or so rounds through each I decided to pack it in and get an early start on the next trip. Clinton Jamieson, a fellow reviewer, and I set out to really wring out the carbine and pistol and get some accuracy tests done to see what these firearms are capable of. This time we brought along defensive rounds, factory ball, remanufactured rounds from Fort Mill Munitions, and three different reloads.

We had about 400 rounds total and intended to critique use them up. First we started out at twenty-five yards to shoot the carbine and pistol for accuracy and then it was game on loading magazines and running them dry as hard as we could go. Research. As we were wrapping up and both satisfied the firearms were reliable and the slave breeding accurate there was a handful of one of the reloads left so we went to the 100 yard line to research intro see what the carbine would do. After the initial range trip, ballistic test, and accuracy test the round count was about 100 rounds per and no issues. During the course of the live fire Clinton and I ran another 200 rounds through the phd thesis proposal in statistics, pistol and 220 through the carbine. Research. If my math skills have not deteriorated through years of semi professional beer drinking that brings 300 rounds through the pistol and 320 through the carbine without issue. Breeding. I went to the 100 yard line with the research intro, carbine and the reload 1 and whats up essay was able to get a few three inch groups from a rest with iron sights. The accuracy chart. Essay Intro. Reload 1 was a 115gr fmj loaded with 5gr of Unique and proposal Reload 2 was a 124gr jhp loaded with 4.8gr of Unique. I do not have the propellant data on Reload 3 as they were donated but it is the research essay intro, same round we used for the 9mm Luger ballistic test. Accuracy chart is from 25 yards shot from a rest.

Left side of the whats up essay, carbine, you can see the charging handle here as well as the research essay, safety just behind and down, which engaged firmly. The magazine release is essay, just behind the research intro, trigger, which broke at 6 pounds. Right side of the carbine, here you see the bolt and rear sight set up. There are several option along the bottom and back of the the slave, butt stock to add the sling swivel. Research. There is also a spring loaded recoil pad that absorbed a great deal of the recoil. With the phd thesis proposal in statistics, carbine chambered in 9mm Luger recoil was similar to an AR 15 in 5.56 so recoil was not great but the recoil pad makes a difference. The rear sight aperture adjustable for windage and intro elevation, marked clearly in yellow for reference.

The front sight post well protected by a shroud. Anyone who has shot service rifle or has been in the military will be right at home with these sights. The contoured grip which was comfortable and a generous magazine well. Plenty of weaver style rails on the carbine. Tfl Business. If you run out of room on the 995TS for your accessories, you have too many accessories. This was a stand out point for research me, note the USA inscribed on the slave the bolt handle and front sight fastener. Research Intro. The bolt handle can be used to lock the the slave breeding, bolt to the rear by pushing in the charging handle in the opening at the end.

America! The C9 with the 995TS carbine magazine inserted. Research. It hung out the bottom a bit but functioned perfectly. Speaking of the phd thesis in statistics, C9. Here you will see the contoured grip like the 995TS carbine that was very comfortable. The trigger, which also broke clean at 6 pounds and the safety just behind the trigger, engaged positively. The adjustable rear sight and the front sight. Research Essay Intro. Highlighted with orange and yellow to index quickly and the top was serrated to experience by ralph waldo emerson essay cut down on glare.

The muzzle, yep that is about all I can say about essay that. The rear of the slide, nicely serrated for whats up essay cocking the slide even if your hands are dirty or sweaty. Optional extended magazine that holds 10 rounds. The magazine well, plenty generous. The slide locked back on an empty magazine.

There is not a slide stop release on the pistol so the “sling shot” method is your only essay, option for dropping the slide on breeding thesis a loaded magazine. And I saved the best for last, the research intro, tool that was included. I added it to my key chain right away. Not only did it work as a disassemble tool for the pistol and carbine, but it also had a cut out by ralph waldo that fit the intro, bolt handle on the 995TS, and comparative could disassemble the included trigger locks it was a perfect punch to detail strip a Government Model, Glock, and my CZ75B. Hell, the tool is worth an extra $10 at least. Oh and I may of intro cleaned under my fingernails with it. For the phd thesis, budget minded or for research intro someone looking for an inexpensive firearm as a “truck gun” one thing has to be considered and that is, with all firearms, reliability. From what I have experienced with both of whats up essay these Hi-Points that part is covered. They both also proved to be plenty accurate.

The C9 is intro, small enough it can be concealed but like any midsized pistol it takes a bit of planning. It’s sights were easily picked up on, even in bright daylight. The Slave Breeding Thesis. Recoil was very manageable so quick follow up shots were not a problem. Intro. The C9 comes with an optional ghost ring sight that easily installs. That gives you options on rear sights but personally I preferred the standard rear sight installed in the factory. As far as the carbine, the 9mm Luger round did pick up some velocity and expansion out of the comparative, carbine, enough so to validate it’s usefulness. Not to mention with the longer sight radius and weight there was very little recoil. The carbine has plenty of options for accessories such as lights, lasers, foregrips, and so on, making it ideal to customize for home defense. One thing to also think about is many indoor ranges do not allow rifle cartridges so with a carbine such as this you can utilize such ranges and not violate policy. With a defensive rifle training is a must and the reduced cost of the 9mm Luger round can ease some of the expense of practice ammunition.

The triggers on the two were very similar enough that when you get used to one you will be used to the other. Another advantage to such a matched pair. So beauty is in the eye of the beholder and when I am holding a reliable firearm, that is a thing of beauty. Here is a shot on the C9 along with a Hi Point pistol in .45 Auto. I am about half way through with the review of the .45. Barrel length: 3.5?

Overall length: 6.75? Frame: High-impact polymer. Finish: Black powder coat. Capacity: 8-shot mag standard (10-shot avail) Sights: 3-dots, fully-adjustable rear sight.

All Hi-Point handguns feature: High-impact polymer frame. Durable, attractive easy-grip finish. 3-dot, fully adjustable sights. Free extra rear peep sight. Last round lock open. Free trigger lock. Magazine disconnect safety. Quick on-off thumb safety. Operations safety sheet. 100% American parts assembly.

Barrel length: 16.5? Overall length: 31? Capacity: 10-shot magazine standard. Stock: All-weather, black molded polymer. All-weather, black polymer skeletonized stock. Sling, swivels and essay intro scope base.

Internal recoil buffer in stock. Weaver style rails. Fully adjustable sights (“Ghost Ring” rear peep post front) Quick on/off thumb safety. Grip-mounted magazine release.

100% American-made parts and assembly. Free trigger lock. Last round lock open. Optional forward folding grip. Subscribe to comparative our e-mail newsletter to receive updates. 62 Responses to Hi Point 916 C9 handgun and research 995TS carbine, self defense on a budget.

I enjoyed your write up tremendously, very nice angle and complete with pictures. Thanks. randyrat on cast boolits forum. Thank you very much brother. That means a lot to me.

Hunter get My phone number from motocross Chris. I have a handgun question. I have both the C9 and 995TS. These were my introduction to firearms (except for whats up essay M14 back in Vietnam) and I got the shooting bug and now also have a Ruger American rifle 308, Beretta PX4 Storm (9mm), Mossberg Maverick 88 12 gauge and yes, even a springer air pistol [Hatsan 25 .177 supercharger, 700 fps pellet pistol – what a blast it is in the backyard] – I concur with everything you said in your review, the essay, Hi Points are dependable, accurate, and a tremendous value – if the perception conclusion, gun snobs don’t like it, they can just look the other way while I shoot my .5? groups all day long at essay intro, the range. I got the 45 acp and I love it a great gun especially for thesis the money purchased it at Bud gun shop thanks hipoint. Excellent review. I was curious about the research intro, HI Point after a friend bought one, so i decided to tfl business plan see what the scoop was on them. Your review was very well written. Thank you very much Maverick. I appreciate you taking the time to give me feedback. I was pretty impressed by the Hi-Points truthfully and though they may not win any beauty contests they certainly do work, and research intro work well.

In my opinion function over form. Thank you for your report, I just went out and bought a C9 yesterday. You are very welcome Mike. I was pleasantly surprised with the C9, especially for plan the money. It is a fine pistol. To be reliable, reasonable accurate, lifetime warranty, and made in The USA all at that price point is essay, a great deal. Thank you for a great unbiased review of a truly great firearm. The hi-point carbine was my very first firearm I bought about plan 10 years ago. Flawless function and the only cleaning I did to research essay intro it was spray rem-oil down the barrel and run a patch through it! I also own a C-9 pistol and true to hi-point it is also flawless. Tfl Business. I’m truly upset about the snobbery in gun culture as a whole.

Many people can’t afford to research drop a mortgage payment on a handgun!! Also the ideology that if you spend less than 550$-600$ on a pistol you are somehow stupid and will certainly die if you attempt to use it in self defense. I own 5 handguns and haven’t paid more than 350$ for any of them. Whats Up Essay. I have a Taurus millennium G2 that has 8500 rounds through it with ZERO malfunctions!! How is essay intro, that a bad thing? You are very welcome Peter.

I do hate to hear gun snobs run down a firearm that is reliable and easily afforded by most anyone. I appreciate your feedback sir. I bought the test samples and wound up transferring them to by ralph emerson essay a friend who just had to have them. I hated to give them up but you know how it is. I still get to shoot them when we go out and both are still without issues. I have 2 c9s and have put more then 500 rounds through each. Essay. Most of them have been my reloads using different loads and bullets .they have functioned flawless. I did polish the trays and tfl business plan the slides on both when I received them.didn’t like the powder coating on the feed ramp and there was some coating on research intro the frame slide. Tfl Business. The wife and I have more expensive guns in essay intro the safe but we are having a ball with this ugly duckling, I just ordered a 995 carbine I think hi point has struck gold in the firearm industry. I agree, Hi-Point makes a fine firearm and waldo the test samples which are still in use are performing excellent. Some may turn their nose up at a Hi-Point but such a gun snob is not an excellent source of information to essay intro begin with.

Thank you very much for the slave breeding your feedback. Thank you for your articles and especially the Hi Point reviews. I have owned 3 of their firearms and still regularly cc my C9 in town. Intro. Out in the bush I prefer something a little more potent here in Alaska. Thank you very much Michael. I hate Hi-Point is waldo emerson essay, looked down by essay so many, though they are a bit ugly they are reliable and comparative thesis pretty accurate. I am publishing the essay, review of the .45 Auto pistol and carbine review in a few hours. I have been doing my home work on high point because I have been thinking about the slave getting one and this was very helpful I well be purchusing the carbine 995 first then the c9. Hi-Point is working on a .380 carbine! They debut it at research intro, the Great American Outdoor Show.

I’ve not had any issues with my C9 and yes, it loves hot loads. Just recently purchased a 995TS too. To be honest, after watching IV8888 on Youtube do the torture test, I was sold and had to essay conclusion have one. I heard about that carbine at SHOT this year. I will request a test sample when they become available.

I appreciate your feedback, thank you. Please let us know how it runs! i have the 995ts now and i love it for essay some reason every body told me not to whats up essay get it and that hipoints were junk but its amazing ill probably end up with the c9 next and the 4595ts i only wish it came with more than a 10 round capacity mag but i figure that well come with time i ended getting another mag mag holder forward grip and research intro condinser i love this carbine for proposal the money you cant beat it and intro theres no better deal out there. As you know, it pays to comparative critique thesis do your research and not listen to the internet commandos. I would like to essay see a larger magazine capacity on whats up essay the carbine as well and essay intro i have heard rumors they are in the works but I cannot confirm. Thank you for tfl business plan your feedback Billy. I was also interested in a larger capacity magazine. I hope the rumors are true. Some states only research intro, permit limited capacity. They do have highgee capacity mags Don’t quote me but I think they are 15 rounds and I’ve seen them for sale for the 9mm carbine on experience by ralph waldo essay Sportsmans guide.

Not to research intro expensive but I’ve heard their was some issues with the feeding lips. ( saw it in a write up somewheres) but if SG sells them then they must be ok to use. Check it out they have extended carbine mags for 9mm. Perception Conclusion. You can also find extended magazines if you search enough both for the 4o 45. Thank you for the heads up Jeffery. I appreciate you following up. A little background first, 7 years Army using M14, M60, and the AR15 first generation without the essay, chrome chamber fix in two combat tours RVN.

Then a career as a street cop, SW 19-2 and then the Stainless 645 both used Speer safety slug, oh yea had an 870 in the unit also. For LEOSA I went to a .380 Bodyguard cause it was easy to hide. I think I know a bit about firearms. The wife wants to comparative learn to shoot but wasn’t happy with my guns, she wanted a Hipoint 9. So against my better judgement I got her one, $157 out the door. I’m now a believer, 600 rounds downrange without an issue, no, none, zip, nada FTE or FTFs, its a brick! It goes bang when you want it to, it’s accurate, made in the USA and has a lifetime warranty, the only issue is she will not let me shoot “her” gun. My yearly qualification is next month and I’m gonna sneak it out of the house. I want to see the research intro, look on the “glock guys” faces when the perception conclusion, old Sarge shows up with a pink gripped Hipoint…. First of all, thank you for your service as a Solider and Police officer. As far as the intro, C9 goes, I am in complete agreement with you Ed. It may not win any beauty contets but it runs.

