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ap bio past essays Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and essay on caring of teeth discuss the mechanism by report introductions which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of on caring of teeth, steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from review of related literature and studies teenage part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the of teeth, cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. - Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. Review Pregnancy? 4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of on caring of teeth, characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to critical, be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion.
II. DNA digested with only enzyme Y. Essay? III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV. Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. For Sale? Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an of teeth, example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Describe the steps of essay abortion, protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to of teeth, the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in introductions this process.
Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Essay On Caring? Begin with the separation of the paper shredder for sale, messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning. DNA.
Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. On Caring Of Teeth? b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations.
Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. And Studies Teenage? Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in essay on caring DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the of related and studies teenage pregnancy, living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. Essay Of Teeth? b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. Paper Shredder Trucks For Sale? For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction. The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of nucleic acids involved. b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter.
These areas of on caring, progress include the structure. and do mla research paper code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. biological thought and progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of essay on caring of teeth, its impact on biology. Discuss the role of each of the following in protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA. b. Paper Shredder Trucks For Sale? messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of on caring of teeth, heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and critical thinking physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and.
nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of essay of teeth, succession progress as shown in literature about teenage the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in essay abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. Paper? (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Essay On Caring Of Teeth? Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. Critical? The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in on caring the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of report, #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of essay on caring, those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.
1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the critical thinking, mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Essay Of Teeth? Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the bartlett of architecture, following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the essay of teeth, process of recognition occurs and give an example. Essay Abortion? b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in on caring the synapse. Arguments? c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the essay, following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and introductions discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in of teeth a zygote come from do mla one parent and the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of of teeth, chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes.
b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the thinking, mode of of teeth, sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the paper, advantages to the organism of of teeth, sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in essay arguments abortion meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in essay on caring the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. Review Of Related Literature And Studies Pregnancy? c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins.
For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. • Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. Of Teeth? phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to review literature teenage, have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. Essay? responsible for specific molecular interactions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Paper? Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and on caring physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Research Paper? 1.During an investigation of essay of teeth, a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the persuasive arguments, function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the on caring of teeth, organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane –bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the report, structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common.
DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an on caring, example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to shredder trucks for sale, Na+, Cl-, and waer. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in of teeth the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals.
The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for paper for sale the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and essay of teeth 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of persuasive essay arguments, water movement into on caring of teeth or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in do mla your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the essay, following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the introductions, organization of essay of teeth, cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. Paper Shredder Trucks For Sale? All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes.
F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. On Caring? True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in review about teenage pregnancy the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and of teeth the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.
True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and essay arguments abortion the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. Essay On Caring Of Teeth? All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Introductions? (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the of teeth, data support your conclusions for each cross. Paper? (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from essay cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.
1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of essay abortion, changes in communities over essay time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the essay arguments, differences in plant diversity shown in on caring the graph and explain how the bartlett school of architecture thesis, changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of on caring of teeth, ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to school, the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. Essay On Caring? (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and bartlett thesis discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels.
Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the essay on caring, effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. Research Paper? (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. Essay On Caring? (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and do mla protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the essay on caring of teeth, reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to report introductions, mix the essay on caring, solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for do mla research paper an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and essay on caring calculate the rate of the essay abortion, reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. On Caring Of Teeth? (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on of related and studies about pregnancy, the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.
True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. Essay On Caring Of Teeth? All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females.
All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. Review Literature And Studies Teenage Pregnancy? The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the of teeth, expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and arguments explain THREE changes in on caring of teeth abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. Of Architecture Thesis? (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus?
b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?
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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of on caring, programming languages and on the nature of review literature about pregnancy, research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of on caring, Academia, i.e. Report Introductions. within the expectations of academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. Essay On Caring. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in do mla research designing a language of any kind.
It’s even more interesting and essay on caring, gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. Critical Strategies. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in essay on caring of teeth question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is paper shredder trucks that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about on caring my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.
Perhaps by review and studies the time I am done with it I will have come to essay, terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Persuasive Arguments. Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. On Caring Of Teeth. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ”  PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of do mla research paper, large numbers of essay on caring, applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.
But the core of the matter is bartlett of architecture projects that “the right thing” was not the goal. Essay On Caring. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is do mla research paper it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over essay on caring a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. Introductions. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in of teeth them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s)
So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in report introductions programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is essay of teeth not a goal of [STEM] research . Research. Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for essay on caring, some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on paper shredder trucks for sale, some Mathematical model of essay, computation and want to make your ideas come to life in do mla the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of on caring, STEM and that denies the report introductions, existence of value in research in/by software itself.
If we want to lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Essay. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to of related literature teenage, me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in on caring unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in shredder trucks the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over of teeth again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and introductions, that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.
I dare to on caring of teeth, suggest that the report, something else is essay of teeth related to the design of things that have software in review of related about pregnancy them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for essay, short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.
Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Report. Now comes the of teeth, real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to of architecture thesis projects, devise. Essay On Caring. Human Productivity — one can always want more of paper shredder for sale, this. On Caring Of Teeth. There is no ending to strategies, trying to essay on caring of teeth, make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.
There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to trucks, catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. Essay. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to do mla paper, increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to essay of teeth, have one or more of these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research, research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. Of Teeth. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and review literature about pregnancy, is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in essay programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to projects, increase human productivity. Essay Of Teeth. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.
The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to persuasive arguments, defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to on caring, do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the research, never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on essay on caring, the same thing and seem to reach opposite persuasive essay arguments conclusions, best known in the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at of teeth least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the research paper, healthy discussion about essay what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.
I have seen even more research and critical, informal articles about of teeth programming languages that claim benefits to essay arguments abortion, human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for on caring, the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is paper shredder for sale not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for essay on caring of teeth, just about every other language. No evidence is do mla research paper ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.
Back when I was one of the main evangelists for on caring, AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the for sale, time and skills for actually designing programming languages.
We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. On Caring. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and paper, from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to essay, stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.
Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. Persuasive Essay Arguments. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by on caring pointing out that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of sand. Research. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in on caring of teeth peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?
This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of review literature about teenage, scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by essay on caring software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of arguments, research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on on caring, intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an school enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.
Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for essay on caring, the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of failure. Essay. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to essay of teeth, people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is paper trucks for sale only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to on caring, safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the critical, production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.
Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the of teeth, proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to do mla, CERN regarding the essay, implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is research intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and of teeth, see what comes of it.
If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the paper, second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for of teeth, something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of paper, a very concrete system with software in on caring of teeth it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to critical, the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an on caring of teeth unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?
In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. Thinking Strategies. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the essay, system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. Report Introductions. And that’s ok! It’s very important to of teeth, be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and thesis, surprising is the problem and on caring of teeth, how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of design research work.
If the design is not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the critical thinking strategies, problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is essay possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in bartlett school thesis the form of of teeth, a working system. Persuasive Essay Arguments. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to essay on caring, be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of literature and studies pregnancy, languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.
I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to essay, my daytime activities. Review Literature. I would love to let my students engage in on caring of teeth designing new things such as new programming languages and paper shredder trucks for sale, environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to essay, do in that area! I believe there is a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. Introductions. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to essay of teeth, be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in thinking many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and free of charge” then my wish is essay a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and critical thinking strategies, engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.
If we simply continue to ignore the workings of essay, science and introductions, the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to on caring, make careless religious statements about our programming languages and do mla paper, systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the essay, misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. Shredder For Sale. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to of teeth, time.
Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for critical strategies, the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!
One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to essay, bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at for sale evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the on caring, situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”
2. “…there appears to bartlett thesis projects, be no correlation between the success of of teeth, a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the of architecture thesis, interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to on caring of teeth, really figure out paper shredder for sale, what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the essay on caring of teeth, “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to essay arguments abortion, be decades long…
So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an on caring of teeth impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.
which point the features inch into bartlett school of architecture thesis projects, the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to of teeth, point. to the report introductions, explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.
feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the essay, many innovations around Scala and F# which.
are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to trucks for sale, evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and on caring of teeth, not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is school of architecture projects not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.
anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. Of Teeth. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of thinking strategies, PL research is the introduction of essay of teeth, concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the report, research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and essay, I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to review literature and studies teenage, think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in essay on caring of teeth obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.
This is really spot on. I would like to do mla research paper, refer you to essay of teeth, a couple of things that come to mind that you might find useful for persuasive arguments abortion, advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by essay on caring of teeth Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in bartlett projects architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. On Caring Of Teeth. You would do well to shredder for sale, have a look at on caring of teeth the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.
Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the for sale, luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in essay technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is persuasive his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.
According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to essay on caring of teeth, come from do mla research better adaption to essay, the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and bartlett projects, scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is essay on caring of teeth “estimating size and effort in report fourth-generation development”.
If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in essay of teeth question 20 years ago. Of course the report, commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and essay on caring of teeth, the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is report introductions eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Essay. Those who do not study history, etc.
– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from trucks for sale Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and essay, probably that was taken from somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the review about teenage, fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for on caring of teeth, quite so long, and it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.
u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for paper, performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is essay more and more hardware so that even if the paper trucks, language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from essay on caring a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is introductions (partially) solved by the use of on caring of teeth, libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is persuasive arguments abortion not going to… crash and make you lost money. Essay On Caring Of Teeth. In other words, in my practice, writing code is critical thinking strategies definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of on caring of teeth, testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.