Please keep me posted on how the breeding, qual goes. Be safe. I own both the 995ts and the c9. My son and essay I enjoy shooting both very much. I did add a slip on tactical grip to the c9, not out of necessity, but I liked the feel and critique thesis the finger “grooves” just give it a better look for me. Enjoyed your review, and intro I haven’t had any issues with either of waldo emerson essay mine. Wish they would hold more ammo, but I get to practice reloading, and extra mags from the company are cheap enough, so I ordered extras for research intro both and received them in critique about 3 days. Great guns, great prices!

Happy shooting! Awesome. Research Intro. I do agree though, it would be nice for a larger capacity magazine but all in all great firearms at a great price. Thank you very much for taking the phd thesis, time to let me know your thoughts. Thank you for your well rounded review. I own the hi point 9MM carbine. And love it , I have put over 600 rounds though it and have not had one feed or jam issue.without adjusting the sites I was able to hit targets at 100 yards with no problems. Great rifle for the price and intend to purchase another. Thank you very much for taking the time to give me your feedback. The Hi-Point carbine is a fine rifle.

Thank you I do love my hi point carbine 9 MM , would you recommend the hi point 9MM C9 hand gun. Great review, wife received C9 Pistol from her father for home security (we have a Ranch) I wanted information on being able to use the same round with a riffle. 995TS does just that. and reading your review that the trigger pull is equal just make the rifle perfect for us. I’m saving now to essay intro put a 995TS high point in my home. Phd Thesis. thank you for the knowledge you share. Thank you Darryl for research intro your kind words and taking the time to let me know your thoughts on the Hi-Point article. Please keep me updated on what you think of the experience waldo essay, carbine when you get it.

i have seen and read many reviews on both the c9 and the 995. Those who have taken the time to research intro truly test the firearms, really like them. My question in on the magazines being interchangeable. Comparative Critique Thesis. I have seen several reviews that flat out say that the magazines for the 995 will not work in the c9 (they will fit, but will consistently cause the c9 to jam, if theyworks at all). I have also seen many reviews, like this one, that say the magazines for the 995 have no problem working in the c9. Do the 995 magazines work in research the c9 with no problems? Thank you for any advice and help. This is by ralph emerson essay, a excellent review! Thank you for the kind words. The extended magazines will interchange but not the flush fit factory C9 in the carbine. Thanks for the great info in your review.

I have not had the research essay intro, chance to try the thesis, handguns as of this point. But, I have had 2 of the carbines. I really wish I had not sold the 9mm 995TS. That was so amazingly accurate out essay intro of the box.. I shot 1? groups at proposal in statistics, 150 yards and intro was just mind blown by the accuracy and whats up essay feel of it. Research Essay. I plan to get a couple more of them really soon.. I have to say I was not as accurate with the .40 cal carbine, but it was more than accurate enough for critique thesis a defensive weapon and pest control. I really like the essay intro, lack of noise from these little rifles. The 9mm was not as loud as my 1022 Ruger. But just as accurate.

I wish they would make a 10 mm carbine, I think it would be a great large pest control rifle. Have owned. C9 , c40 for over 10 years and no problems, just hoppe’s down the barrel with a patch. Great guns, will match any pistol for accuracy. Now own 995ts and tfl business plan love this carbine. Just good USA products. Thanks for your great review. Thank you Rich for the kind words. I am wrapping up the review on the .45 Auto pistol and carbine and they are equally as reliable and accurate.

I wish they had a customer service email instead of just phone. I need to order the black cap for the mag release on my C9. Mine. Came off and was lost. How about essay intro a 10mm. Their products are certainly beefy enough. Mr. Elliott I would just like to say thank you for opening up the minds of so many, about this awesome product. I’ve always been a fan of HI POINT… Great value and proposal in statistics return on such a small investment.

If Hi Point firearms was the stock market, everyone who purchased shares would be rich. Keep up the great work… Thank you very much for the kind words. I agree with you 110% Why such a long wait for delivery of research essay a carbine two ahalf months.from kings shooters . Man that would be a question for your FFL but that does seem a bit long. Did a lot of online research. Perception. Have several 9mm hand guns, wanted a rifle in research intro same caliber. Waited 4 wks to experience by ralph waldo emerson get 9 mm Carbine in basic black. Research. Love it, love it, love it. I am 66 and have progressive bifocal glasses. Thesis. The “ghost ring sights” are great.

I can shoot at indoor range. 2 inch groups at 25 yrds is a snap, and essay intro I’m no Annie Oakley. Perception. Occasional miss feed on 147 gr 9 mm hollow points as they are a little longer than 115 and essay intro 125 grains. Phd Thesis In Statistics. No problem. Easy to clean, no recoil to research essay intro speak of. The accessories like embroidered carry case and 2 mags plus stock clip ons for mags and tool to help load last few rounds in the mags are Very reasonable. This rifle is just plain “fun to shoot” Only problem…The demand exceeds the rate of production. Build a bigger factory!

My local stores in NJ can’t get them and they fly off the shelf the minute they get one. This rifle is just plain “fun to shoot” Man I could of not said it better myself. All solid points but this was my favorite. After reading all the reviews for the last couple of months, I get my new 995TS in ten days. Yes, I live in tfl business Kommifornia. At least we can still legally get them here (for now). Can’t wait to take it out to intro try it! Never been a gun snob and I have had more reliable fun with “affordable” firearms than some others that I spent a lot of cash on. I think I’m gonna have fun experimenting with different reloads with this. FMJ’s VS.

HP’s? 115, 124, 135, 147 grain? Comments welcome. I am sure you will be happy with the 995TS. Whats Up Essay. Though it is research intro, reliable with all 9mm Luger ammunition I tried for range use I would look for the least expensive. Please keep us posted on what you think once you get it to the range. thank so a lota lot for perception essay conclusion your web site it assists a whole lot.

You are very welcome. I am glad you found info that is helpful. I haven’t bought a HI-Point pistol but I do Have the Carbine in 40 cal. I was thinking of purchasing another Carbine in 9mm the ( muddy Girl) kind of a joke me being a guy and all. I love that they are American made and the warranty plus you can’t beat the price. Though getting the extra doo-dad’s I purchase my own. The only research intro, additions I got for my 40 cal Carbine was the collapsible for grip and I got it on tfl business special with the stock mounted magazine carrier! I did purchase the light but at 90 lumens was a waste of money and research essay even worse I couldn’t return it and don’t know why but it kinda pissed me off other than that couldn’t be happier, the article was really good explaining etc though would liked to have had more info in sighting it in because of the comparative thesis, front sight and the nut being used etc the essay, directions don’t help to much.

Maybe in the 45 article if you do the 45 carbine you might delve into the easiest and quickest way to sight it in at say 50 yds? Other than that top notch article. I like high point cqc capability of the experience, pistol round. Research. But have hi point manufacturing thought about the in statistics, 556 (223) round ? In a bull pup design ? I think hi pint would put a lot of manufactures in a panic like the dig 3 colt, smith, and ruger. Just saying I would but one. My C9 has to go back to the factory. Stopped firing after 3000 rounds. Essay. Installed new springs and firing pin. Still has a serious firing problem. Factory shuts down forctwo weeks starting the first of whats up essay July so itcwilk be 3 weeks before I can use it again.

Rats!! Thinking if pucking up a Taurus 38 Spcl Ultra Lite. Seems like a nice cc gun and though I’ve only put 50 rounds thru one it feels like it shoots well. 3? at 10 yards. Any thoughts anyone?? Vet and Retired LEO. Research Essay Intro. I have several more expensive firearms with big names but My C9 and 995TS are go to firearms at home if needed quickly.

Why? Because they always go bang! (even if dirty) Most people who knock them never owned one. Their brother’s, wife’s 2nd. Phd Thesis Proposal In Statistics. cousin removed had one jam so they talk them down. Hi-Point makes it possible for research anyone to afford something to defend their loved ones if ever needed. Thank you for your service. You hit the nail on the head and I totally agree with you. Thank you for the kind words. Love shooting my 9mm carbine.I usually shoot steel plates at around 60 yards dead on breeding thesis using my red dot. Works well shooting and essay intro moving with both eyes open with the the slave thesis, red dot. The Hi-Point carbines are damn fine firearms.They are overlooked by so many gun snobs that I expect would like them if they tried them with an open mind.

Thank you for a great review. I own a 995ts and plan on acquiring another with 2 C9 as backup. You are correct in stating that they are ugly. I don’t care about essay that because everything I have is ugly except my wife. No divas in the gun rack. No divas in experience waldo emerson the gun rack, that is excellent. I hope you don’t mind if I use that. I do appreciate the kind words.

I think I’m going to pick up the carbine. After looking at the Carbine Conversion Units, and seeing that they want around $500 for intro them (and you “lose” your pistol frame in the process); then looking at the KelTec Sub2000 (which nobody can seem to find in stock, and has a few reliability issues); then the proposal in statistics, Beretta CX4 ($700… really?); I can find absolutely no reason at all NOT to go with the Hi-Point. I’ve got plenty of the “pretty” carbines, rifles and pistols, and in the past I’ve spent $1200 on both an auto shotgun that wouldn’t cycle any load, and a supposedly high-end .45 auto. that choked and puked on anything and everything. Expensive does not equal quality, and “cheap” does not mean junk. Research Essay. I learned that the hard way. I really can’t see any downside to shelling out $300 or so for a 9mm carbine that I have yet to hear anything bad about. Well, maybe just the looks, but I couldn’t care less. Thanks for experience by ralph the write-up!

Steve, I think you are on the right track. Research Intro. There are more expensive options but none that I know are more reliable. I think you would be well pleased with the Hi-Point carbine, yea they are a little ugly, but function over form. Good choice. I have the tfl business, 995TS and the 45 carbines. They work flawlessly. […] 2014, I published a review on the Hi-Point 9mm pistol and 995TS carbine, you can read that review here. That was my first real experience with Hi-Points other than shooting a few handguns here and there. Research Intro. […] Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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10 best debate topics for technology essays. Research! How long could you go without technology? We live in whats up essay the world which is connected with technology. When was the last time you left your home without your mobile phone, watched television or chatted with your friends online? Chances are, not very long ago. Even though technology has many benefits, it also affects the way how people socialize and communicate all together lack of emotions, ignorance of personal space and research intro, absence of intimacy. Now, let`s imagine just one day without technology. A world without technology means a life without: computers, mobile phones, gadgets, cars, medical equipment and this list can go on.

Silence would cover the world#8230;or not? Chaos or peace? Without technology the world would definitely change, but how? Will letters replace e-mails? Will we turn to reading books, instead of searching online? Will we use old methods to communicate? Will we walk more? Total silence is almost unbearable, when you hear your own heartbeat. Does it look like something we have been dreaming about?

Apparently, the answer is: `No! ` Taking into account the fact, that people start using technology from the youth; can you think of the effects of communication technology on teenagers? It`s important to speak namely about teenagers, as they are considered the most vulnerable and critique thesis, easily-affected part of humanity. Over the last decade, technology became an essential part of many teenagers` lives. It`s overwhelming and they can`t get away from it, because it becomes a habit, a way of life. The problem is that we can`t identify when online social networking becomes an addiction. Essay Intro! An average person spends about an hour a day for communication online. Some teenagers spend much more than that. Plan! Even though technology has grown to be a major aspect of society in our daily activities, teenagers have to be aware of the research essay consequences if it is excessively used. In case you want to write an critique argumentative essay on research intro technologyand disclose the pros and cons of thesis, this notion, you should search for the topic that will be controversial for you first of all. Research! Therefore, while writing, you will find the phd thesis proposal benefits and downfalls of technology.

Once you found the answers for your own questions, be sure, your essay is worth reading. Technology essay topics may include quite a wide range of concepts and ideas. This sphere involves enormous amount of people every day, as technology is everywhere. Essay! You might want to insert statistical data in your essays about technology, which is absolutely reasonable. Since there`s a large number of topics that can be covered, here are 10 best ideas, that might encourage an original topic of your own. Do the mass media and the slave thesis, information technology have an influence on intro the process of comparative, globalization? Effects of technology on communication in modern society. Is it a benefit or downfall to insert technology in education?

Beneficial role of essay intro, technology in helping people obtain an education. Technology today: a scourge or blessing? What should be invented by social media developers in order to protect privacy? Self-explanatory question: `Is fast developing technology good or bad for people`s psychological state? ` Restrictions for cars based on emission testing and level of pollution. Tfl Business! Can artificial intelligence replace teachers at school, doctors in the hospital, housewives at home? The next grand innovation in technology is#8230; While writing a technology essay on one of these topics, make sure that your essay looks at the roots of our society and our technology.

If we really care of what`s happening around us, we should take care of the roots. The roots aren`t always visible, but they are incredibly important. Research Intro! Technology is waldo emerson essay, changing the world we live in and it should be shown in the essay. It`s important to acknowledge, that the essay about technology isn`t self-evident. It might seem clear at first sight, but in fact your aim is to explain your position and be able to argue for it. It requires more than just learning the subject, it requires getting into the deeper understanding, such as creating controversial statements, showing two argumentative sides, making up counterarguments. Thus, before writing an essay intro essay on technology, choose a topic wisely. It should be not just relevant and interesting, but also frequently discussed. Firstly, it will be of a great benefit, if you read a lot of technology essays on the chosen topic and come up with your own ideas on the problem. Secondly, search for a proper amount of evidence to substantiate your opinion. Comparative Critique! If you want to essay intro write a really persuasive essay on technology, be confident in your own point of view.

Readers will feel your insecurity straight away and might stop reading halfway. Breeding! And your own opinion should be supported by facts and examples. For instance, my analysis proves that technology has lots of disadvantages, such as pollution, global warming, issues with communication; technology can be the reason of the complex of inferiority in intro many cases. Perception Conclusion! Here, I would like to stop and stress your attention to the amount of advantages and situation where technology disappears or stops its developing. Hard to imagine the scope of harm that people can be put in without being connected in the modern world. The range of problems that would immediately appear in the sphere of essay intro, security, medicine, insurance, ecology, business and labour is impossible to whats up essay measure. These are things that could be overcome though.

In my opinion, the research essay one thing that people won`t be able to cope with is making a step back. Since the humanity has already experienced fast travelling, speed dating, online banking, quick money transferring, it will be the a great step back for whats up essay all the nations to refuse all these innovations and go back to, obviously, less comfortable way of life. Although, people can adjust to any lifestyle and research essay intro, are able to the slave thesis go through a lot of obstacles, the reverse phycology would be helpless here. If the humanity have had to give up on technology and go back to research essay `stone age` it would have led to resistance, insurrection and riots. Essay! To knock all of the intro heap, essays on technologyshould include three main components: confidence from the author on his own standpoint, properly chosen topic and phd thesis proposal in statistics, the ability to `look deeply in research essay intro the roots`.

Let your technology essays inspire other people`s imagination and creativity, this is the best possible recognition of your writing skills and plan, talent.

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Electricity Generation and Load Shedding. Impact of Load Shedding and use of UPS and research essay Generators on Living Standards of Lahore Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Energy is by ralph essay, now days in Pakistan become the debate for traders, businessmen, house wives, students, ministers and all the victims from lack of research energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. The routine life of the residents is badly disturbed by the long load-shedding in the country. In recent years, the continuous and rapid growth in population in urban areas and growth of industrialization in Pakistan has affected the demand of the slave breeding thesis electricity very badly in country. We will write a custom essay sample. on Electricity Generation and Load Shedding or any similar. topic specifically for you. The demand of the research essay, electricity in country is much greater than the supply and production of electricity in country. This situation causes electricity crisis in Pakistan. The duration of load shedding reached14 to 18 hours a day.

Shortage of electricity has reached 5500 MW, 12 to 14 hours in urban areas and 18 hours in rural areas as a result of landing time. Experience By Ralph Waldo Emerson. Are the most affected industries is difficult to meet deadlines and research intro deliver goods in time because of the energy problem. Many industries have been in the country closed, which caused the increase in unemployment and human suffering. The main reason overdue the load shedding is due to a clash between the Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and the Pakistan State Oil (PSO) over late payment of dues that causes sudden decrease in thermal power generation. By Ralph Waldo Emerson Essay. The PSO has refused oil supply to power generation companies due to non-payment of research their bills. 40% of power houses are closed due to non-supply of oil.

The thermal power houses electricity generation capacity is around 8,500MW, which has been decreased to around 4,050MW. Likewise, the “capacity was 3500 MW to 1223 MW is reduced, and the 221-capacity rental power generation” will be reduced to only 20MW. However, the amount of perception essay conclusion fuel is delivered, 4,000-5,000 MW of research essay intro electricity can be added to the national grid. Electricity is the major font of power for any country greatest of the economic activities. Lahore is whats up essay, facing terrible load shedding ascompared to other cities. It disturbed the lives of every resident of Lahore no matter in essay, which field they are. Overview of Load Shedding.

Page 2 Electricity Generation and Load Shedding Essay. Load shedding also referred as rolling blackout is designed to deliberately turn off the electricity for non-overlapping time to different parts of the distribution. Loadshedding is ultimately used to measure the program’s electric power system is to avoid complete interruption. Perception. They are type of reaction to a demand, in this situation; the electricity demand exceeds the supply of power of the network. Load shedding may be in a given network being able to be localized or widespread and affects all countries and continents. Load shedding usually results from two reasons: Production capacity or inadequate transmission infrastructure to provide sufficient power to research essay, the lack of space. Load shedding is common or even normal in many developing countries, electricity underfunded or poorly managed infrastructure capacity daily occurrence. Load shedding is rare in developed countries because the demand accurately predicted, suitable infrastructure investment is planned and well-managed network, the following events will be taken into account in the planning of failure is whats up essay, unacceptable and can cause significant political damage to responsible government.

Well-managed high-capacity systems to essay, the current plan and by ralph waldo emerson essay announced in advance to public so they can work around, but in most cases occur without warning, usually the transmission frequency falls below the “safe” limit. When more companies to supply the demand for electricity production or transport, or installed capacity has more than you can deliver, companies, electricity available to his clients to essay intro, resort to controlling. This act is called load shedding. Load shedding can also be known as Demand Side Management or Load Management. Load shedding frequently takes place when the total electric power in the slave, many places charge a lot of users who will be able to use the energy available in the local exchange or a national network of research essay stations that can be reached is at. This situation is proposal, common in many developing countries.

As soon as more than a certain percentage of the total power required – typically 98 percent – the maximum available power can be generated, the distribution of parts of the network would not be excluded. Such interruptions are known as “Load shedding. ” If you do not have to create landing equipment overload switches automatically shut down the entire plant alternators (generators), to protect the very serious damage. Such damage would be very expensive and take a long time to resolve. So, in fact, the plants 24/7 to keep running in these conditions, there is load shedding regular distribution network in certain parts of the “power users” usually applied at different times during the week. For example, parts of the network, providing home and small business office can be obtained in intro, two or three hours of thesis power a day time or other, every day, while important places – such as hospitals, large factories, and, in general, as an institution may acquire power almost 24/7. Load shedding is usually occurred in large industrial, commercial and municipal use activities, there is research, no constant electricity use (usually by automated instrumentation), and waldo some pre-electric charge or electrical device to stop the use of the threshold is closer to the top. There are two reasons, both economically motivated. Energy companies’ license their small clients requested a piece of research equipment in whats up essay, your home or business, and one or both telephone and radio equipment will turn off the electric company will install a device based on the signals. Devices are electric heaters.

Energy companies provide discounts to customers. Then, the power company is essay intro, seeing demand for capacity is coming from, and sends a signal to whats up essay, disconnect all these devices. Intro. This is called an electric shock. Overview of Ups. UPS stands for uninterruptible power supply and, at the same time is an electrical equipment and whats up essay backup power source flow shield sensitive equipment, or loss of, or damage problems. (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A device that provides battery backup when power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for a few minutes, enough to power the computer in an organized manner, and essay larger systems have enough battery for several hours. Experience Waldo Emerson Essay. Datacenters critical, UPS systems are used only for a few minutes until the electric generator. UPS systems can be set, the file server disruption of orderly shutdown alarm has occurred, and on essay intro the battery. Firstly, the low demand for this type of uninterruptible power supply only the slave breeding, comes from a group that is engineering. Around 1950, the research essay intro, first uninterrupted service “no-break provision” was designed as a pay and stock. Often, the two motors, direct current and comparative critique thesis alternating current method.

No-break power to research essay intro, the battery charger to power the system back immediately, and a rectifier to convert AC to DC were distributed. DC current DC motor can power the AC power generated by the generator. In the case of loss of power, the battery will be used in DC motors. Germanium rectifiers in the 1960s the emergence of smaller and more efficient, but there is no-break power soon began to fall from the static uninterruptible power supply thyristors allow a better understanding of the phd thesis proposal, concept behind. It combines a rectifier and essay charger, and the battery and the inverter can be split between the power inputs, eliminating the essay conclusion, need for moving chess pieces as a whole will be easier. This single change to essay, the UPS equipment smaller, quieter, more efficient, reliable and easy to maintain equipment. However, these initial advantages, though the system rotates the rotary and static systems will continue to grow together in the best case, for example, in high load circumstances. Over the years, the system will continue for more simplified and made ?? more reliable. Whats Up Essay. Sealed lead-acid batteries combination resulted in UPS equipment is to be a computer room, and not before, remote machinery room. Although the research, offset of the phd thesis proposal in statistics, first computers to use UPS equipment and communication technology re-engineering will become a part of.

Case of an automated production line of the research essay, factory production control when the by ralph emerson, machine requires high power quality. UPS, not only the power of the production line to ensure it is not broken, but there is no interference between the machines is not. To a lesser extent, UPS equipment is so small; it can access a computer system, and no more than unit. There are many products, UPS, desktop form-factor of the order placed unobtrusively on research essay intro your computer, or leave them. Increasing the quality of the sales force “offline” uninterruptible power supply was more popular in 1980 and 1990, although only provide very basic surge protection. Offline systems draws power directly from the power source of raw materials and only uses UPS system during power outages and the “on-line” system of continuous power, the power failure / shortage or is not. Offline UPS, of course, is easy to manufacture, and, therefore, smaller and cheaper, but they are not suitable for in statistics areas with poor power quality, UPS is more to replace the battery, the battery will be returned as quickly. Off-line UPS is only for customers who are really only a battery back-up is research essay, recommended. Types of UPS:

Different approaches and designs are used in UPS systems, each with different characteristics set. The common design approaches are: * Standby * Line Interactive * Standby on-line hybrid * Standby-Ferro * Double Conversion On-Line * Delta Conversion On-Line * The Standby UPS Standby UPS is the type most commonly used in waldo, PC reservation. Transfer to filter the essay, AC input selection is tfl business, set as the primary energy source and battery / inverter primary source fails to research, be a source of renewal. In this case, the key to move the battery to charge transfer / inverter backup power source to work. Investors only when the power fails, hence the name “standby”. * The Line Interactive UPS Line Interactive UPS, is for tfl business plan small business and departmental Web servers is to design the most commonly used. In this design, the power converter (inverter), the battery is research essay, always connected to the UPS output. At the the slave breeding, time of the reverse of the inverter, the input is a normal plug in research essay intro, the battery. * Standby On-Line Hybrid Standby On-Line Hybrid topology is a lot more use UPS 10kVA labeled “line. ” A DC-DC converter from the battery, AC power failure is detected on the system, just as the standby UPS. Charger is small, as a standby UPS.

Combined DC capacitors in UPS for AC power failure during the time of any transfer. This design is sometimes equipped with bypass switch failure or overload in a separate transfer. * The Standby-Ferro UPS Standby-Ferro UPS 15kVA 3-district was once the dominant form of UPS. Comparative Thesis. This design specific transformer saturation, the three windings (power connections) will depend. The main way to access the power, the transfer switch, through a transformation, and by means of output. In the essay, event of power failure, the transfer switch is opened, the inverter output to the load.

The Double Conversion On-Line UPS This is the most common type of UPS above 10kVA. On-Line double conversion UPS block diagram, the standby mode is the same, except that the power of the inverter main road. * The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS This UPS design, including a double conversion on-line design and the slave breeding 5kVA available from a range of 1 MW to resolve deficiencies, is a new technology. Like Double Conversion On-Line design, the Delta Conversion On-Line UPS inverter voltage is always in charge. However, the additional Delta Converter also supports output power of the inverter. AC failure, or behavior disorders of identical design of the exhibition under the terms of a double conversion On-Line.

Although UPS sources are generally cheap, small and convenient, they are not suitable for all applications. Their common disadvantage is a relatively short runtime. That’s why most data sheets state it at half load. For small consumer-grade units half load run time is typically 13-20 minutes. Note that this characteristic is not linear. At full load you may get only 1/3 of research half-load life. Prices of UCP: Over 40 local UPS brands. There are more than 40 markets, locally produced and unregistered UPS brands.

Fuji, Microtech, Digi Tech, Easy Tech, Soft Tech, Star Tech, PowerOn Line, Galaxy, United, would install Power, PANA Tech, Pak Power, Mega Tech, Power Tech, Auto Tech, Fantom, Sun, Super Power Among they are, Offline, Unitex, Uni Power, Power Plus, Auto care, Peace, Toyo, Pro Line, Royal, Toshiba, Nokia, Auto Volt, Auto Power and Laser. Stack of new brands and trademarks are only available on the market. Best-selling brands of by ralph waldo emerson essay UPS are Micro Tech, Auto Care, Power Plus and Laser. UPSs are manufactured in essay, over a dozen areas in the city, including Hall road, Hafeez center, Regal Chowk, Shahalaami, Abid Market and local markets. Comparative Critique. It takes 5-10 hours to essay, recharge batteries.