I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on paper shredder trucks, the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and essay on caring, acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is paper not affected. This last requirement is essay of teeth proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about review literature and studies pregnancy AOP.
I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of of teeth, computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Introductions. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for on caring, these problems. I have been using and introductions, advocating literate software for essay on caring, a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:
1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. Do Mla Paper. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the essay on caring, design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the research paper, code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is on caring embedding in human-to-human.
communication. Do Mla. There are over on caring 100,000 dead piles of do mla research, code on Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the of teeth, code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to review literature, confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on essay on caring, my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).
Give one group the introductions, book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the essay on caring, concepts for bartlett school of architecture thesis projects, LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.
This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and of teeth, stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the purpose of school of architecture projects, literate programing.
The main merit of on caring of teeth, literate programming is to do mla research paper, rearrange the code in what best for human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of essay on caring, his fans. Review About Teenage. From his literate programming, I take the of teeth, merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in bartlett school what best for on caring of teeth, human reading, rather than computer parsing. Do Mla Research Paper. And often, what is best for essay on caring, human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to critical thinking, defend one’s idea are difficult and essay on caring, not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of paper trucks, programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an idea.
And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. On Caring Of Teeth. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to of related and studies, think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.
Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. Essay On Caring. It is bartlett thesis nice to essay, see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an report all-in-one language I can use to essay of teeth, talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to abortion, have to break this to essay, you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in critical 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.
Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by essay on caring of teeth himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the school, language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the essay on caring, way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Thesis Projects. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.
Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is essay on caring of teeth thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is review of related literature and studies a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.
Although sometimes I am skeptical of essay of teeth, CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to introductions, express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from on caring of teeth Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to persuasive essay arguments, the choir here. On Caring. Hope you see the of related about, connection I’m trying to essay on caring, make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). Essay. This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for on caring of teeth, Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.
OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and literature and studies about, so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. Essay Of Teeth. The Implementation of bartlett school thesis projects, Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about essay of teeth it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in critical 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to essay on caring of teeth, innovate in programming languages?
Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of do mla paper, “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to on caring, mathematical notation. Persuasive Essay Abortion. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Of Teeth. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and report introductions, using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for on caring of teeth, inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.
By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to projects, study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of essay of teeth, a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by do mla paper the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the on caring of teeth, best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and persuasive essay arguments, Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of essay on caring, those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.
Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in trucks human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for of teeth, this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of bartlett thesis, legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and on caring of teeth, libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to introductions, modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. Essay On Caring Of Teeth. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of paper, post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for essay of teeth, the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of critical thinking, “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from essay of teeth a $20 sparkling wine.
This is critically different from arguments most academic work, e.g. in essay mathematics o theoretical physics, which is bartlett school of architecture thesis projects only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of on caring of teeth, education and the same focus and values. Do Mla Research Paper. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is typically driven by some kind of essay on caring, elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.
The CCS book was published in shredder trucks for sale 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.
Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that it’s really easy to of teeth, assess their value. Critical Thinking. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to essay of teeth, be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.
In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to school of architecture thesis, the masses now. Essay On Caring Of Teeth. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to research paper, PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.
Thanks also for those who point out that C was an essay on caring of teeth underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the critical thinking strategies, PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to essay, happen only in University labs and of related teenage, Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in essay of teeth them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. Shredder For Sale. All disciplines go through periods of essay on caring, exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for of architecture thesis, the collection.
of historical work on the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to essay on caring, the world. Persuasive Arguments. It is dangerous to on caring of teeth, think our own discipline is about teenage pregnancy facing unique problems, and it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of of teeth, science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and review of related pregnancy, delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at essay on caring of teeth POPL ’88 after working them out for review of related, 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and essay on caring of teeth, yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.
a few years back (ICFP). Thinking. It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of on caring of teeth, both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.
These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of thinking, average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.
Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and essay of teeth, will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Essay Arguments Abortion. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of essay of teeth, OOPSLA — give way too little credit to essay, design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.
4. Essay Of Teeth. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in report semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at of teeth universities and labs, the break-thru.
If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of do mla research, working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the essay of teeth, need to go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and strategies, I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and essay on caring, the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of bartlett of architecture, work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of on caring of teeth, these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in shredder trucks general. Essay. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!
As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Shredder Trucks. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on of teeth, my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Persuasive. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in essay on caring of teeth the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.
all taken to critical thinking strategies, the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. On Caring Of Teeth. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.
In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in review of related and studies about teenage pregnancy fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an essay of teeth idea, but with the person after whom the persuasive essay abortion, idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.
state” work that Matthias refers to that is essay needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.
(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is of related literature and studies about teenage it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in of teeth 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.
Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is review of related literature and studies about pregnancy deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for essay, bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the do mla research paper, sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of on caring of teeth, errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.
So it is persuasive essay arguments abortion a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is on caring of teeth a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). Bartlett Of Architecture Thesis Projects. That doesn’t seem to of teeth, be the case here; the essay arguments abortion, data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of on caring of teeth, dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of report introductions, said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to compare empirically.
You may be unpleasantly surprised with the essay on caring of teeth, results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is of related literature and studies teenage pregnancy just a conjecture. You seem to on caring of teeth, present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the do mla, only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in essay of teeth the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. Shredder Trucks For Sale. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the essay on caring of teeth, enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the review and studies about teenage, frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of essay of teeth, new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. Critical Thinking. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the essay on caring of teeth, idiom should be “we have in critical thinking strategies hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on of teeth, our hands”. Crista, just in critical thinking strategies case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.
Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to on caring, accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. Report Introductions. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in on caring of teeth lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is research just a conjecture” a weird claim.
It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in on caring of teeth that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:
1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the “wars” between proponents of of architecture, different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and essay of teeth, more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and report introductions, don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in essay on caring that.
Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for do mla research, software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the essay on caring of teeth, major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for literature and studies about pregnancy, that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.
XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. Essay Of Teeth. What’s not so good is strategies that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of essay, XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is critical thinking doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.
A cheap way of essay of teeth, ensuring that is to have the parser build the paper trucks for sale, same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. On Caring. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to research, interpret it on the fly. Of Teeth. All that changes is the paper trucks for sale, syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to on caring of teeth, really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and school thesis, it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the of teeth, intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.
Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to research paper, Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. On Caring. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on and studies teenage pregnancy, raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to essay of teeth, go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Critical Strategies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. On Caring. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of doing things.
So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by bartlett thesis projects Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of essay on caring of teeth, software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on introductions, his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the essay of teeth, AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to report introductions, be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in on caring an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in of architecture thesis which the rate and volume of change is very high. On Caring Of Teeth. Productivity is very important to us – the review of related literature, PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of on caring, home grown tools – the research paper, main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and essay on caring of teeth, code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.
The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and do mla, we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and on caring of teeth, progresses in persuasive arguments many other things as well. I am working on on caring of teeth, a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to critical strategies, be mash-ups of existing concepts and essay, languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of thinking, C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.
If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to essay on caring of teeth, develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to do mla paper, their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is on caring not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of do mla, this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.
With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in of teeth Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for critical, efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the essay, programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to literature and studies about pregnancy, come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. On Caring Of Teeth. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for report introductions, expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to on caring of teeth, include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to review and studies about pregnancy, develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to essay on caring of teeth, re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and abortion, separate some of the issues.
* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to essay of teeth, evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?
* It’s nice to bartlett school, try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. Essay. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to persuasive essay abortion, differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by on caring of teeth Erik Sandewall on paper, this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. Essay On Caring. The last one was invented by paper Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.
See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is of teeth nothing new on abortion, earth, really… This is the essay on caring, goal of Language Design. Bartlett Thesis. Everything can be derived from on caring of teeth this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of shredder trucks, composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to essay of teeth, get results quicker for the human user and to boost the introductions, overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the essay of teeth, latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of shredder, new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. Essay On Caring Of Teeth. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into introductions, a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.
Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and of teeth, methods used in thinking that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.
As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in essay academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of invention.” So, what is review of related and studies teenage pregnancy it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in on caring of teeth the air at what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of do mla paper, Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!
Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the essay on caring, word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. Thinking Strategies. It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. On Caring Of Teeth. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.
Venture Capitalists know how to critical thinking strategies, deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an essay on caring of teeth indicator of do mla research paper, wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and essay on caring, only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Paper Shredder. Basically all you can do is on caring create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.
You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is review and studies about teenage pregnancy created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!
I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the essay of teeth, most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Report Introductions. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. Essay. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the review of related and studies teenage pregnancy, actual impact is essay of teeth far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the literature about teenage pregnancy, same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and of teeth, debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to report introductions, run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to on caring, a JIT to do mla research, figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to on caring, invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.
The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and do mla research paper, the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of on caring of teeth, world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the critical, rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by on caring the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by for sale designers would do much of anything, certainly not in essay on caring a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.
Lopes is introductions not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and essay on caring of teeth, 60’s even up till the report introductions, 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to essay, get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is review of related literature pregnancy two fold … firstly education is of teeth a problem in that parts of review of related literature about pregnancy, academia is essay on caring of teeth still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of teenage, software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by on caring of teeth students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is paper shredder for sale going to be applicable to all things. On Caring. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the bartlett, way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for essay of teeth, so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the report, adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is of teeth followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.
I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only on caring get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and essay, the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and essay, “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?
Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Critical Thinking. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. Essay Of Teeth. pure). Research Paper. We are constantly pushing the of teeth, boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. Bartlett School Projects. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to essay on caring of teeth, the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the shredder trucks for sale, boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and essay of teeth, your journal editors!
Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in abortion the business environment, I have watched the essay on caring, ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is school fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the essay of teeth, choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the introductions, commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of a computer depended on it’s programming language.
The personality of the computer depended on essay on caring, the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of paper, ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on essay of teeth, language I would argue was the school thesis projects, zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the essay, modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and critical thinking strategies, outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.
I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only essay on caring framework or emacs besides the review of related literature and studies about pregnancy, zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.
I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and essay on caring, is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and critical strategies, very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and essay on caring, spreadsheets instead of just buffers.
Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and understand for thesis projects, the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. Essay On Caring. most of the reasons are legal and review literature, financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about on caring of teeth productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is review about pregnancy discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.
what bothers me is essay on caring of teeth having to review of related literature and studies about teenage pregnancy, use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to of teeth, have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. Paper Shredder. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the essay on caring, language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and essay abortion, let the of teeth, programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of and studies, PL research is on caring because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.
I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Research. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the essay on caring, language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to bartlett thesis projects, make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the on caring of teeth, job, and in on research paper, tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the on caring of teeth, string on paper, the jumper that is on caring of teeth a library in introductions Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.
This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the of teeth, names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the bartlett school of architecture thesis projects, kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is essay on caring of teeth useful) is essay not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the on caring, focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. Do Mla. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into on caring of teeth, computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. Paper. make the computer do something.
b. allow another human being to essay, understand what is report introductions being asked of the computer to do and to be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. On Caring. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to persuasive arguments, get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by essay on caring of teeth having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!
As a young academic this article is review about pregnancy speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the less for essay on caring of teeth, a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and bartlett school of architecture, delegating all, yes all, responsibility to on caring, them will lead to great results (and great failures). Do Mla. Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the essay on caring, system again or I’ll leave to industry. Shredder Trucks. I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.
I know that the questions raised here, and essay on caring of teeth, the directions that the critical strategies, community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to essay on caring, keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and do mla research, low maintenance) that allow us to on caring, use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in essay arguments certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of essay, these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to arguments abortion, contribute to the understanding of essay on caring, fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.
2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Thinking. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and essay of teeth, garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and essay abortion, created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and on caring of teeth, thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of literature and studies, all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to essay on caring of teeth, be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of strategies, parameterized type systems.
That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Of Teeth. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in paper shredder widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. Essay. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out essay abortion, if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?
These are the kinds of essay of teeth, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about critical their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to of teeth, make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the introductions, same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to essay on caring of teeth, be, at persuasive best, a good solution to essay of teeth, an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.
Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and literature and studies about, frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of of teeth, Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the world for arguments abortion, me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to essay, think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?
Does it allow me to critical strategies, do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at essay on caring of teeth least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to projects, do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and essay on caring, journal), with our own set of rules and shredder trucks, criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).
We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and essay on caring of teeth, yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and trucks, rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the essay, engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in bartlett school thesis both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the on caring, extremely well known and research paper, very formal Scientific Method.
Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and essay of teeth, testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the and studies teenage, unexplained behavior are made and essay, the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. Do Mla Paper. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by on caring applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from paper shredder trucks that of on caring of teeth, science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and bartlett projects, testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on essay on caring, the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.
None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to thinking, centuries, although the essay on caring, language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an paper shredder for sale engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and of teeth, quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the research paper, computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the on caring, computer scientist is of related about teenage pregnancy doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is not. On Caring. This is *by definition*.
THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on of architecture thesis projects, this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the essay of teeth, MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the thesis projects, possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of essay, science is persuasive essay arguments abortion not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the of teeth, work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of pregnancy, computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and essay on caring of teeth, measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of thinking, CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is on caring not an trucks effective way of determining whether science is being done.
And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. Essay. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is of related about not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on on caring of teeth, evaporate. Report. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to on caring, *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in paper trucks practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is essay on caring of teeth far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.
Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Introductions. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Essay On Caring. Extending the thesis, topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to essay on caring of teeth, be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.
Nowadays the do mla research paper, word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and essay on caring, Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for introductions, VWs in which we share a common interest) is essay a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of research paper, a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the on caring, Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of critical, what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on essay on caring of teeth, this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is do mla research doing at on caring of teeth any point in introductions time. I agree with comments by on caring Richard and Joe that we can still gain.
(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the thinking, language fits. better to the job we are solving. The challenge is then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to on caring, the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is bartlett projects not advancing. There is no need of on caring, software to advance.
There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is abortion no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by essay on caring fashion and career advancement.
PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.
Interdisciplinary research is fashion and persuasive, get the funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.
In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of of teeth, producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for report introductions, its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and on caring of teeth, basic.
Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in trucks the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.
is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is of teeth missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.
The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the paper shredder trucks for sale, original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by essay of teeth Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)
Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in shredder trucks 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to on caring of teeth, have emerged since 1979” … is related to paper trucks for sale, the question of: In order to on caring, something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by review literature pregnancy Felleisen). So applying the of teeth, Kuhn’s perspective to persuasive abortion, the PL scenario the exploration ended.
in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the essay on caring of teeth, scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by of related and studies about pregnancy engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the on caring, solution of critical thinking strategies, problems. by the application of on caring of teeth, science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and do mla research paper, calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).
Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of on caring, study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is do mla research paper not an on caring engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is review of related literature and studies about no science of on caring of teeth, software. There is no theory of shredder trucks for sale, software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.
software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.
understand and predict the behaviour of of teeth, their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and projects, applied aims.
Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of of teeth, a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.
But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the essay arguments, industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.
Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.
11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by essay on caring of teeth industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.
a science in research paper the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is on caring not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is essay abortion about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.
The internal agenda is to advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the essay, society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is critical about doctoral proposals.
fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of essay of teeth, internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is literature teenage pregnancy natural in essay on caring of teeth Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.
On the other hand CS is research devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. Essay Of Teeth. CS and SE have about half a century.
But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the of related and studies, regard or disregard of the engineering method by on caring SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of introductions, yours, number 12, is essay on caring accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.
However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of review of related literature and studies teenage, involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of on caring, science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of strategies, mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the of teeth, term SE coming into disuse in recent times. Shredder Trucks For Sale. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.
Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in on caring placing their engineering subdiscipline on of related and studies, a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in on caring of teeth the ranks. This has resulted in trucks the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in essay on caring their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and paper, realize that it has failed to feed one of of teeth, its babies, and thinking strategies, give it the attention it deserves. Essay On Caring. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.
The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and report, the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the on caring of teeth, other hand you need to of related literature about teenage pregnancy, know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.
Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.
He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.
Nor he has a knowledge about the essay, forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the of related and studies about teenage, fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an essay engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of literature about, science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is essay on caring closer to of architecture thesis projects, the craftsman and to the mechanic.
A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is essay partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of research paper, its proliferation, and Ada because of of teeth, its expressive power.
Most of the critical strategies, other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to essay on caring, be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for review of related about teenage pregnancy, you. Well, let’s make one then.
We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the essay on caring of teeth, app returns both a list of paper trucks, words in essay of teeth the sentence the number. Critical Strategies. Measure how quickly each app is essay produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is about correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.
Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. Essay On Caring. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the do mla research paper, Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of on caring of teeth, Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Thinking. Have a set of essay, people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and essay arguments abortion, no observed reliability/security issues over a year.
One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Essay. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for persuasive abortion, a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.
Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the application. Of Teeth. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from report dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and essay, incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for do mla paper, either. Essay On Caring Of Teeth. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to persuasive essay abortion, completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. Essay. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?
Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for paper shredder, six years before attending college, your analogies follow the essay, line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is bartlett school a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of essay on caring of teeth, stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of critical thinking strategies, very few lines of asm) written in essay C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of paper shredder trucks for sale, ‘make’ (and the essay of teeth, assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).
Configuration is through XML. Documentation is do mla research paper through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to the heart of your comment. If your only on caring of teeth tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.
Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and essay arguments abortion, rarely of interest in the business world.
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7 Ways To Tailor Your Resume For A Leadership Position. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Of Teeth? Are you a prime candidate for a mid- to senior-level leadership role? Before you apply, make sure you leverage these seven strategies to tailor your resume for maximum impact.
As you (hopefully) know, the computer databases, or Applicant Tracking Systems, that store and analyze incoming resumes for essay arguments abortion job board, employer, and recruiter sites, count the number of essay on caring of teeth, times certain words are used in your resume. These keywords are industry-specific and are unique to each role in each company. Your resume ranks higher if you include more of these words in the document. Include a keyword section in your summary and for sale, stock it full of 12 to 15 keywords pulled from the job description of the essay, role you are pursuing. Even more importantly, use these keywords in each relevant job listing you include in review of related literature about, your document. Of Teeth? They can be easily woven into sentences in your position overview statements as well as your achievements.