195 Amp wet batteries to fully recharge the standard time is 10 hours. The duration of the charge amplifier 145 and 140 Amp wet batteries, six hours 120 Amp wet battery charge lasts for four hours. The 80W of power consumed by the fan to be the same as that for 24 hours, and at least part of the increase in the electricity bill of 250 PRs. More batteries charged, more is the electricity bills. There are many batteries available in essay conclusion, market to attach with ups.

They are AGS, Exide, Osaka, Phoenix, Atlas, and Volta. Research Essay. * UPS with built-in dry batteries range from Rs 7,000 to Rs 117,000. * UPS 500 VA that can run 1 PC costs Rs 7,000. * UPS 1,000 VA that can run 3 PCs costs Rs 12,500. * UPS 1,500 VA UPS that can run 4 PCs costs Rs 25,800. Tfl Business Plan. * UPS 2,200 VA that can run 5 to 6 PCs costs Rs 35,900. * UPS 3,300 VA that can run 8 to 9 PCs costs Rs 45,500. * UPS 4,000 VA that can run 12 to 13 PCs costs Rs 80,400. Research Essay Intro. * UPS 5,000 VA that can run 15 to critique, 16 PCs costs Rs 96,000. * UPS 6,000 VA that can run 18 to 20 PCs costs Rs 117,000. The back-up duration for these UPSs is between 10 and 15 minutes. * UPSs without built-in batteries and built-in voltage stabilizers and which need wet batteries range from Rs 7,500 to Rs 17,200. The wet batteries price range from Rs 5,500 and Rs 9,500. * UPS with 50 0VA with 120 Ampere battery price Rs 7,500 + Rs 8,500 = Rs 16,000. * UPS with 1,500 VA with 195 Amp battery price Rs 17,200 + 13,200 = Rs 30,400. * UPSs with built-in voltage stabilizers which need wet batteries price from research intro Rs 14,000 to Rs 115,400. * 500 Watts UPS will manage 2 Fans and 4 energy savers. RS 8,000 * 700 Watts UPS will manage 3 Fans and 6 energy savers. RS 9,500 Anything greater than 700 Watts will use 2 or more Batteries depending on necessities. The Slave Breeding Thesis. * 1000 Watts UPS will manage 5 Fans and 8 energy savers. RS 14000 * 1500 Watts UPS will manage 7 Fans and 10 energy savers. RS 18000 * 2000 Watts UPS will manage 10 Fans and 16 energy savers. RS 24000 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ups: * The electricity supply drives uninterrupted, it do not require much power.

Its backup will depend on essay intro the battery, as many amperes a battery that much backup will provide. The disadvantages it takes many and long charging time, and in case of long power outages, so it stops working. Excessive load reduces the duration of the backup entry. Reflected in the slave, the 60% to intro, 90%. Overview of Electric Generator This device can supply electricity to your home during power outages are casually referred to conclusion, as a home generator.

Switching to an electric generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy to intro, electrical energy. Mechanical energy can be used from different sources. Mechanical steam engine, the power turbine, internal combustion engine or turbine to drive the proposal, generator can generate power. Other sources of power, perhaps the intro, wheel or hand crank. Perception. Electric generator to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy to work. In general, currently used generators use gasoline, diesel, water, natural gas, wind, and research intro a wide range of other fuels. The Slave. Compliance with the basic law of physics, it is not really creative to research intro, generate energy, simply transfer mechanical energy from one type of by ralph essay electric.

The first generator began building in 1830, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generator as the principle behind it. This is the principle of Faraday’s law. When the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric conductor, conductor end will create a potential difference. This is the essay, first electromagnetic generator, called the whats up essay, Faraday disk to detect. This type of generator uses a copper disk. The disc rotates between horseshoe magnet site. Faraday disk produced a small amount of current and direct current (DC) voltage. However, this oscillator suffered some drawbacks. Research. Design is not effective, because of the different magnetic regions.

Regions that are not affected by the magnetic field generator produce a desperate counter current flow normal flow. The flow of power from the the slave breeding, relay output lines of this battle will be reduced. Causes, as well as complete loss of heating copper disc. Later this disadvantage of the use of magnets arranged around the perimeter of a systematic reduction in disc. Thus, the essay intro, effect of maintaining a stable current flow direction has not been a problem. Not until 1866, Werner Siemens to whats up essay, enhance the creative process is intro, not a way to more sustainable use of magnets. Dynamo was the first turbine power generating industry. This generator uses the principle of critique electromagnetic activity, DC mechanical switch. Dynamo by the collector. Hipolito Pixi was built in 1832 in the first dynamo ever.

This generator consists of stationary machines. This machine rotating magnetic field coil. A small machines, or more permanent magnet position to a constant magnetic field generator can provide. Larger machines, the field magnet coils. Essay Intro. Generator uses electromagnetic induction processing power. This machine urge electrical load to the external circuit.

It does not, however, generate electricity or number. These aspects are now in their wire windings. Phd Thesis In Statistics. Generator to pump water to the flow of water is similar to, but not to make your own water. Home owners buy a portable generator in case of essay power failure. These devices are often powered by human power, and batteries to store electricity. Electromagnetic generators were discovered before, people use the electrostatic generator. This type of generator is whats up essay, very high voltage and low-current production. In other words, effective, less power to generate electricity produces large-scale corporations have ever used. Generator, today, when broken down into basic components, all the engine alternator, fuel system, and cooling / exhaust system.

You can find different types of generators. It sounds like the car, is essay intro, not it? The main drivers of an electric generator, alternator and proposal in statistics electric motor to drive the car, charge the battery into mechanical energy is converted to work as a power-lights, radio, air-conditioning, seat warmers, and almost everything else. Essay. Alternator is the phd thesis, main component of any generator. Research. A generator, simply, the engine is mechanical energy.

Do not take anything from the comparative critique thesis, engine, still doing its job very well. The main generator is a component of the magnetic field setting, using different methods will work. Magnetic field, a voltage difference, and essay this, in turn, produce alternating current, or AC produced. Generator is used in a wide range of situations. Factory used to experience waldo essay, provide extra juice for your plants, and research essay intro many homes and phd thesis proposal in statistics businesses use them to research essay, make a backup in emergency situations.

Hydroelectric dams and mills are a type of generator, nature, water and wind into the slave thesis electric energy without using fossil fuels for turning forces. Different types of research essay generators have been around for hundreds of years. Electro-static and whats up essay exhaust-gas generators were invented at the beginning of 1600-1700, and research essay the foundations of the electrical experiments. Generator will be, without a doubt, part of the industry for many years to come will be a great. Someone to tfl business plan, figure out how to take advantage of the lightning. Basically generators are of two types, a standby generator provides backup power in the home and official place, and research is installed outside the home or office building. And the second is portable generator is used in places where electricity is not available. These generators are sufficient to run domestic devices like refrigerators, televisions and furnace.

Types of Generators: Residential Standby Generators: These types generators are typically run by phd thesis in statistics gas or diesel and is used to supply power to homes to power critical items such as fans, lights and research essay intro refrigerators in case of a load shedding in their area. * Commercial Standby Generators: These types generators are identical to residential generators, but are used on a much bigger scale. Residential generators run at 6,000 watts whereas commercial generators run at 30,000 watts. Commercial generators are used to power standby systems in commercial institutions. * Portable Generators: These generators are usually the smallest types of generators (up to whats up essay, 30,000 watts) and are perfect for outdoor uses such as to power an research intro entertaining vehicle. * Solar Generators: These generators are also known as solar panels and are most commonly found on houses roofs. Light on solar panels turn into energy to operate high watt equipment i. e. heaters, air conditioners When you need to proposal, decide what to produce, how much square footage the power you need to take into account how much power you need, and how you want to transport the generator on location. Prices of Generators: Mostly generators are used to essay intro, overcome the power disaster in conclusion, Pakistan. Research. Different generators for experience by ralph essay sale are available in market of Pakistan in a large amounts and it is much easy to get. * Gas Generators in Pakistan: Gas generators are generally used at home as they are cheap in price as compared to essay intro, others and easy to operate. Comparative Thesis. The prices of gas generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Gas generator in intro, Karachi for Rs. 28, 900 * 5 KVA Honda Gas Generator, Karachi, Rs. 115, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator with Cylinder, Karachi, at Rs.

22, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator in Lahore for whats up essay Rs. 2,000 * 37. 5 KVA Gas generator in Rawalpindi for Rs. Research. 430,000 * Petrol Generator in Pakistan: Petrol generators are used in shops and in industrial areas. They usually operate longer than Gas generators. The prices for experience waldo emerson essay Petrol generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Petrol gas generator in research, Karachi, Rs. 25, 000 * 5 KVA Denyo Petrol generator in Karachi, Rs. The Slave. 75, 000 * Petrol Power Generator 5. 5 KVA with 45A Exide Battery in essay, Lahore,Rs. Plan. 30, 000 * 3. 0 KVA Inhell petrol Generator in Islamabad, Rs. 25,000 * Petrol Generator Astra 5. 5 KVA in Islamabad, for Rs. 2, 500 * 3. 5 KVA Astra petrol gas generator in Islamabad, Rs.

26, 500 * Diesel Generators in Pakistan: Diesel Generators are the expensive forms of generators and are not ideal due to increase in fuel prices. Usually they are used in factories and big commercial and industrial areas, facilitating large machinery to operate. * Wartsila, 1000 KVA, Heavy Fuel Diesel, Rs 60, 00,000/- * Mitsubishi, 650 KVA, Diesel, Rs 22,50,000/- * Cummins, 350 KVA, Diesel, Rs 15,50,000/- * Denyo, 75 KVA, Diesel, Rs 8, 50, 000/- Advantages and Disadvantages of research essay Generator: It can run many electronic devices and it can supply electricity for the long duration of load shedding. * The disadvantages are air and noise pollution, usage of the slave breeding fuel and cost it too much. Research Essay Intro. Reasons of Load shedding in thesis, Pakistan Modern times, electricity has become very necessary for life to survive in this world. No sector becomes alive. Now, the electricity plays a very vital role in economic growth, and the progress of any country. Anything that has to research intro, do directly attached with electricity. In all market places, hospitals, offices, cinema, college, universities, factories, mills and industry depends on. an agriculture without irrigation, industrial Wheel stand still. The house was dark. Detrimental to energy shortages that affect industrial and agricultural production.

Insignificant limit. Energy is now Pakistan, the debate. House wives, traders, businessmen, students, ministers all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in tfl business, this peak hot weather. Let discus the main causes of load shedding First of all, water level of lakes and dams Mangala, Tarbela Warsak, Rasule, Malakund, etc. , as much too small, many are suffering as a result of energy generation. Then the intro, construction of large dams, which, for example, the design of Kala Bagh Dam has fallen victim to political conflicts, if narrow, demand and supply of electricity, will reduce Gap, but, at the same time, as we respond to tfl business, the needs of our industry. Thermal power is produced by Oil, gas, coal and electricity produced by this is the major part of the electricity. It is very expensive, energy, and the public is not exposed to the worst. Research Intro. Therefore, the government has to finance any deficit. 18 RS is a unit production costs, but it supplied at comparative critique thesis, per unit Rs 12. So govt due to insufficiency of capital fails to build up a new plant.

These are very expensive to build and govt is incapable to construct it on intro high scale. Developed countries are part of the perception conclusion, basic shapes used in the production of research intro nuclear resources, but Pakistan is not using these resources, our need. Moreover, pressure and by ralph waldo essay power of the world to satisfy us, among other things, the use of the Don. Second, it requires a lot of attention. Essay. Perhaps, the following measures will be taken in Pakistan. Setting up of new factories and mechanization of agriculture demand of power is increasing, but the supply of the slave thesis electricity is falling short of demand at an increasing rate every year. Every year thousands of villages are electrified and new colonies in urban areas are supplied with electricity. This also a causes an increase in the demand for research essay electricity. Standard of living has become high. People use luxuries goods like AC, fridge water cooler, and fans.

These goods works with the help of electricity which become the cause of increase of consumption. every work is done by the slave thesis light. millions of electronic goods come in market and sale out. People are these goods blindly without any cautions. in one house there will be found many ac and fans. Intro. Markets, Offices, Collages, Universities remains open till late at phd thesis proposal in statistics, night. t is main cause of short fall. No benefit is taken from sun light in a day. Most of electricity is used illegally without paying any charges by poor people as well as owners of industries and research essay factories.

Income is decreased than expenses so that it cannot be generate abandon. Cause of Energy Crisis in Pakistan * Old Aged Equipment: An important reason endorsed to this energy deficiency is the old aged producing equipment which could not generate the electricity as per the design necessity. Continuous updating and maintenance of perception essay equipment is the responsibility of the maintenance of a high level. We sincerely believe that, you should seriously consider, upgrade and maintenance of research essay existing equipment must be in good working condition. * Wastage of Energy: Serious thought is given to the best level of energy use. It is necessary to develop a new culture of energy saving. Several times the breeding, level of illiteracy on government, blamed for the failure of savings.

This is not true. Maximum power of the elite class of knowledge and all the resources consumed by communication. But they do not have the luxury to essay intro, ignore the problem. The government should seriously embark on tfl business energy-saving program. Essay Intro. High Cost of Fuel: Crude oil price increase from $ 40 140 $ / barrel. This means that the unit price seems excessive thermal energy. WAPDA when buying electricity on higher price are not ready to sold at a loss. So, do not move to a common complain of load shedding. * Theft of perception conclusion Electricity: A simple solution is to increase the power price.

Again, the theft of electricity consumers, adding misery to the ordinary citizen to pay the bills by honestly. Energy-loss problem has been discussed for research essay intro more than a decade, and despite all efforts, no solution has been found. * Monopoly in the Business: WAPDA is the generation and thesis dispatch unit in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff matters but it remains the subject of WAPDA has come to essay intro, power, it has little effect. This is recommended that private sector should be allowed to set up power plant and settle the electricity to customers. Once the rates are fixed on reasonable basis and the service and uninterrupted power supply will be covered then customers will be benefited. Whats Up Essay. * Exploring Coal: Pakistan is blessed with a bulky number of coal resources and there is no serious work required to explore the coal, to generate electricity. Coal has been accused of less quality. However, tailor-made ?? solutions are available for any type of coal burned. The government wants the private sector to play its role. In our opinion the government should take initiative and set up the power plants on the site of research essay intro coal mines. * Renewable Energy: Government efforts to produce renewable energy sources.

PPIB has issued a letter of intent, many private sector guarantors. Phd Thesis Proposal In Statistics. If severe, the total deficit in the water and the wind-energy sector can be met. It is recommended that users of small loans to the electricity use of a family of small hydro and solar-cell installation. To provide a mechanism for the recovery of the loan, the monthly bills will be each month. * Role of research Government: Government is searching for comparative critique thesis the private sector to invest in research, the energy sector and breeding they elected him as a mediator and arbitrator for investment. We suggest the creation of traditional and research essay intro new technologies has to the slave, be a great investment in the units of government. Once the massive public sector plans, the private sector will be soon. * Energy Planning: Despite the high cost of emergency assistance, is only thermal power plants, and the 24-month period of time can be commissioned. Pakistan to develop comprehensive and essay realistic planning capacity of a catalytic element in economic growth, and poverty and prosperity in Pakistan to help. * Distribution System: WAPDA distribution system is inadequate briefing highlights the main reason for the loss of balance, and a broken system.

It is true, the distribution system causes a lot of unwanted and broken off, but, now, we truly believe that the shortage of energy is the main cause of our problem, complain WAPDA distribution network in phd thesis in statistics, twenty years, but failed to bring any improvement. Groups Affected By Load Shedding: * Social-priority customers: Such as health care institutions, security providing forces, national communications services and research intro energetic manufacturing plants * Non-priority Customers: Such as ordinary local homes, shops and homes may have to be exposed to power failures during a time of phd thesis proposal in statistics load-shedding that factory has sufferers from shutting down its machinery and wasting its workers. * According to essay, estimates, Lahore has 10,000 factories, out of which 30-40 percent factories shut down as a result of load shedding. These companies use electricity and Sui gas in large quantities. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber products, leather garments, cotton, iron goods, and many other things manufactured. * According to sources of the Ministry of comparative thesis Labor, there were about 800,000 workers to their work. 400,000 800,000 workers while they receive less pay. Due to the failure of the owners to research intro, end the extra power facilities, and increases our difficulties. * Banquet halls will no longer be capable to host all-night wedding and thesis other parties. * Brightly-lit billboards and Neon signs are to be banned. Load Shedding gives Birth to new Cottage Industry in Country: The endless load shedding was given birth to a new small industry which is essay intro, engaged in phd thesis, the production of products to deal with load shedding. Load shedding, however, the big negative impact on the major industrial sector but it has helped small businesses grow small producers to produce products to shield against load shedding such as emergency lights, candles, generators, UPS, and like many of the other has become beautiful. Research Essay. Ignored, and although the company does not die, artificial sources of energy is the experience by ralph, power of the current “age of darkness”.

This crisis began long before and gave birth to electrical machinery price-hike. Since then the price has come down and the manufacturers do not earn abnormal profits in energy. Industry has arrived, and it was the essay intro, creation of jobs (something like a family business), and the workshop or factory and labor has been extended too many homes enjoy. According to an estimate, there are 10,000 factories in Lahore, among which approximately 30-40 percent factories have been closed because of load shedding. These factories were utilizing electricity and essay conclusion Sui gas in a huge amount. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber articles, leather garments, cotton, iron-made goods, and many other things were being produced. According to research essay, the labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from their jobs.

While, 400,000 to 800,000 laborers were receiving less wage. Many manufacturers make Ultra Power Supply (UPS) 1000w 500 and essay Rs 6,000-12,000 from selling at different prices. At least two tube lights, two fans, a television, a computer and intro can be run, as they say, but the thesis, price they harge, not 48 or more, the cost of the battery, ie, among the available in the market at Rs 2400, 4500 to Rs. In addition, the age of the batteries is essay intro, about one year, and the battery is in statistics, damaged, repair or replacement costs must be supported by its users. Generator current price increases recorded in essay intro, 2007, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 different brands, depending on size and quality. Generators have been used in China more generally on tfl business the other side, such as imports, a very high value. The ability to market it under their own power generators with different types, some diesel and some petrol and gas operations. It is advisable to research, have caught members of the replica market; we have to whats up essay, mention its high price, even though they were not a major concern for essay intro quality.

Most of the shopkeepers sell artificial lighting devices, they say, because they are forced ordinary people to bring these products to market. Whats Up Essay. However, the risk of these products, it is not a quality, it is a serious risk of explosion. In summer, coolers and intro fans demand will increase, especially in schools, universities, homes, offices, etc. , and in the case of experience by ralph emerson essay continuous load shedding, artificial demand for energy resources is likely to rise. Negative impact of load shedding: Impact of Load Shedding on Students: Load shedding effects everyone but students are suffering from intro load shedding and their study activities is badly punished because of unscheduled and long load shedding. Because in the exams day do not enough for students to study, but should be prepared for their exams in the morning and at phd thesis proposal, night, but they cannot, therefore, Load shedding is disturbing very badly Students Study. It’s affecting students especially whose exams are in progress because of unscheduled Load shedding. Proper planning against research intro load shedding has not been done in examination halls and students are meeting with this hide and seek of electricity.

Load shedding causing worst impact on students. Schedule of their study is interrupted. Due to frustration of perception essay conclusion load shedding they cannot study properly. These days, summer is on its peak, but without electricity is irritating. When students do not have adequate sleep, they cannot learn well, and this will affect their learning. This is because students are able to study at research intro, night. Students who suffer most as a hard training especially during the study.

The worst situation is those at the thousands of the government schools and private academies, which lack the power generators facilities as it is only organized by some very posh private schools. Breeding. Impact of Load shedding on Health: Remember the good old days; many people would enjoy a good night’s sleep. Interestingly, people from other countries, the future, and a better life, we find it easier to go back to essay, the soft smile is whats up essay, better remembered today. In fact, pessimism and cynicism in a way that is both natural responses. We often hear the saying “I’ll sleep in his diary. ” All I hear is how to keep that night, or how many times it has happened to turn on and turn off the electricity. People now look forward to the beginning of the night against their body and a new energy to rest and research essay work the next day. Critique. Nights are not welcome. Good sleep is essential for research the production day. The Slave Breeding Thesis. Irritability, aggression, amnesia, insomnia and drowsiness rough night from the poor, who spend as much. To work together with the indifference and essay intro anxiety.

Their capacity to work and earn a lot of suffering. Load shedding is considered too heavy for the underprivileged. Detailed and in-depth psychological analysis is required, how serious psychological disorders are very painful load shedding, to tfl business plan, determine the result of long hours. Mentally unhealthy workforce contributes nothing to the development of the country. Impact of Load shedding on Industrial Units: Approximately 1,579 industrial units in the country as a result of an research essay extensive, power failure, and other problems in the last five years, closed, sources told Daily Times.

Among these plants, in Punjab, 115, 700 Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 688, 29 Balochistan and Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) was combined with 47 different industrial stopped. Sources said these Industries have closed or are not optimal capacity shortage of energy (electricity and gas, frequent interruptions), capital and technology, and poor performance due to the high cost of production. Other causes of conflict and the owners of the property-specific financial limitations. Wide range of measures taken by the Government of the country’s industrial sector, a number of recoveries. In KP and Fata, State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has approved the removal of all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) revive government loans to help improve the energy supply, and electricity and gas to increase production to experience by ralph emerson, meet growing energy demand. Nuclear energy production is being improved by development of indigenization of the nuclear power technology. The government is boosting caged power generation through substitute and renewable foundations of energy like wind power, coal, projects, bio gas projects, solar energy small hydro and coal gasification in short-range. To raise credit conveniences, the SBP has providing many schemes for easing access to investment to SMEs by supplying guarantee and building their size to essay, manage their funds. To ease change of hands and have easy winding up processes as a massive amount of dynamic capacity lies inactive the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) was asked to make changes to ‘insolvency laws’. The Slave Thesis. The SECP and Funding Division are working on the Corporate Restoration Act to make the processes instant and also cover the essay intro, chance of providing ‘technical support’ to recover sick industry.

Overview to modern technology: The Ministry of Industry has set up Common Facility Centers through Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) and trial projects for drill including tools, mould and dye centers and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) centers and computer-aided designing. Business development centers to grow and polish innovative skills. Experience By Ralph Emerson. To challenge inadequacies: The National Productivity Organization is piloting energy audits of steel and textile sector and helping in major reserves through minor modifications. Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies also conveys out intro, energy audits for a very nominal fee. Impact of Load Shedding on the slave Economy: Electricity shortage in the country is creating destruction for industries in Pakistan. Long hours of load shedding throughout the country limiting the research, industries to work efficiently and phd thesis proposal in statistics smoothly and to manufacture the research essay intro, goods for fulfilling local needs as well as foreign orders creates problems such as industry dropping its orders and customers and at last it results in closing of industry. Pakistan is in the hold of a serious energy crisis that is disturbing all sectors of the economy and proposal in statistics the various sectors of the society. As the circumstances stands to-day, there are barely any instant solutions to resolve the issue. Load shedding may affect the economy of the country.

Has a global impact on people’s lives. Industrialization is slow down by load shedding. Commercial operation will affect the majority of the student research because curfew in effect. Intro. Shortage of furnace oil and crude oil prices continued to rise. The use of oil to generate electricity in the oven is the only constant. Load shedding is increasing mainly because of the supply and demand gap during peak hours of using. The circumstances can be managed to comparative critique, a level by intro the cooperation of the customers to crush the load curve. The consumption which can be moved from the peak hours to tfl business, other time slots can comfort the situation.

And initiating increase in inflation because tariff is also increasing of commodity per unit 30% to 60% Objectives: The objective of the research is to collect socio-economic data from the targeted population. The main objectives of this research are to: * Study the overview of load shedding, UPS and generator. * Examine the reasons of load shedding in Pakistan. Research Essay. * Study the impact of tfl business load shedding on different fields of life. Study the theory of demand, supply, price, indifference curve. * Examine the demand, supply and tariffs of electricity in Pakistan. * Whether there is any load shedding in your area? And the frequency of the load shedding * Disturbance faced by Public due to load shedding. * Examine the intro, steps taken by people against load shedding. * Examine substitutes for load shedding affecting consumer. * Did they satisfy on government’s role regarding the load shedding problem? * Examine the steps must be taken to overcome energy crisis. * Study the impact of load shedding on living standards. Chapter 2 Theory Supply: Different quantities of a product which manufacturers offer for sale in the market at dissimilar level of prices. OR A essential economic concept that defines the total quantity of a specific good or service that is available to buyers. Supply can narrate to the quantity available at a specific value or the quantity available across a variety of prices if showed on a graph. This tells closely to the demand for a good or service at proposal in statistics, a specific value; all other being equal, the supply provided by manufacturers will increase if the price increases because all companies look to make the most of essay intro profits. Determinants affecting supply.

Some of the common factors that affecting supply are: * Good’s Own Price: If there is any change in the price of a good it affects the supply of that product. * Input Cost: If the plan, price of inputs like land, labor, raw materials and power increases the research essay, seller will not supply the goods at comparative critique, existing price. * Government Policies: As the change in government policies and regulations such as wage rate, taxes, gas and electricity rates, it affects the supply of a commodity. * Expectations: If the supplier expects that there will be an increase in the demand of a good, the firm increases the essay, production so it affects the supply. * Number of Suppliers: If more suppliers enter the thesis, industry the market, it will decrease the essay intro, prices and affect supply. * Conditions of Production: If there is any change in conditions of production like weather, law and order situation or any technological change it affects the supply of a commodity. Law of supply: If other things do not change, then the amount supplied of a product declines with every decline in its price and rises with every rise in its price. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of supply are * There must be no change in cost of raw materials. * There must be no change in rate of taxes. * The transportation cost must remain constant. The wage rate must remain constant. * There must be no change in method of productions. * There weather being constant. * The law and order situation should not be change. Demand: The mathematical function showing the amount demanded in terms of its various factors, including income and critique thesis value; thus its show the essay, algebraic representation of the proposal in statistics, demand curve. OR Different quantities of product which a buyer is willing to buying at several level of research essay intro price.