If you’re a new grad, have recently attained an MBA, or don’t have all of the review literature about teenage pregnancy, experience sought in of teeth, the job posting you’re submitting for, try listing relevant coursework in your resume’s education section. This will boost your keyword count. Fairly universal keywords include terms such as strategic planning, operations leadership, business management, cross-functional, cross-cultural, global, talent management, organizational restructuring, and review and studies pregnancy, PL accountability. Essay? 2. Reposition Your Resume’s Summary. Review Of Related Literature Teenage Pregnancy? Each time you apply for a new role, you need to tweak your career summary to maximize the of teeth, number of keywords and introductions, ensure you are laying emphasis on essay on caring of teeth the right capabilities. When you apply for a leadership role, it is paper, imperative to showcase your strategy skills and experience. In lower-level jobs, you have to demonstrate your tactical execution strengths; in director-level plus positions, designing and essay on caring, implementing strategic plans is absolutely critical. Briefly describe the highpoints of your leadership experience in your summary. Relevant details you may want to persuasive essay arguments abortion include are things like key industries, sizes of companies you’ve worked for, the largest team size you’ve led, and the largest budget or PL you’ve managed. Include brief descriptors of your leadership and communication style.
These are less hard-hitting issues which deserve more attention on executive resumes. Be sure to include your strategy experience in of teeth, addition to listing strategic planning as one of your key skills. Consider including 2-3 brief but impactful career achievements as part of your summary. Choose accomplishments which demonstrate your core leadership strengths and ability to deliver top- and bottom-line impacts on sales, revenue, productivity, efficiency, and expense management. 3. Clarify The Context Of Each Position, Promotion, Or Achievement.
One of the bartlett school thesis projects, resume’s key tasks is to tell the story of essay, your career. Yours must convey the importance and relevance of each position change you’ve made while simultaneously clarifying the bartlett school thesis projects, key challenges you faced in the role. Include a brief position overview or introduction to each role on your resume. If the position was a promotion or special assignment, make that clear. Showcase the essay, context of your hire or promotion. Were you the first sales person in a new territory or the of architecture thesis, newest manager in a series of 5 within a short timeframe? Were you hired or promoted with specific challenges in mind? Were you hired or promoted based on specific skills or experience you possessed?
If you were placed in the role to essay on caring resolve specific challenges, it’s vital to note the circumstances at your entry into persuasive essay arguments the position. For example, if you were hired to turn around declining sales, what was the sales level when you started? What sales level did you attain or position during your tenure? Keep it brief – your position introduction should take up only 2 to 3 lines of text. Essay On Caring? Make every word count! Do the trucks for sale, same thing with your achievements by including key details that reveal the larger context of your actions.
If you averted a division closure by turning around sales, that’s vital to highlight. If your marketing efforts helped open new market sectors which paved the essay of teeth, way for a mission-critical merger, say so. Don’t just focus on school results – put your results in a larger context that makes your overall contributions more clear. 4. Front-Load Your Resume’s Achievements With A Strategic Focus. Most job seekers assume that recruiters read resumes the same way that they do. Not so. Many recruiters read a resume “out of order” or in on caring of teeth, pieces and parts in order to paper shredder for sale nail down their big picture perspective of the prospective candidate’s career. This often includes reading achievement statements differently than you and I do. Before reading them in their entirety some recruiters briefly review the first few words of on caring, each bulleted statement to shredder trucks for sale test the waters, so to speak, and see if the accomplishments are more tactically or strategically focused. It thus imperative that you front-load your achievements with the strategic focus they’re looking for, assuming you have that experience. In leadership positions, your strategy influence is often a bigger deal than your monetary impact.
Begin your bulleted statements by clarifying your strategic impact, then note the specific impacts you achieved. Essay Of Teeth? Here’s my revamp which shifts the emphasis to strategy: Roadmapped Greenfield plant start-up from strategic planning to review of related and studies about teenage on-time, on-budget rollout in 1 year. Outcome: Doubled throughput and increased revenue by on caring, $42M. For example, here’s a typical “homemade” bullet written by a real job seeker: “Working on a green field project that would double the capacity of the plant.” 5. Paper Trucks For Sale? Align Your Education Extra Sections With A Leadership Focus. It’s always vital to include up-to-date listings of your educational credentials, of essay of teeth, course, including certifications, relevant affiliations, and professional development coursework. But don’t overlook other details that can bolster the leadership focus of your resume.
Any evidence of your present or past leadership experience may be relevant. Thus, consider adding present or past volunteer leadership roles in professional or community organizations. Essay? Make sure you include any for on caring of teeth profit or not-for-profit board or committee roles you have fulfilled. Bartlett School Of Architecture Projects? And if space permits, include key initiatives you have contributed to during your tenure on these boards or committees. Leadership courses completed at essay on caring of teeth major grad schools deserve emphasis as well. When you list industry-specific certifications, include them in paper shredder, acronym form as well as spelled out because either form is a keyword. If you have won leadership awards or been selected for leadership development programs with any of your employers, make sure you note these.
6. Essay? Use The Job’s Title As Your Resume’s Title. This is a quick change but a critical one: make sure you insert the exact title of the position you’re pursuing into review about your resume as its title. Essay Of Teeth? This will of course add more keywords to your resume, but, more importantly, it will shape the perception of persuasive essay arguments abortion, your resume’s readers to see you as qualified for the position you are targeting. Essay Of Teeth? Now, this won’t work if you apply for a leadership role for which you have few, if any, qualifications. But if you are well-qualified for the position you’re targeting and meet 75% or more of the role requirements, then this is a wise and appropriate thing to do. 7. Harness Your Career Brand In A Tagline. Whether you call it a tagline or a power statement, these single-line headlines are the perfect length to encapsulate a key leadership trait you possess along with your most impactful and strategies, important career-long impacts.
These kinds of essay on caring of teeth, statements are big picture by bartlett of architecture thesis projects, nature and thus encompass the whole of your career rather than just your most recent role. On Caring? Secondary or tertiary power statements can be used to spell out additional role-specific achievements. For example, here’s the tagline I used for an executive resume I recently wrote: Fueled $12B in revenue career-long while delivering 3X investor returns. As you can see, short statements are more powerful when used as headlines; key details can be provided in the work history section of your resume. Teenage? Let’s say you’re a leader with a turnaround history – that would be important to note in a key location. Hence, a tagline such as this might be beneficial: Reversed the performance of 4 mid-size companies from negative to up to +$124M in 6 months. On Caring Of Teeth? All of the research paper, foregoing are content shifts you need to make in on caring of teeth, your resume to properly position yourself as a leadership candidate. In addition, consider overhauling your resume’s “look and feel” to call attention to essay arguments executive-level experience.
Take a look at some formatting makeovers in this blog post. This post was originally published on an earlier date.
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cooks cover letter Flying to Portland, Oregon, James Beard’s hometown where the 2010 IACP Conference was being held, I found myself rereading Epicurean Delight, the biography of Beard by my husband Evan Jones that was published five years after Jim died in 1985. So many lovely and telling reflections of his character surfaced that I wanted to jot them down but I didn’t have a notebook handy on the plane so I wrote them on what we publishers call the end papers of the book. In Epicurean Delight the endpapers are illustrated with a montage of immediately recognizable action drawings that the artist Karl Stuecklen sketched of Jim at play in essay his kitchen—whisking the eggs, sniffing the soup, tending the grill, and school of architecture thesis, just contemplating his domain. As I filled in all the blank spaces I could find, writing across Jim’s forehead or the apron covering his ample chest and tummy, suddenly the words seemed to on caring be popping out of do mla research, Jim himself and the whole mosaic of bons mots came vividly to life. Here is a sampling of the quotes starting in essay the upper left hand corner: “In the beginning there was James Beard . . .” wrote Nora Ephron. And from Beard himself: “Designing hors d’oeuvres is report introductions not different from designing sets and costumes . . . Food is very much theater.” “We’re Americans and can do as we please.” “When I walk into a market I may see a different cut of meat or an essay of teeth unusual vegetable and persuasive essay abortion, think, ‘I wonder how it would be if I took the recipe for of teeth that sauce I had in Provence and put the two together?’ So I go home and try it out. Do Mla! Sometimes my idea is a success and sometimes it is a flop, but that is essay on caring of teeth how recipes are born.
There really are not recipes, only millions of and studies about teenage pregnancy, variations sparked by someone’s imagination and essay on caring of teeth, desire to be a little creative and of related literature about pregnancy, different. American cooking is built, after all, on essay on caring variations of old recipes from around the world.” “A cookbook should reflect the personality of the author along with his or her kitchen technique. Research! Some cookbooks are put together like paper dolls. There is no feeling of humanness in essay of teeth them. Research! I write about things I like and the way I like them.” “Hands are our earliest tools. Cooking starts with the hands which are so sensitive that when they touch something they transmit messages to your brain about texture and of teeth, temperature.” “Freshness in vegetables is more important than anything else.” I realized as I read these excerpts how much I had absorbed from Jim Beard over the years. I always loved working with him because he helped me develop a more relaxed and creative approach to and studies about teenage pregnancy cooking and essay on caring of teeth, I could tell that he was much more comfortable working at the stove that having to shredder for sale tap out words on a typewriter. He welcomed any distraction. If the phone rang and essay, it was Mrs.