Qd = f (P) In ordinary language, the want of thesis a product is measured as demand but in economics only that want of a product is measured as demand which is supported by buying power. Thus we can say that, Demand = Desire of a Commodity + Purchasing Power of research essay Consumer Determinants affecting Demand Some of the critique, common factors those affecting demands are: * Change in Price: If the change of price of a commodity changes it changes the demand of a commodity. Research. * Change in Income: The change of income of the buyer also affects the demand of experience essay a product. Intro. * Change in Fashion: The demand changes as there is a change in phd thesis proposal in statistics, fashion occurs. * Change in Taste: The demand changes as the taste of a consumer changes with time to time. * Change in Population: The demand of essay intro a commodity change with the changes in the size of population. * Change in thesis, Weather: The demand of research a commodity affects with the change in weather. Law of Demand: It shows the adverse relationship between amount demanded and price. If other things do not change then the quantity demanded of a commodity decreases with every increase in experience by ralph waldo, its price and it increases with every decrease in essay, its price. Demand curve: These are the following reasons of negative slope of demand curve * Price effect: It occurs when the experience by ralph, new consumers enter in market. * Income effect: It occurs when people start buying more units. Substitution effect: It occurs when people decrease buying of alternatives and buying this commodity more. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of demand are * There is no change in research essay intro, the taste of the consumer. * The income being constant. * There is no change in the customs. The Slave Thesis. * There must not be any alternates to the commodities. * There must no change in values of the other products. * There must not be likely change in the prices of the goods being used. * The behavior of the buyer must be constant. Limitations: The limitations of law of demand are * It is not apply on the usage of live saving drugs. Research Essay. It is not apply on proposal the use of high-status products. * It is research essay, not apply on very high priced goods. * It is not apply in case of phd thesis proposal critical shortage of product or in unbalanced situation of research intro law and order.

Price: The quantity of money that has to be paid to obtain a given commodity. Insofar as the amount people are prepared to pay for a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. The current value at which an good or service can be bought or sold. Economic theory opposes that the perception essay, market price touches at a point where the forces of supply and demand encounter. Shocks to any the supply side and/or demand side can cause the market price for a good or service to be re-evaluated. Research Intro. Example: In the comprehensive sense, an tfl business item’s market price lies at the point of crossing between the existing supply of the good or service and market demand for it. Any change in the supply or demand affects an product’s market price.

If demand remains constant, a decrease in intro, supply results in an increase in its market price and vice versa. Similarly, if supply remains constant, a increase in the demand for perception essay conclusion an product results in a increase in research essay intro, its market price and the slave vice versa. Price Theory: An economic theory that opposes that the price for research intro any particular good or service is the relationship between the phd thesis proposal, forces of supply and demand. The theory of price says that the essay, point at which the profit gained from those who demand the experience emerson essay, entity meets the seller’s marginal costs is the most ideal market price for the good or service. Elasticity: A measure of a variable’s feeling to a conversion in another variable. In economics, elasticity discusses the degree to which individuals (customers or producers) change their demand/volume supplied in reply to price or income fluctuations. OR “Elasticity is a measure of sensitivity. The responsiveness of performance measured by variable Z to a conversion in environment variable Y is the intro, conversion in Z observed in reaction to experience by ralph waldo emerson, a change in research essay, Y. Specially, this estimate is common: Elasticity of Demand: The rate at which amount demanded of a product changes due to by ralph waldo, change in its value, is called Elasticity of Demand.

Types of Elasticity of Demand * Price Elasticity of Demand (Edp): The degree of sensitivity of intro amount demanded of a product due to change in breeding thesis, its worth is called Price Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Price Elasticity of Demand Percentage Method: Edp = % change in quantity demanded % change in price * Formula Method: Edp = ? q/? p * p/q * Income Elasticity of Demand (Edy): The unit of change in demand of a commodity due to change in income of a buyer is research, called Income Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Income Elasticity of Demand. * Percentage Method: Edy = % change in Demand % change in income * Formula Method: Edy = ? q/? y * y/q * Cross Elasticity of Demand: The unit of change in demand of a commodity (a) due to change in the value of a commodity (b) is called Cross Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two methods to measure Cross Elasticity of Demand. The Slave Breeding. * Percentage method: Edc = % change in research essay intro, demand of (a) % change in price (b) * Formula method: Edc = ? qa/? pb * pb/qa Elasticity of Supply: The rate of responsiveness of amount supplied of a commodity due to a change in its value is called Elasticity of Supply. Measurement: The methods of measurement of elasticity of supply are * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points: Following is the method of measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points. * Formula method: Es = q2 – q1 ? 2 – q1 ? p2 + p1 ? p2 – p1 * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points are * Formula method: Es = ? q/? p * p/q * Percentage method: Es = % change in quantity supplied % change in price * Measurement of elasticity of supply by geometrical method: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply by perception essay conclusion geometrical method * Straight Line: If supply curve is research, a straight line then elasticity of supply at experience waldo essay, a single point is research intro, measured with the help of whats up essay this method. * Curve:

If supply line is curve similar than elasticity of supply at intro, a single point is measured by taking tangent on that single point. Indifference Curve According to Hics-Allen indifference curve refers all those combinations of breeding thesis commodities that give equal fulfillment to the buyer so he will be indifferent between them and it will not problem to research, him which one he acquires. OR A curve used in economics to show all possible relative quantities of phd thesis proposal in statistics commodities or services equally wanted by or of equal use to a customer OR A diagram showing equal levels of convenience (satisfaction) for a buyer faced with various combinations of commodities. OR A curve used in economics which shows how buyers would react to different combinations of goods. On the essay intro, graph, a quantity of one commodity appears on the x axis and a quantity of another commodity appears on the y axis. The Slave Breeding Thesis. Buyers would be equally fulfilled at any point along a given arc, as each point brings the essay intro, same level of utility to phd thesis proposal, that buyer. Essay. The slope of the arc is stated to plan, as the marginal rate of intro substitution.

History of in statistics Indifference Curve: Indifference curve theory was developed in first part of 20th century by by Irish-born British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Indifference theory can be got from essay intro ordinal theory, assumes that people can enjoy the priority of any consumption bundle. Properties of Indifference Curve: The main characteristics or properties of the slave breeding thesis Indifference curve are: * Indifference Curves are Negatively Sloped: The indifference curves must slope down from research essay intro left to right. This means that an indifference curve is negatively sloped. It slopes downward because as the buyer increases the consumption of X Product, he has to give up certain units of Y product in order to phd thesis, keep the same level of fulfillment. Higher Indifference Curve Represents Higher Level: A higher indifference curve that lies above and to the right of another indifference curve shows a higher level of fulfillment and combination on a lower indifference curve yields a lower fulfillment. * Indifference Curve are Convex to essay intro, the Origin: It is an important characteristic of indifference curves. Breeding Thesis. They are convex to the origin. This is comparable to saying that as the user substitutes product X for product Y, the marginal rate of substitution reduces of X for essay Y along an phd thesis indifference curve. * Indifference Curve Cannot Intersect Each Other:

According to the definition of indifference curve and the assumptions, the indifference curves cannot intersect each other. It is because at the point of essay intro tangency, the perception conclusion, higher curve will give as much as of the two products as is given by essay the lower indifference curve. This is irrational and impossible. * Indifference Curves do not Touch the Horizontal or Vertical Axis: One of simple assumptions of indifference curves is that the buyer purchases combinations of comparative different products. He is research intro, not supposed to buying only one product. In that case indifference curve will touch one axis. This disturbs the plain assumption of indifference curves. Substitution Effect: An effect produced by a increase in value that encourages a buyer (whose income has remained constant) to buy more of a comparatively lower-priced commodity and tfl business less of essay a higher-priced commodity. Substitution effect is thesis, always negative for the supplier: buyers always shift from spending on higher-priced commodities to intro, lower-priced ones as they try to sustain their living standard in face of increasing prices. Substitution effect is experience emerson, not limited only to customer goods, but shows in other areas as well such as demand for labor and capital.

In economics, the influence of a change in research, the value of a commodity, which inspires buyers to substitute one commodity for another. If a commodity’s price decreases, buyers will tend to buy it in liking to other commodities; if its price increases, buyers will buy other commodities instead. The idea that as values increase (or incomes decline) buyers will replace more costly items with less costly substitutes. On the other hand, as the wealth of persons rises, the opposite tends to be true, as lower-priced or low-grade commodities are avoided for more costly, higher-quality goods and essay conclusion services – this is known as the income effect. The substitution effect is the effect perceived with fluctuations in relative value of essay commodities. Perception Essay. This effect fundamentally upsets the movement along the curve. Research Intro. Supply Chain of whats up essay Power Sector | | Power Sector – Supply Chain| | | | Generation| Transmission| Distribution| Consumption| | Furnace Oil| Independent Power| | FESCO| | Thermal| | | | | | | Gas| Plants, Generations| | GEPCO| Domestic| | Coal| Companies, and| | HESCO| | | | KESC| | | | | | | National| IESCO| Industrial| | | | | | | Hydel| Water| Dams| Transmission and| LESCO| | | Solar| Independent Power| Distribution Company| MEPCO| Commercial| Renewable| Wind| | | PESCO| | | Plants| | | | | Hyde IPPs| | | QESCO| | | | | | | Others| | | | | TESCO| | | | | KESC| KESC| | Table 1 Generation Capacity (MWH)| 2012| | Installed| % of total| Thermal| GENCOs| 4,885| 20. 7%| | KESC| 2,050| 8. 7%| | IPPs| 8,587| 36.

3%| | RPPs| 453| 1. 9%| | Others (CPPs/SPPs)| 324| 1. 4%| Hydel| WAPDA| 6,444| 27. 3%| | IPPs| 111| 0. Research Essay Intro. 5%| Nuclear| Two Nuclear Plants| 787| 3. 3%| Import| Mainly from Iran| -| 0. 0%| | Total| 23,641| 100%| Table 2 Electricity Generation Capacity of comparative Pakistan Electricity Consumption in Pakistan Figure 1 Figure 2 Current and essay intro Expected Energy Mix of electricity in Pakistan: Figure 3 Figure 4 : According to data released by phd thesis proposal the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) in its 2012 State of the Industry report, private sector firms have already begun work on dozens of projects that would substantially increase the country’s electricity generation capacity. After five years of unbearably long daily power outages, Pakistan’s private sector has had enough: over the next five years, they plan on investing over $14. 3 billion in research essay, increasing the nation’s power production capacity by nearly 46%, and they are doing so by investing in the cheapest possible sources of electricity. 2,400MW will be Pakistan’s power generation capacity by 2018, if the next government will to phd thesis in statistics, do absolutely nothing to prevent or slow down the progress currently being made on projects that are already approved and progressing. : (The Express Tribune, 2013) Expected Demand and Supply Gap, Power Generation Projects Power Generation Projects in Pipeline| | Number| Capacity| Expected Cost| Per MW| Public Sector| | | US $| US $| Hydel| 12| 2,358| 96,282| 40. 8| Private Sector| | | | | Oil Based| 8| 997| 1,151| 1. 2| Pipeline Quality Gas| 1| 140| 140| 1. Intro. 0| Dedicated Gas fields| 3| 621| 780| 1. | Hydel| 16| 5,271| 10,096| 1. 9| Coal| 7| 1,725| 2,356| 1. Perception. 4| Naphta| 2| 404| 404| 1. 0| Total| 37| 9,158| 111,209| 12. 1| Table 3 Deficit in essay, Demand and Supply (MWH)| Fiscal Year 13| Fiscal Year 14| Fiscal Year 15| Planned Generation Capability| 21,746| 24,212| 25,081| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 8%| 7%| 7%| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 25,284| 27,092| 29,032| Total| (3,538)| (2,880)| (3,951)| Table 4 | | | Short term| | Medium term| | | | Long term| | | Years| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| 2013| 2014| 2015| 2016| 2017| 2018| 2019| 2020| A| Existing| | | | | | | | | | | | | Generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hydel| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| | Gen. Cos| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| | IPPs| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| | Rental| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| | SPPs| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| | Total A| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| B| Committed| | | | | | | | | | | | | Under| | | | | | | | | | | | | | process| 2466| 5501| 7806| 7806| 7556| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| | generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | C| Total A+B| 18386| 21421| 23726| 23726| 23476| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| D| 0. 8? C| 14709| 17137| 18981| 18981| 18781| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| E| Demand| 22500| 24474| 26520| 28683| 30944| 33394| 36217| 40648| 43864| 46689| 50152| 54319| | summer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | peak| | | | | | | | | | | | | F| deficit of| | | | | | | | | | | | | generation| 7791| 7237| 7539| 10702| 12273| 14853| 17676| 22107| 25323| 28148| 31611| 35738| Forecast Supply and demand position from 2009-2020 in MW Table 5 Tariffs: Table 6 2011| Units Purchased| Units Sold| District Losses| Amount Lost| Billed| Realized| Recovery Ratio| PESCO| 13396| 8,712| -35%| (37,133)| 69,065| 541,146| 78.

4%| IESCO| 8502| 7674| -10%| (7,231)| 67,015| 62,580| 93. 4%| GEPCO| 7314| 6439| -12%| (7,625)| 56,111| 55,459| 98. 8%| LESCO| 16995| 14741| -13%| (21,178)| 138,501| 135,872| 98. 1%| FESCO| 9685| 8596| -11%| (9,411)| 74,289| 74,111| 99. 8%| MEPCO| 12471| 10189| -18%| (18,956)| 84,637| 82,922| 98. %| HESCO| 8784| 5814| 34%| (27,229)| 53,302| 31,501| 59. 1%| QESCO| 5084| 4048| -20%| (7,998)| 31,250| 12,810| 41. 0%| KESC| 15433| 10072| -35%| (56,961)| 107,016| 91,559| 85. Experience By Ralph Emerson Essay. 6%| | 97,664| 76,285| -22%| (188,211)| 681,186| 600,960| 88. 2%| | 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| Tariff Determined by NEPRA (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 73| 5. 77| 8. 63| 8. 63| 8. 95| Tariff Notified by GOP (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 43| 4. 74| 5. 52| 5. 57| 7. 33| Subsidy (Rs/Kwh)| 0. 30| 1. 02| 3. 11| 3. 06| 1. 62| Table 7 Literature Review “Does Liberalization cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) “Electricity blackouts are a source of political and regulatory concern.

They bring both economic and social losses to business and society. Essay Intro. Beyond the direct causes due to technical and human errors, the recent occurrence of the breeding, significant blackouts in Western countries, such as those in North America (August 14th, 2003) or Italy (Sept 28th, 2003), are thought to research essay, be the result of liberalization in the electricity sector. It is commonly believed that the frequency and scale of blackouts will intensify in line with the increased competition, scale of operation and cross-regional trade of electricity. Small and short blackouts also affect some developing countries with a lesser degree of tfl business deregulation. Research Intro. The causes of power outages vary among different countries due to whats up essay, the inherent differences in infrastructure, environment and technological sophistication. According to analysis of 15 years (1984 – 1998) of NERC data on North American blackouts, large blackouts are much more likely to happen than previously expected, given a probability distribution function of blackout sizes with a power tail (Carreras, Newman et al. Research Essay Intro. 2002). Perception Essay. The frequency distribution of the blackout sizes does not decrease exponentially with the essay intro, size of the blackout. The power tail suggests that a complex system is operating close to a critical point, which increases the risk of blackouts.

It should be noted that the size of tfl business plan a given blackout is irrelevant to the particular event, which causes that blackout (Carreras, Lynch et al. Research. 2004). Quality of service experiences change in the wake of electricity liberalization. Electricity liberalization continues to thesis, be one of the longest running and challenging international micro-economic experiments. However, the essay intro, effect of liberalization on experience by ralph emerson essay the quality performance remains controversial. Thomas and Hall (2003) reveal that a greater risk of blackouts is faced in the current context of liberalization and privatization. They argue that the reduction in maintenance, in research essay, order to maintain the profitability of generators, will increase the risk of thesis blackouts. Research. However, further academic research shows that all recent blackouts in Western countries are transmission-related, and that there is no problem with generation adequacy (Bialek 2003). Whats Up Essay. Bialek (2004) contends that there seems to be little formal evidence of research a connection between electricity reform and phd thesis in statistics blackouts based on the US-Canada and Italian blackouts of summer 2003. Although some operating rules have been violated in these cases, the main underlying reason for the blackouts is the essay intro, inadequacy of rules to accommodate the changes, which is a direct consequence of proposal significant increases in cross-border trades and tighter reserve margins. In Europe, in the wake of liberalization, it has become evident that the market is characterized both by research essay underinvestment in cross-border transmission capacity and by a reluctance to carry out plan, costly upgrades of power technologies, which would otherwise improve the quality of service (EurActiv 2008).

The aim of this paper is to examine the relations between the degrees of liberalization and reported blackouts on a regional comparative basis. Research Essay Intro. We evaluate whether or not there is an increase in the frequency of small and medium blackout incidents in developed and developing countries – all with different degrees of liberalization – over a specific time period (1998 – 2007). We investigate the causes of unplanned blackouts in 69 countries / locations among European, Latin American and Asian regions reported in the media during these years. These incidents could be individual and isolated events derived from one consistent news database – Factiva. Plan. Headlines regarding blackouts are something politicians inevitably wish to avoid. In contrast, newspapers are highly intent on reporting or even over-reporting them. A survey regarding the public perception of electricity blackouts was conducted 18 months after the London blackout in September 2003. The results revealed that the events were no longer foremost in intro, people’s minds. Essay Conclusion. However, the respondents mostly held the research essay intro, utilities, and to tfl business plan, a lesser extent, politicians responsible (Brayley, Redfern et al. 005).

Factiva is intro, a database, which contains blackout news articles. Although the Factiva database is not exhaustive, the blackout news record of the last 10 years might provide a lens that offers insight into whether or not there is an actual increase in blackout incidents with the advent of liberalization, or if this perceived increase in essay, blackouts is simply the result of proportionally increased media focus on essay intro blackouts. We also look at large blackouts separately because of high socio-economic costs and the availability of investigation reports. Using the phd thesis proposal in statistics, content analysis technique, this paper identifies the common threads emerging from a number of large failures which recently happened in the U. S. , Europe, Latin America and Asia. Research. This paper is the first study of its kind, at least in the context of electricity deregulation, where the proposal, reporting of blackout incidents in regions of Europe, Latin America and Asia over time is used to essay, evaluate the causes of power outages. Section 2 provides an overview of deregulation in developed and developing regions. Section 3 reviews the small and plan large blackouts in Latin America, Europe and Asia.

Section 4 describes the data used in the study. Section 5 is the methodology. Section 6 summarizes the essay intro, results. Section 7 is the conclusion. ” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) Conclusion: Electricity reform in many countries still transition. Some countries continue to move forward, despite the obstacles they face. Whats Up Essay. Other countries have postponed their plans due to various internal and external factors. Research Essay Intro. Necessarily, policy adjustment, operational paradigms and institutional reforms are needed, and not to mention good quality regulation. This includes clearly defined objectives, responsibilities and incentives for plan supply security, regulatory and administrative processes to minimize risk and ensure policy consistency. In order to justify and match the different interests of market players at a reasonable regulatory framework is one approach.

To promote the reliability of network monitoring the effectiveness of the organization’s financial goals without compromising the standard, is another way to avoid power failures. Essay Intro. “Pakistan’s Power Crisis: How Did We Get Here? ” (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) In Pakistan, 2012 is proving to be the Year of Energy Summits. Typically, it all starts with a large mob emerging onto the streets of Lahore, Faisalabad, or another major city of the country, demanding an end to the rampant load-shedding that has been plunging entire cities into darkness for over 12 hours a day and rural areas for 18–20 hours a day, with the by ralph emerson essay, electricity shortfall reaching 7,000 MW in May 2011 (Malik, 2012). This is followed by loud promises by the government to immediately resolve the issue. Promptly, an energy summit is convened in which the same issues are rehashed. It produces no tangible results apart from (occasionally) a curious drop in load-shedding for essay intro a week or two due to the release of some payments to the independent power producers (IPPs). Almost invariably, however, the problem is treated as one of governance—issues of corruption in distribution companies (DISCOs), their failure to collect bill payments, the government’s inability to pass on whats up essay the full costs of energy production, or its failure to meet its obligations to investors who are left with no choice but to stop producing electricity, hog the headlines. Circular debt is seen simply as a tangible manifestation of this governance problem. Little attention is focused on research the rather large elephant in the room: The policy choices that have led to plan, this situation. ” (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) Conclusion: To the right incentives is essential for optimal energy mix. It is perfect situation is to move to water and local coal resources, and continue the development of renewable wind and solar energy sources.

In the short term, and imported coal or gas can be seen from the solution. Though, only partial responses to the changing energy mix. The procedure under which private or public suppliers of research essay intro energy is similarly important. Of Pakistan are poor, prices and inflation and taxes in each of the new bailout circular debt, as the government prints money with an unbearable burden fortunately become a problem. The problem, however, does not mean that it is impossible. All this requires putting the public interest first, something unusual ways failed to last. “Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy makers” (Sifat Shah amp; M.

K. L. Bhatti) “Throughout the essay, world electricity is the most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for economic development and for an adequate standard of living. As a country’s population grows and its economy expands its demand for electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is essay intro, not met adequately a shortage in supply occurs. This shortage can assume crisis proportions. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the essay conclusion, generating stations (load shedding). Research Essay. On occasions the proposal, urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours every day. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at a stretch.

Almost two years ago the Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the current demand for electricity. Intro. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to perception essay, discover this problem. The government talked about Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for meeting the energy needs of the boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. Research Essay. Very few power plants have since been set up.

The present energy crisis is totally due to phd thesis, lack of forecasting and planning. Any power system has 3 major parts: 1. Generation system 2. Transmission system 3. Intro. Distribution system Generally speaking the major technical causes of the shortfall in whats up essay, the availability of electrical energy in Pakistan are: Insufficient installed generating capacity. * Transmission system unable to transmit the greater load now imposed upon essay it. * Grid Stations and related equipment unable to carry the load imposed. * Distribution System was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to cater to by ralph essay, existing demands [Gelling at el 1988]. The major management-related causes of the crisis are: * Management Information System (MIS) not fully utilized. * Failure to forecast and plan for the future. * Failure to set up new generating stations in time. * No new Transmission/Distribution networks amp; grid stations setup. Unexpectedly rapid growth of load. ” (Sifat Shah amp; M. K. L. Research. Bhatti) Conclusion: The politicians and establishment of breeding thesis Pakistan discuss about building dams and setting up nuclear power plants but they do not know the benefits of substitute energy sources such as solar energy, Wave energy, windmill Tidal energy and Geothermal energy etc. Intro. They are economical and fast method to generate electricity. Tfl Business Plan. Pakistan is a very blessed country; solar energy is available in most parts of the country throughout the year. Likewise wind energy is freely vacant in winter in essay, the interior Baluchistan and coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of tfl business plan great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. The possibility of using coal and intro hydro-electric run of river plants must also be considered seriously for the long term. “An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Demand in Pakistan” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) “Electricity is considered the backbone for an economy’s prosperity and progress thus it plays a crucial role in socio-economic development. With the passage of time as rapid development and perception conclusion technological innovation has taken place the utilization of energy resources has also mounted.

Therefore, demand for energy has increased instantaneously with time while resources have been squeezed. Thus, require keen and helpful research to deal with the ascending energy demand. Research Essay. This specific literature investigates “electricity demand,” an important source of whats up essay energy both worldwide and in Pakistan. Research. In Pakistan, electricity is among the most used energy resources. Electricity is used for various purposes at residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. Moreover, electricity in these sectors has become a necessity. In view of Khan and Qayyum (2008) in thesis, Pakistan 60 to 70 percent of the population has access to electricity consumption. They are connected to the nation’s electricity grid; it indicates that as more and research essay intro more electrification will occur demand will increase, requiring proper planning in the field of electricity demand management. It is also a fact that price distortion in different sectors and more use of electrical appliances boosts the whats up essay, consumption level of electricity.

Currently Pakistan is going through the worst energy and research essay electricity crisis of comparative critique its history. Electricity shortfall has increased about 5000 Mw, load shedding has increased from research essay intro 8 to 14 hours daily, industrial growth has declined, and ultimately the whole economy has suffered. Whats Up Essay. Among other causal sources of the electricity crisis, escalating electricity demand is an important constituent. Thus in this research study, electricity demand estimates and determinants are scrutinized for better policy management. Research Intro. The impact of comparative thesis real income, electricity prices, stock of research essay electric appliances, and number of customers is studied on electricity consumption. Current electricity crises are also discussed in this study; its causes, influences and impacts. The empirical analysis of electricity demand is comparative critique thesis, carried out from essay intro 1970 to 2010. The main purpose of this research study is to the slave, estimate electricity demand function of Pakistan at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The impact of electricity demand determinants is estimated for short and long run.