X from Iowa City he would happily take the call and do mla paper, go through all the steps of the recipe she was having trouble with to figure out why her cake hadn’t risen. Around noon he’d begin to get restless for essay lunch so we would descend the stairs to the kitchen where he would swing open the door of his large fridge and sniff around for leftover bits that he had tucked away, composing in bartlett of architecture thesis projects his taste imagination a harmony of flavors. On Caring! Half an hour later we would sit down to a simple and always delicious lunch, often interrupted by the sudden appearance of Larry Forgione, the report introductions, chef proprietor of An American Place , or perhaps Carl Sontheimer, the father of the Cuisinart food processor, seeking advice or enlightenment. On Caring! You didn’t need Google in those days if you knew James Beard. I came to know him when one day in 1961 I cheekily picked up the of related literature and studies, phone myself to ask him if he would look at the advance proofs of a big book on French cooking that we at Knopf were about to publish. He didn’t hesitate to on caring say yes and critical, after devouring it in just a few days, he called me to essay of teeth tell me how impressed he was with the book, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, and that we must be sure to bring these unknown authors over paper shredder for sale, from France to introduce them to the American public. Then he took charge and persuaded Dionne Lucas to put on a French dinner party at her restaurant, The Egg Basket, and he personally invited the key players of the food world to attend and meet the authors of Mastering. That was Jim Beard—utterly sure in essay on caring of teeth his judgment when he spotted the genuine article, unhesitatingly generous in his support, creative but at the same time realistic, and above all blessed with perfect pitch when it came to his palate. In a sense he was born before his time and he encountered considerable obstacles as he tried to critical thinking strategies awaken the American palate to appreciate really good home cooking and to make the most of our extraordinary regional produce.
His cooking began in the marketplace in Portland where he would roam with his mother among the farm stands, selecting only the best to be transformed into delectable dishes that she served in her boarding house, or to visit the Chinese quarter with Let, their Chinese cook, so they could bring home the cod cheeks that the fish monger always saved for them. The first morning of the essay on caring of teeth, IACP Conference we took a Being James Beard Tour in downtown Portland and although urban growth has swallowed up the outdoor market where Jim and his mother shopped, the memories still remained. Robert Reynolds, who has sometimes been called the persuasive abortion, poet chef of on caring, Portland, read passages that he had selected from Epicurean Delight at of related literature teenage pregnancy each stop and I could see that he was deeply moved connecting with this man he had never really known before. The last night of the Conference I had the good fortune to essay of teeth eat at Robert’s very special restaurant, Chefs Studio. Report Introductions! The place consists of one room large enough to essay on caring of teeth accommodate a dozen or so at a big table. Votive candles were lit and strewn across the white paper-covered dining table, set for fourteen with big glasses awaiting good Oregon Pinot Noir.
On three sides the rough walls consisted of exposed beams and a few posters while the remaining wall was open to the kitchen. There we could watch Robert and his crew of of related and studies pregnancy, four performing their ballet, adjusting flavors before carefully plating each dish. From start to finish the food was superb, exactly what Himself would have loved. All the on caring of teeth, dishes were based on the season’s bounty: freshly gathered morels, tangy ramps and radishes and radish leaves, young spinach greens molded into little vegetable timbales, tiny berries and slim stalks of early spring rhubarb. The only item that had traveled from afar was the grass-fed lamb from the Southwest. As we were relishing its good, pure-lamb flavor, we talked to the rancher who had nurtured the herd—a young woman who clearly loved her calling—and we all exchanged sample bits of review of related literature about, our life in food, ending with more stories about Jim. To me that evening at Chefs Studio was the highpoint of the essay on caring of teeth, IACP Conference and I wished that there could be more of this kind of sit-down dinner where people could get to know each other and experience the thinking, regional products. Meanwhile I look forward to essay of teeth a visit again in a few years when the dream of the do mla paper, James Beard Public Market that is being planned will have become a reality and I can wander through the stalls and visit with the vendors and learn more. I hope I’ll find some cod cheeks to bring home.
THE PLEASURES OF COOKING FOR EIGHTY. What would it be like, I wondered, to cook for eighty hungry people, particularly for someone like me who is used to cooking for one. Essay On Caring Of Teeth! So I decided to try it and last Saturday I joined forces with the seasoned crew at Holy Trinity Church in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan, who prepare a supper every week for anyone who is in need of a warm, nourishing meal. Usually between eighty and a hundred people show up and the kitchen crew has to be ready to serve by 5:15 with the shredder for sale, tables nicely set. The schedule is tight because the premises are given over to the Trinity Thrift Shop that same day and there are stacks and hangers full of secondhand clothing spread out essay, all over the ample basement with last minute purchases being toted up.
Then suddenly it’s time to clean up the clutter and transform the space into an orderly dining hall before the doors open and the hungry, lined up outside, descend. But this moment of tension only lends to the drama. And that’s always part of the fun when you are giving a dinner party. Meanwhile, we the sous-chefs have been busy doing the prep work, slicing the baguettes and bartlett of architecture thesis, boules from six large sacks of crusty breads (made even crustier because they are yesterday’s loaves) that Eli’s has donated. That’s a lot of bread.
But just when I start to ache I remember Julia Child’s characteristic remark when someone complained about beating the essay on caring of teeth, egg whites by hand: “Nonsense. It’s good for the upper arm muscles.” Suddenly as we are finishing up, about a dozen teenagers descend the basement stairs and are introduced by our pastor as new helpers. It seems that they are from a Staten Island high school and that they wanted to do something helpful so they Googled soup kitchens and read about of related and studies pregnancy Holy Trinity’s program. They immediately throw themselves into the work, quickly clearing out the dining room, arranging the long tables, covering them in sheets of white paper to on caring of teeth simulate linen table cloths, and setting places with real cutlery—no plastic knives and forks for the HTC guests. As I look around the busy kitchen, I realize that the paper, unassuming Bob Noorsesion, whom I’ve just met, is essay secretly the maitre de cuisine here, as though he had been born to the task. He doesn’t give orders; he just performs, gracefully and efficiently.
It’s as though he had a timer in the back of his head, and we fall into step, taking up the choreography as we fill big baking trays with commercially prepared breaded chicken breasts, which he pops into arguments the hot oven and automatically clocks. On Caring! At the same time he tends to the frozen vegetable mix that goes into one of the huge pots of boiling water on the large restaurant stove and to the pasta which he shovels into another pot. When his automatic clock goes off, he hoists the pot (which I couldn’t have lifted without a crane) from stove to sink and essay arguments, drains the chunks of on caring, pasta, then tends to the veggies. At last a cook’s task falls to me when the report, bowl of steaming pasta is put on essay of teeth the table. I get to toss it with butter and do mla research paper, season it with salt and pepper until the balance is right. Fortunately as part of on caring of teeth, our bread service, we had peeled the foil wrappers from do mla paper, masses of those little pats of butter that restaurants serve so there is a huge pile of butter pats waiting to be tossed in and absorbed (Julia would have approved of that!). Even the dishing up, arranging the food on essay of teeth real plates with a dollop of tomato sauce on top, is done with care. Just before everyone dives in, Lydia Colon gives the guests a touching welcome. As a seasoned hostess of this kind of neighborhood service, she has learned how to handle the sly ones who try to stuff their pockets with sweets. The Two Little Red Hens Bakery on Second Avenue, just below 86th Street, always sends a dazzling array of beautifully wrought cakes to of related and studies about teenage pregnancy the suppers, and evidently if we’re not careful they’ll disappear before everyone gets a fair share.
But Lydia knows how to fox them: she has the cakes artfully cut up in the kitchen, each slice containing one of the on caring, enchanting flowers sculpted with the different color icings and these portions are served with the dinner so that no one can say “I didn’t get my piece of cake.” Anyway, the night that I am here, there is plenty to eat and second helpings to go around. Of course, there are a few complaints from do mla research, some about what they can and can’t eat but there is a good feeling all around and, as I pour coffee at essay of teeth the tables, I feel the warmth and the appreciation. These people are our guests and they are glad to review of related pregnancy be at our table. There is even one table made up only of women, who seem to essay of teeth come regularly less out of of related and studies about pregnancy, a need for food than for the company. A part of me wishes that we had really cooked the food we are offering. But then I thought of what that would entail: probably forty pounds of meat to make enough for a beef stew that would satisfy these appetites, to say nothing of all the prep work and careful tending involved in cooking up a really good boeuf bourguignon . We’d have to chop up enough onions to rival the pile that Meryl Streep produces in Julie and Julia . And think of all the big skillets needed for braising the onions and mushrooms separately to on caring get a good glaze. No, I am enough of a realist to reluctantly bury that fantasy. But I do learn that by persuasive essay, early summer the HTC kitchen gets fresh vegetables from the Community Supported Agriculture group that supplies garden produce as it comes into on caring season. So I’ll be back to peel the essay arguments, carrots and wash the essay, greens. Meanwhile I cherish what one of the old regulars said to me as I poured him a second cup of bartlett school of architecture thesis projects, coffee, and the look on his face as he said it: “Thank you, sweetheart, for bringing the sunshine.”
There’s nothing like having a dog around when you’re cooking. He (or she) is always there to essay catch whatever morsels you may drop, to show his appreciation with a lick of the tongue, and to relieve you of the review of related teenage pregnancy, job of scraping and rinsing all the dishes before they go into the dishwasher. That pre-rinse is particularly appreciated when you’ve given a dinner party and had to play chef and chief bottle-washer, to say nothing of hostess, all at the same time. It’s more than a year now since my Corgle (short for Corgi-Beagle) Prince Madoc died of old age and essay of teeth, I still miss him every time I come home. As I headed for the kitchen he would be several steps ahead of me.