Current energy crisis is also discussed in this study. The discussion provides helpful policy outcomes for healthier electricity demand management to the government. ” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Conclusion: The results of this study show that the response of electricity demand in each sector is different, so is the demand management policy, as well as demand management and pricing policy for each sector of the research intro, industry to formulate an effective response to the base. In addition, the peak of the price policy of Pakistan, where the peak power consumption of the high prices charged for the time they need to be practiced in order to maintain power praise. In recent years, steps have been undertaken to obtain quick delivery of electrical appliances a low-cost and, thus, energy consumption has increased considerably. Order to maintain a strong impact on the energy consumption of household appliances, such policies should be studied. Whats Up Essay. Policy measures, in addition, the government also needs to research, be improved, and energy generation and infrastructure to the new system. The private sector in the electricity sector to break the existing natural monopolies and increase competition should be encouraged. New cleaner and cheaper electricity alternatives must be considered. Finally, the powers of the conservation objectives of the strategy are effective and should be applied in all sectors of production.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology: Process used to collect information and data for business decision-making. The methodology contains published research, surveys interviews and other research techniques, and breeding thesis can be both current and historical information. Research Type: This research was exploratory research because it was done by either secondary data i. e. reviewing literature and articles or primary data such as filling up questionnaire, conducting interviews with people about the essay, topic. Comparative Critique. Data Collection: The data collected for conducting this research was quantitative. Because the objective of research intro this research was to find out the impact of tfl business plan load shedding on living standards of Lahore. So this research demands quantitative data.

Primary Data: The primary data for research essay this research discover the main causes and phd thesis in statistics views of public on load shedding in research, Lahore were conducting a survey. For this purpose a questionnaire was made having questions asked about the problem and then filled up by people of plan different ages, gender and occupation resident of different areas from Lahore. Secondary Data: We collected our secondary data from National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), News agencies articles and research intro from internet. Tfl Business Plan. But, most of the data were collected from primary sources. Population of Research: The nature of the research demanded that the target population must have the knowledge and interest because the objective of this research is to investigate the impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on essay living standards of Lahore. Whats Up Essay. So the target population of this research is the residents of urban areas of Lahore. Sample of Study: The questionnaires were filled up by essay intro 100 participants including every age and every profession living in Lahore.

Sampling technique was used to proposal in statistics, select participants randomly because practically it was impossible to collect information from all areas of Lahore. But while using sampling technique it was kept in mind that participants must have knowledge about the topic. Survey Instrument: Primary data was collected by using questionnaire. The questionnaire designed for conducting survey was consisting of around 23 questions to collect primary data from public. Questionnaire was based on essay 5 sections: * Information of Demography * Measuring effect of Load shedding * Steps taken against tfl business plan Load shedding * Responsibility determination for load shedding * Steps taken to overcome Electricity crisis Data Processing: For this research, interviews conducted in research essay intro, planned way and interviewee allowed defining his point of view. The Slave. For every interview conducted notes are made to research essay intro, record it. After interviews recorded in notes form, questionnaire made that circulated among the participants and the data collected through questionnaire was used to analyze the problem. The analysis and essay conclusion conclusion mainly focuses on impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on living standard of research Lahore. Data Processing Technique: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to input data and tfl business plan makes charts are graphs of the questions asked form participants. Microsoft Word 2010 was used to interpret and research essay explain graphs.

Limitations: There are many factors in experience waldo, this research that put up limitations on result of this research. Some of them are: * The major limitation of this research is that sample size was too small and was not able to cover all the areas of the essay intro, city. Perception Conclusion. Some of the research essay, participants of the survey had not proper knowledge about the topic. * The majority of participants in whats up essay, this research were students who had no real income level. * Another limitation which put limitation on this research was money that limits researcher to go deeply in essay, the issue. * The time for the research was also a limitation as the by ralph essay, finding of impact on whole city demands some more time. * The limitation of resources like journals, authentic reports and other similar sources also has impact on essay intro the research work. Errors: There are some errors due to which data cannot be measured as exact and accurate. * There can be some errors while making questionnaires. * It cannot be sure that the information provided by whats up essay participants in the survey was true. * Data processing technique may show any error while analyzing. Data Analysis and Interpretation Question No. 1. Gender of participant Gender| Frequency| Male| 64| Female| 36| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about total no. of Gender whose participant in questionnaire of this research. The total questionnaires filled by the participant are 100 by both male and female. In this research questionnaire male participant are more as compared to female participant. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 1. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about essay intro their gender.

The frequency of the participant is 100 out of which 64% are male including young and old, and other 36% are female. The reason of male dominance is that mostly questionnaires are filled outside domestic areas where male presence is more as compared to female. Question No. Essay. 2. Age group of participant Table No. 2. Intro. Age| Frequency| 18-23| 41| 23-28| 23| 28-35| 21| 5 or above| 15| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about different age group whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four age categories in this questionnaire. Most of the emerson essay, participant of this research falling in the category of 18 to 23 ages. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 2. Essay Intro. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their age. The frequency of questionnaire is conclusion, 100 out of which 41% fall in essay intro, category of 18-23, 23% fall in by ralph, 23-28 age category, then 21% fill up by 28-35 age group and 15% participant are 35 or above of age. Youth is the strong and major part of the nation so they are majority in this research.

Question No. 3. Occupation of the participant Table No. Research Essay Intro. 3. Occupation| Frequency| Business| 26| Student| 43| Household| 17| Other| 14| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about occupation whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four occupation categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research are students. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

3. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their occupation. The frequency of phd thesis proposal participants in this research is intro, 100 out of majority are students 43%, business holder are 26%, 17% are house holder and experience by ralph waldo emerson essay 14% participants falling in others category such as jobs, providing services. Reason of students dominance in essay intro, this research is that mostly questionnaire are filled in universities. Question No. 4. Resident of participant Table No. 4. Resident| Frequency| Cantt Areas| 18| Canal Areas| 37| Walled City Areas| 21| Others| 24| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about resident whose participant in thesis, questionnaire of this research. There are four resident categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in intro, this research belong to perception conclusion, canal areas. Research Intro. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. The Slave Thesis. 4. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their resident area. The frequency of participants in this research is research essay intro, 100 out of which mostly participants are from proposal in statistics canal areas 37%, 18% are belongs to cantt areas, 21% participants are falling in the category of walled city areas and remaining 24% are resident of intro other areas of Lahore.

Reason of canal area majority participants is that canal of Lahore covers quite huge areas than other division. Question No. 5. Income Level of the participant Table No. 5. Comparative Critique Thesis. Income Level| Frequency| Below 5000| 34| 5000-15000| 23| 15000-25000| 17| 25000 or above| 26| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about income level whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four income level categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research falling in essay intro, the category of income level below. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

5. Explanation: It is perception essay, a demographic information based question asked from the participant about essay their income level. The frequency of participants in essay, this research is 100 out of which majority of the participants 34% having below 5000 monthly income, then 26% having 25000 or above, 5000-15000 category holder are 23%, and 17% are 15000-25000 monthly income participants. Reason of majority below 5000 monthly income participants is research, that mostly participants in this research are students so they don’t have any source of income they rely on pocket money. Question No. 6. Are you suffering from load shedding in your daily life of routine? Table No. 6. Experiencing Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 94| No| 6| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they suffer load shedding in their daily routine or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 6. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether they suffering from comparative critique load shedding in their daily routine of life or not?

The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 94% which is very large number of research essay participants say ‘Yes’ they are suffering load shedding in their routine life while only 6% participants say ‘No’. Reason of such a large number of participants in Yes is that today load shedding become a curse in this country no one is proposal, saved from it Question No. 7. How many hours you normally experiencing load shedding in 24 hours of a day? Table No. 7. Research Essay. Hours of experience essay Load Shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 4| 2-4 hours| 16| 4-8 hours| 33| Above 8 hours| 47| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the duration of load shedding participants of research intro this research normally experience in a day.

There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants are experiencing above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 7. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the duration of load shedding they face in whats up essay, 24 hours of a day. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants 47% are suffering above 8 hours load shedding, 33% are suffering 4-8 hours load shedding, 2-4 hours category holders are 16% and 4% suffering below 2 hours load shedding in a day. Reason of research essay 47% participants suffering above 8 hours load shedding is that in these whole country especially Lahore facing worst electricity crisis. The current load shedding duration exceeds 12 hours a day. Question No.

8. Is load shedding disturbing your life? Table No. 8. Disturbance by Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 78| No| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the thesis, load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their life is essay intro, disturbed by load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 8. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether load shedding disturbed their life or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which majority of participants say ‘Yes’ load shedding disturbed their life while other 22% participants say ‘No’ load shedding didn’t disturbed their life much. Reason of majority of participants in Yes is that load shedding disturbed every one’s life in every field. People become fed up with these long power failures. Question No. 9. How many hours of load shedding do you think will not disturb your life much in a day?

Table No. Whats Up Essay. 9. Bearable Load shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 78| 2-4 hours| 22| 4-8 hours| 13| Above 8 hours| 2| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the bearable hours of load shedding participants of this research can bear in a day. There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants think below 2 hours load shedding in a day don’t disturb their life much. Research Essay Intro. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 9. Critique Thesis. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the bearable hours of load shedding they can tolerate in 24 hours of intro a day.

The frequency of the slave breeding thesis participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which is huge majority of participants can tolerate below 2 hours load shedding, 22% can tolerate 2-4 hours load shedding, 4-8 hours category holders are 13% and intro only 2% say they can tolerate above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Tfl Business. Reason of majority in below 2 hours category is that in today electricity becomes basic need of essay every person’s life. And wapda’s electricity has no substitute. Question No. 10. In which timing Load shedding affects you more? Table No. 10. Impact with respect of Time| Frequency| Day| 37| Night| 41| Both| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in comparative, which timing they suffer more from load shedding.

Most of the research essay, participants affecting by load shedding in night timing. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 10. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which timing they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 41% participants have impact of load shedding in night timing, 37% affecting in day timing and tfl business plan remaining 22% are affecting in both night and day timing. Reason of majority participants in favor of night category is research essay, that good sleep is essential for whats up essay the productive day. To spend all night with anxiety their capacity to work down and earn a lot of suffering for them. Question No. 11. In which season Load shedding will have stronger impact on you? Table No.

11. Impact with respect of Season| Frequency| Summer| 67| Winter| 12| Both| 21| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which season they suffer more from load shedding. Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in essay, summer season. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 11.

Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the whats up essay, participant in which season they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of research essay intro which mostly 67% participants have impact of load shedding in summer season, 12% affecting in winter season and tfl business plan remaining 21% are affecting in research essay, both summer and winter season. Reason of majority summer season affection is that in summer it is very hot here in Lahore. Temperature exceeds from 50© C and experience emerson with this extreme load shedding it feels like a hell to survive. Question No. 12. Essay. Which of your activities are being affected by critique thesis load shedding from following list?

Table No. 12. Activities Affected| Frequency| Business/Study| 48| Household| 12| Entertainment| 14| Rest| 17| Other| 9| Interpretation: This question is about the activities of participants affecting from load shedding. There are five categories in this questionnaire. Majority of participants have impact on research business/studies activities from load shedding.

Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 12. By Ralph. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about impact of load shedding on their activities to perform. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 48% of participants business/studies activities affected from load shedding, rest routine affected participants are 17%, 14% feels their entertainment activities affecting, 12% participants household activities affected and 9% participants fall in others category. Reason of majority of business/study activities affecting in this research is that most of the participants in this research are either students or business holders. Question No. 13. Intro. Have you selected for any alternative (generators, UPS, emergency lights) to handle with load shedding?

Table No. 13. Phd Thesis Proposal In Statistics. Alternative Adopted| Frequency| Yes| 73| No| 27| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the alternate of research load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they choose any alternative in load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Tfl Business Plan. 13. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of research essay intro load shedding question asked from the participant whether they have any alternate for load shedding or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of whats up essay which major part of participants 73% have alternate for load shedding and other 27% don’t have alternate for load shedding. Essay. Reason of majority participants having alternate for load shedding is that it’s been 6 years the country facing electricity crisis and its growing day by day instead of decreasing. Whats Up Essay. So, people go for alternate of load shedding to fulfill their needs during load shedding. Question No.

14. What is your alternative for load shedding? Table No. 14. Load Shedding Alternative| Frequency| UPS| 57| Generator| 24| Emergency Lights/Hand Fans| 19| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants. They are three categories to choose from. Most of the participants using UPS as alternative for load shedding. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

14. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant which alternate they adopted for load shedding. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 57% are using UPS, generators users are 24% and research intro some participants 19% use emergency lights/hand fans as load shedding alternate. Reason of majority users of comparative critique thesis UPS is that UPS is convenient, cheap and give continues back up during load shedding. Question No.

15. Is your alternative for load shedding being able to fulfill your electricity needs in essay, load shedding? Table No. 15. Needs Fulfill| Frequency| Yes| 63| No| 37| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the fulfillment of critique thesis needs during load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their needs are fulfilled or not.

Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 15. Intro. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of the slave breeding load shedding question asked from the participant whether their needs are fulfilled by your alternate or not? The frequency of intro participants in phd thesis, this research is 100 out of which majority 63% participant’s needs in load shedding are fulfilled by research essay their alternates. 37% participants say their needs are not fulfilled by their alternates.

Reason of majority participants in favor of Yes is that with this extreme load.