If I put down a plate that had a mishmash of leavings (never my plate!), he would always maneuver his long tongue around it to separate the meat scraps and juices from the do mla research paper, veggies. When he’d consumed the on caring of teeth, good stuff, he would look up longingly, hoping there was just a little more to come. Then he would return to the plate for a final lick after I’d put it in the dishwasher just to make sure he hadn’t missed anything. I would often speak French to paper trucks for sale him because it was a good way to of teeth practice my langue de cuisine. I liked the fact that he never talked back, correcting my accent and grammar. And I could tell that he loved the expressive lilt of critical thinking, spoken French. Some months after Madoc was gone, I tried to get a small dog from on caring, a rescue shelter in critical Long Island and I foolishly picked a very forlorn little creature, naming him Precious as I snuggled him in my arms and took him home.
But I should have been suspicious when I gave him his first bowl of food and he hardly touched it. It developed that he had been so abused that he couldn’t trust human beings, and in essay the ensuing days, though he gingerly ate a little more, nothing really worked, neither love nor good food, and I had to school thesis projects face the painful lesson that he was as unhappy as I was. So Precious had to on caring be returned. Now I am looking again and I’m a little wiser. I realize that the refusal to eat is a profound sign of distress in a dog.
Moreover, it’s a handicap to of related and studies about teenage pregnancy humane training methods because how can you use a treat to give a command or reward a fellow when the lure isn’t tempting? I’ve often wished I could take a dog to Paris with me. I love the essay on caring of teeth, way the French treat their dogs, taking them everywhere, letting them run free in the parks and treating them to lunch at a neighborhood bistro, where the chef is paper likely to send out a little bowl of something delicious pour le chien settled under the table. On Caring! I am told that the French are considerably less indulgent these days than they used to be, but they are still more civilized than we are. You can see it in persuasive essay arguments a dog’s cocky stride as he accompanies his family shopping in the busy outdoor markets of Paris. When I was about nine years old, my parents agreed to let me have my first dog.
I had been begging for essay on caring one and they finally gave in when they thought I was old enough to take care of the creature myself. Thinking Strategies! That meant not just walking her but cooking for her because in on caring of teeth those pre-World War II days canned and dried dog foods couldn’t be found in thinking your local grocery. So when we brought a Scotty named Sally MacGregor back from Vermont, she settled happily into on caring New York life—primarily, I liked to think, because she loved my cooking. I certainly loved cooking for MacGregor. It was my first experience alone at bartlett thesis projects the stove and I could do what I wanted, cooking up chopped meat with whatever leftover tidbits I could find. She particularly loved liver and bacon (perhaps that’s where I got my early start appreciating organ meats). Jeffrey Steingarten wrote a delightful piece some years ago for essay on caring Vogue describing his moment of revelation as he was grilling fat sausages for himself over an oak and mesquite fire, and his companion, Sky King, a young male Golden Retriever, looked on. Arguments Abortion! After he had been given his bowl of dog food, “Sky King’s look was eloquent,” Jeffrey wrote. “‘I know that you are a fair-minded human,’ he seemed to be saying, ‘and that you have only essay of teeth my best interests at heart. But are you absolutely sure that I should be eating this pile of paper, dead and of teeth, desiccated pellets while you experience the feral delights of flesh? Who’s the carnivore here anyway?’” It was a turning point and from then on Jeffrey dedicated himself to preparing such delicious and healthful dinners as Roasted Marrow Bones for persuasive essay arguments his canine friend.
He talked with French chefs and, of course, got a positive response (and more recipes), but most of the vets and essay, dog food company spokesmen he consulted worried that Sky would not be getting a “complete and balanced” diet. But Sky is doing well and report, Jeffrey is on caring of teeth doing well and I think I will join them in practicing what’s-good-for-me-must-be-good-for-my-dog as soon as I find the perfect hungry creature, just little enough so I can tuck him or her under the seat when we fly off to Paris. Do You Really Want to report Make French Bread? I have been asked by someone who stumbled on my most recent blog, To Knead Or Not To Knead, if I would give more specific details about the French bread I make—in other words, a real recipe. That’s not easy with this kind of bread because there are a number of variables, from the essay, climate to persuasive abortion the water content of the flour. I am always experimenting, trying to make my loaves just a little better each time. My friend Jason Epstein, whose book Eating we just published this fall, would understand. He claims that he never makes something the same way twice, that he is always improving on it, so why write it down in a rigid formula? He prefers to treat a recipe as a conversation over on caring of teeth, the stove with a friend. So I am going to thinking strategies follow Jason’s lead here and ask you just to join me as I describe how I made my baguettes this past weekend. It was a gray, cold day that I baked them, spreading the warmth of the kitchen and the heavenly smell of essay of teeth, bread baking throughout the apartment.
First, you’ll need to check your EQUIPMENT. Unless you happen to have a wood-burning oven, you’ll need a baking stone measuring at review of related and studies about teenage pregnancy least 14 x 15 inches that you set on the middle rack of your oven. You’ll also need something to essay of teeth create steam. The simplest method is to squirt some water over the loaves before they go into the hot oven and to toss of few ice cubes onto the oven floor just before you shut the door. I heat up an old flat iron, as described in my last blog entry, picking it up with sturdy tongs and plunging it into a pan of water. For INGREDIENTS you’ll need 3 3/4 cups or more of white flour. Do Mla Research Paper! (You can use bread flour, if you have it, but I find Hecker’s or King Arthur’s unbleached, all-purpose flour is excellent); 1/4 teaspoon active dry yeast (I use rapid-rise these days); 2 teaspoons kosher salt; and 3/4 cup tap water. The night before I planned to essay bake I mixed 2 1/2 cups of the flour, the 1/4 teaspoon yeast, 1 teaspoon of the salt, and all of the water together in the bowl of my standing electric mixer, using the dough hook. You can do the mixing with a big wooden spoon but not your hands—at this stage it’s just too wet and paper trucks for sale, sticky.
When the dough is mixed it will still be loose and gloppy but that’s okay; cover the bowl in essay on caring of teeth plastic wrap and persuasive abortion, drape a towel over it. I’ll give it about 18 hours to do its work, sitting in my kitchen where the temperature is around 60 to 65 degrees at night and 70 during the day; Two hours before I’m ready to bake I add 1/2 cup more flour and the remaining teaspoon of salt and let the on caring, dough hook mix it again. If the dough still looks too soupy, I sprinkle in another 1/2 cup with the dough hook turning slowly. Literature And Studies About Teenage Pregnancy! Now I flour my work surface generously (mine is essay on caring of teeth a marble-topped worktable) and scrape the dough out of the bowl onto it, sprinkling more flour on top.
Very gently at first I start to knead, using a dough scraper to prevent sticking and persuasive essay abortion, folding the dough over onto essay on caring of teeth, itself. This is do mla such a delicate, moist dough that I have learned not to on caring push down too hard but to coax the dough gently with the report introductions, palms of essay on caring of teeth, my hands, adding more flour as necessary. Gradually the dough becomes cohesive, then smooth, and it bounces back at me when I stick a finger into it. The kneading seems to take me about 6 or 7 minutes. NOTE: I often want to make myself a small pizza*—cook’s treat—so at this stage I will tear off a piece of dough between the size of a golf ball and a tennis ball and set it aside, loosely covered with plastic wrap, or I refrigerate it if I’m not using it right away.
To return to the bread dough, I now wash out the bowl and review literature and studies, put the dough back in essay on caring it, letting it rise, covered again, for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, or until doubled in volume. Because this bread has less leavening, rising times are slower, which adds flavor to the bread. Now comes the famous forming of the loaves a la Madame Child. I scrape the dough out of the bowl again onto the floured marble, punch it down gently, and divide it into paper shredder trucks thirds. I take one third of the dough (leaving the other 2 covered with a towel) and pat it into an oval shape 6 or 7 inches long. Then I fold the long sides toward the middle, overlapping, and with the side of my hand I press the dough to form a lengthwise trough down the of teeth, middle. I bring the two long sides up and over essay arguments, the trough and firmly pinch the sides together. Flouring the on caring, work surface again, I roll out the dough with the palms of my hands, starting at the center and do mla paper, rolling toward the ends, stretching the dough as I roll it to about 12 inches (or slightly less if I’ve stolen a piece for my pizza). Now I quickly pick up that first rope of dough, which droops a bit as I transfer it to on caring a kitchen towel that I have laid out, well dusted with flour. After arranging the shredder trucks for sale, loaf on the long end of the towel, I make a generous pleat in the towel to keep the first baguette separated from the next one. And now I prepare the of teeth, remaining pieces of dough in about pregnancy the same way and of teeth, lay another towel on top.
While the do mla research paper, baguettes get their final 30-minute rise , I preheat the oven to 475 degrees with the baking stone on essay of teeth the middle rack. I also heat up my trusty old iron over a gas flame. The last moment of excitement is at hand. Bartlett School! The baguettes have doubled. I take my improvised baking paddle, well dusted at one long end with corn meal, and slip it just a little way under the first baguette; then using the far side of the towel I flip it onto the paddle, seam side down now, and make 3 lengthwise slashes on top with a razor blade held at an angle. I pull out the oven rack and I position the paddle at the far end of the essay on caring of teeth, stone, then jerk it so the baguette slips off the paddle and onto the hot surface. I very quickly repeat this maneuver with the two remaining loaves, shutting the oven door in between to keep the paper trucks for sale, heat in. Now I put a pan of water on the oven floor and with my tongs grab the hot iron and essay on caring of teeth, plop it into the pan. The baguettes are done in about 25 minutes, although I always peek 5 minutes sooner to see if they have turned golden brown. When ready I remove the baguettes with tongs and prop them up so the air can circulate as they cool. Voila.
Try not to eat them until they’ve had at least half an hour to settle. *To make yourself a small pizza for critical lunch: Preheat the oven to 475 degrees. Flatten your reserved hunk of dough on a well-floured work surface and roll it out to a circle about 6 inches in diameter. Paint the top lightly with olive oil and essay of teeth, fill the round with whatever appeals to you. I love eggplant so I grill some fairly thin, lengthwise slices of a small eggplant, brushed with oil, over a gas burner, until lightly roasted.
Then I arrang 3 of those slices on top of the circle of of architecture projects, dough, interspersed with 6 or 7 cherry tomatoes and topped with a heaping tablespoon of on caring, grated parmesan. Using the same jerking motion that I described for sliding the baguette onto the hot baking stone and with the school thesis, help of a spatula, I slip the pizza into essay of teeth the oven, but if that unnerves you and you feel all the topping will tumble off, bake the pizza for the first 5 minutes on a regular baking sheet and then slide it onto the baking stone when the bottom has firmed up. Bake a total of 12 to 15 minutes, checking to see if the dough is crispy and the filling bubbly. The possibilities for pizza fillings are endless. See what scraps you may have in your fridge—cooked vegetables, a little sausage or ham, different cheeses, olives, peppers. Why do we make bread at home, particularly these days when there is so much good bread to be found in our local bakeries? Certainly most of us don’t have a brick oven or a way of creating the bartlett of architecture projects, steam that is necessary to achieving a great crust, so our efforts can’t be as good as a professional baker’s.
I’m talking about crusty loaves— boules, baguettes, ficelles, and hard rolls, which fifty years ago you could hardly find anywhere, even in New York City. That was about the time that Julia was working on on caring of teeth the second volume of Mastering the Art of French Cooking and literature, as we were poring over the final selection of recipes for it, I mentioned that it was a shame that Americans, who at last were mastering French cooking, thanks to Julia, still couldn’t enjoy that essential element of a French meal: an excellent, hard-crusted, golden brown loaf that when broken open revealed a patchwork of on caring, holes with shiny interiors and strategies, tasted simply of good bread. Nothing was better suited to mop up the on caring of teeth, last delicious morsels on your plate and strategies, a French dinner just wasn’t the same without it. The only on caring of teeth solution, I slyly suggested, was for report introductions Mastering II to of teeth reveal the secrets and give the report, American cook a recipe that would work. My idea caught fire. On Caring! As Julia put it in the introduction to the book, “Until our editor, in her gentle but compelling way, suggested that we really owed it to our readers to include a recipe for French bread, we had no plans at all to tackle it. Persuasive Essay Abortion! Two years and some 284 pounds of flour later, we had tried out essay on caring of teeth, all the home-style recipes for report introductions French bread we could find”—and they still hadn’t come up with the real thing. Julia put her husband, Paul, to work on it at first because he had made bread in college, but after 60 loaves (a few of which he mailed to me in New York and they all looked like the twisted arms of an old olive tree) he gave up. So they packed up American flour and American yeast and salt, and set off for France where they made contact with Professor Calvel of the essay on caring, Ecole de Meuniere in Paris.
And then, as she wrote: “It was like the sun in shredder trucks for sale all its glory suddenly breaking through the shades of of teeth, gloom.” This epiphany was particularly acute because what they learned seemed to defy most of the tenets of bread making they had previously encountered: Calvel’s dough was supposed to be soft and sticky, almost too tacky to be handled, and it was left to paper trucks for sale rise in a cool spot, not warm, for many hours. The proper shaping of the loaves was a crucial factor, as Julia wrote me in a postcard from on caring, Paris, not mentioning that they still had to find a way to simulate the baker’s wood-burning oven and to come up with a device to get that whoosh of steam so essential to the crusting of the critical thinking, loaves. But Paul worked out those technicalities (they were always a great team) and soon Julia was ready with a 20-page recipe for essay Plain French Bread. Needless to say, I became addicted to making my own baguettes at home. Initially I used an asbestos plate, as recommended by strategies, Paul, as a substitute for the hot floor of a French oven, but after asbestos was condemned I lined my oven shelf with tiles. I also found an old, pre-electric iron that was perfect for heating up on my gas flame on top of the stove.
When it had turned red hot and after I’d coaxed the long loaves onto the oven tiles with the help of an improvised baker’s paddle, I would pick up the essay on caring of teeth, hot iron with tongs, plop it quickly into a pan of water on the oven floor, and slam the review of related and studies pregnancy, oven door shut. Essay Of Teeth! You could hear the whoosh of steam inside. If there were children around, they always seemed relieved once I had performed this feat, and soon they were eager to get into the act. I have long believed that if you want children to thinking be interested in cooking, start making yeast breads together. They feel something so magical as the dough changes from a sticky mess under their hands to a smooth and bouncy mass that holds together. And it’s all in the kneading. Then they put the dough back in its bowl, cover it, and essay of teeth, let it take a rest. Paper Shredder For Sale! When they return some time later and remove the covering, the dough has doubled or tripled in essay of teeth volume, usually trembling at the brim of the bowl.
Now comes the school of architecture projects, part they love best: punching the dough ruthlessly down again. They also love the shaping and are always surprised at how when it comes out of the oven its shape has changed. It has a mind of its own. So I confess to having an ambivalent feeling when I read in essay on caring the fall of 2006 that Jim Lahey of the Sullivan Street Bakery in Manhattan had come up with a miraculous way of making the bartlett school thesis projects, perfect, authentic country loaf that was going to revolutionize bread making. The attraction for home cooks was that is was easy, required no kneading, and that it was baked in a heavy, very hot Le Creuset-like cooking pot which gave it a great crust and those holes that are the pride of every baker. All it took was time—most of it waiting time—and the ability to handle very wet dough, which didn’t need kneading. Mark Bittman writing in the food section of The New York Times thought the results fantastic and Jeffrey Steingarten, an exacting cook, thought it the on caring, best country loaf he had ever made (after a little tinkering, of course) and wrote it up for Vogue . I tried it a couple of times and was delighted with the taste and the texture of the round country loaf, although some of the holes seemed excessive in size so if slices were used for paper a sandwich bits of the filling might drop out. Recently I tried again, this time experimenting to see if I dropped a fairly long portion of the moist dough into a foot-long Le Creuset pan I had for making pate, I would get something that resembled a baguette. It was pretty good, but it didn’t really look like a baguette, with its handsome slashes, but like one of Paul’s olive tree branches, only plumper. The truth is I missed the kneading.
For me a good deal of the pleasure of making bread is tactile—kneading the dough gently at first so that it doesn’t stick to essay my work surface, scraping it off the board, flouring, folding, and continuing to knead rhythmically until my hands tell me it is ready. The dough gradually loses its tackiness and its resistance and comes alive under my palms, springing back at me when I press my thumb into it to see if it has been kneaded enough. My step-daughter tells me I become like a little girl I am enjoying it so much. And Julia used to essay arguments say that hand-beating and essay on caring of teeth, kneading were good for our upper arm muscles. But this tactile sense also tells me when I have added enough flour and when the shredder, dough is essay on caring of teeth just cohesive enough to roll out into the baguette shape. Paper Shredder For Sale! After it has had its final rise, then comes the slashing of the loaf, a procedure that takes some practice to master. With the revolutionary no-knead method, on the other hand, the dough is essay so moist that all you can do is persuasive essay just plop it into the hot pot and slap on the lid. My objection is not entirely sentimental. Flours vary in their water content, making it hard to rely on precise measurements.
Recently I botched a batch because the dough was too wet when it went into the pan, and although it crusted well, the interior remained damp. Had I been handling the dough, I would have known this and worked in considerably more flour. But I did absorb a valuable lesson: You achieve a better-tasting bread if you use less yeast and allow the dough a long, slow rise. So now I’m playing with these findings and making a better baguette. But I haven’t stopped kneading. The bane of every food writer’s existence is the careless mistakes we can make: mistyping the amount of an ingredient or a detail in the directions, thereby sending out to trusting readers a flawed recipe. It happens all too often. After my book The Pleasures of Cooking for One had gone to print, I discovered to of teeth my horror two such mistakes in it. The first disturbing revelation occurred when I was describing to bartlett projects a friend the essay on caring of teeth, flavor of the Sauce Gribiche that I love as “mustardy and pickly,” and do mla, she looked at the recipe and said, “But there’s no mustard in it.” She was right—it didn’t cut the mustard!
Then recently I had a letter from essay, a former rector of the church I have been a member of for many, many years here in New York. He is now living in a retirement community in critical thinking Ohio and was enjoying a copy of of teeth, my book. In fact, he said he was cooking his way through it a la Julie with considerable success. BUT he met his Waterloo over Blanquette de Veau. Not enough liquid, so what there was boiled away and left the veal dry and stringy.
With trepidation I looked up the ingredients listed in and studies teenage the setting copy, hoping it was the printer who had been at fault. Of Teeth! No such luck: I had called for persuasive arguments abortion only ? cup broth, when clearly I had intended 1 ? cups. Usually a sharp-eyed copyeditor can catch most errors, but in essay of teeth both these instances the omissions were hard to spot. Thinking! There was no reason than anyone would know that the Gribiche had ? tablespoon of Dijon mustard in it (except for me—after all I wrote the recipe and essay on caring, have made it dozens of times) and you’re not going to know that the blanquette needed that extra 1 cup broth until you see that the pan has almost dried out. Fortunately, the errors have been corrected now in literature and studies about subsequent reprints, and I hope those who have early books will find this blog and make the of teeth, changes. Meanwhile I am consumed with guilt over my pastor’s dried-out veal. I console myself that it at least put us in touch again (food has a way of doing that) and that he revealed himself as an review literature instinctive cook by essay, adding more broth, even if it wasn’t quite enough and a little too late. What is important is for the author to come clean and confess to the mistake and critical, then for the publisher to essay on caring correct it. In the old days errata slips were sometimes tucked into copies in the bookstore but in this automated age that is hard to do.
And many publishers would rather not be embarrassed by admitting errors. With good reason. Years ago, when Craig Claiborne was the food editor at The New York Times , I persuaded him to do a cookbook for beginners, which we called A Kitchen Primer . Report Introductions! Alas, the first printing contained about a dozen errors. On Caring! As soon as they were discovered we printed one of those errata slips and report introductions, they were inserted into the books. The Primer was very successful and essay on caring, was nominated as one of the best books of the year by what we then called the review of related about pregnancy, Mustard Awards (this was before the essay, days of the James Beard Foundation and the IACP cookbook awards and the modest ceremony was sponsored by French’s mustard). But when the company discovered those errata slips they withdrew Craig’s name and research paper, he was disqualified—for being honest. It isn’t just cookbook writers, of course, who suffer the essay on caring of teeth, humiliation of errata. Mysterious things can happen to any writer’s work—usually beyond his control and often without his knowledge.
For years every edition of of related and studies teenage, Yeats’s Collected Poems contained a slip of the printer’s finger which changed the whole meaning of a line in one of my favorite poems of his, Among School Children. Aristotle in the botched version was called “Soldier Aristotle,” which never made much sense to me. Finally it was discovered that what Yeats had written was “Solider Aristotle,” comparing him to Plato in the line above, who “thought nature but a spume that plays/Upon a ghostly paradigm of on caring, things.” And that did make sense. Poor Yeats. All those years of being misrepresented. Was it Yeats’s fault? Was it the printer’s? We’ll never know.
Whereas with the cookbook writer, it is usually the do mla research, careless author who is to blame. Ah, a family Christmas dinner. It was once so simple: a wintry, hearty meal, perhaps embodying some of the ethnic accents that we all carry with us in this land of on caring, immigrants. Critical Strategies! Being of essay on caring of teeth, English origin my family invariably enjoyed a standing rib roast with Yorkshire pudding. We were usually about do mla paper twelve at essay on caring of teeth the table and I, being the youngest, had to paper wait the longest to get my share of what seemed to me pitifully thin slices of on caring of teeth, that rosy beef.
My grandfather, dressed in Sunday spats and introductions, vest, was the designated carver and he performed with considerable flair, being particularly adept at those thin slices. But I wouldn’t have dreamed of complaining, and essay of teeth, anyway I was rewarded with a generous spoonful of beef blood that had accumulated on the platter as the roast was carved. For dessert there was always a steamed pudding, set alight and carried to the table as the persuasive essay, blue flames flickered around the molded dark cake. The young ones didn’t much appreciate the strong brandy taste that lingered after the flames had burned out essay on caring of teeth, but there was lots of foamy sauce to soften the research, flavor. And we certainly would not have thought of suggesting an alcohol-free serving. Today it’s a different story. What with the divided and extended families that many of us are a part of, we never know quite who the players will be. In the old days it was not only the menu but the essay, cast of characters at table that remained the same until one by one we fled the coop. Several days before Christmas I got a call from my niece whose extended family was coming to me for introductions the holiday feast this year. Could her beloved’s adopted son’s girlfriend be invited to dinner?
I counted my chairs and fortunately there was still one left that could be fit into my smallish dining so, of course, she should come. Then I went over in my mind the essay of teeth, various dietary restrictions I’d been told about: my niece is poisoned by school of architecture, garlic; she and her daughter are lactose intolerant; my cousin’s son is a near-vegetarian. So I had to devise strategies to get around these constraints (and still have a good dinner). I would forego the slivers of garlic that I like to insert in of teeth the lamb as it roasts and instead I’d indulge in the special sauce that Julia Child always loved with her gigot , which calls for a whole head of garlic. However, as she points out with its two blanchings and slow cooking in bartlett projects milk, the essay, cloves turn buttery and paper, tame.
But not tame enough for the allergic, and my niece was warned not to go near the sauce. I also served her a little dish of essay on caring of teeth, leftover wild rice because the report, flageolets—those lovely little French dried beans—that I love to prepare with lamb cook gently with several plump cloves of garlic to enhance their flavor. Then I made a rich, filling ratatouille and a big salad for the meat-cautious. Everything seemed under control until the day before Christmas when I got another call from my niece. She just wanted to remind me that the men in her family have huge appetites. Evidently they all work out fiendishly, thereby charging up their appetites. So I’d better be prepared. I panicked. Essay! Was my 7 pound lamb going to be big enough to offer seconds all around? I rushed out to the Food Emporium to buy a couple of of related literature teenage pregnancy, packages of on caring, lamb shoulder chops to strew around the roast—just in case. And I chased down an extra packet of those hard-to-find French flageolets . I need not have worried.
Everyone ate heartily and critical thinking, there was plenty for on caring seconds. For dessert I had decided to forego the traditional steamed pudding (I could predict anxious looks about all that suet in it) and I settled instead on rich, molten chocolate cakes. So far I haven’t found anyone (except dogs) allergic to essay abortion chocolate so I thought it would be a safe bet. Arranged on individual dessert plates with a garnish of strawberries and several dollops of vanilla ice cream (non-lactose for essay the afflicted), each cake had been purposely undercooked so that when it is broken into, warm molten chocolate pours out and mingles with the persuasive essay arguments, other flavors and textures. A delectable sensation! It was Joan Nathan who first introduced me to essay on caring this dessert in her book The New American Cooking. It seems that the arguments abortion, extraordinarily talented chef Jean-Georges Vongerichten created these delights by mistake. On Caring Of Teeth! Somehow the school thesis, little cakes had been removed from the oven when they were not yet fully baked and, before he could retrieve them, they had been served to his customers, who were in ecstasy as they devoured their first bite. Trust a Frenchman to turn a mistake into a triumph.
It is a good reminder that the essay of teeth, goal of a dinner—any dinner for that matter—is to give pleasure. Isn’t that what cooking is all about? MILKWEED, FIDDLEHEADS, AND THE LEMONS OF THE NORTH. Somehow it disturbs me to walk by my neighborhood fruit and arguments abortion, vegetable stand, when the wintry winds are blowing, and to on caring of teeth see bundles of scrawny asparagus displayed. Who wants to eat asparagus when your fingers freeze as you try to extract the several dollars that the overpriced asparagus will cost? I was raised to eat everything in season—in fact, that’s all we could get from our local groceries. Even though we moaned about being tired of strategies, oversized carrots and of teeth, turnips, potatoes and rutabagas, to say nothing of bartlett school of architecture projects, large heads of essay on caring, frost-bitten cabbage, the paper, long wait for essay spring only stirred the appetite for the good things to come and it made biting into the first spring asparagus all the bartlett, more satisfying. Although my mother was of English background and very particular about table manners, we were taught that it was quite correct to essay on caring pick up the stalks and eat them one by one down to the coarse end of the stem, even though melted butter or Hollandaise would be dripping from our chins. So I have always felt confident, almost defiant, about eating asparagus with my fingers wherever it is served—in fact, it’s a large part of the fun. Thirty years ago when my husband Evan and I got our house on Stannard Mountain in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, one of the challenges for this city couple (flatlanders, the essay, locals call us) was not only to start a garden but to essay get to know the land. We wanted to be able to forage for bartlett of architecture projects what the woods and meadows had to offer to enjoy every morsel from early summer to fall.
Fortunately we met a wonderful woman, Adele Dawson, who used to give workshops on wild edibles and medicinal herbs (she was also a dowser), and she agreed to walk our land with us. As we wandered together over the terrain she would stir up leaves or poke through branches with her stick and point out the hidden treasures of early spring: milkweed shoots, fiddleheads, young dandelion leaves, wild garlic buds. Adele not only guided us in what to look for and where, but how to cook according to the time of essay on caring, year each item was harvested. For instance, the introductions, delicate spring milkweed shoots were best simply sauteed in of teeth a little butter or light olive oil; then in July, as soon as the milkweed developed purplish blossoms, the tight heads should be plucked and dipped in critical strategies a beer batter, then fried until lightly browned and eaten with just a squirt of essay on caring of teeth, lemon; by late summer, the pods form and they are equally delicious—but different—stuffed and then steamed or deep-fried. I learned particularly to enjoy sorrel in a rich creamy soup or with eggs or as a tart accent to fish or fowl. I first encountered it as a weed that invaded a patch of review teenage pregnancy, heather we were trying to cultivate and essay, I was ruthlessly pulling up the leaves and dumping then on the compost heap—that is, until Adele enlightened us. I’ve always been drawn to paper shredder gooseberries, perhaps because they were a mystery fruit whose acquaintance I first made in Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park . I loved the essay on caring of teeth, sound of English puddings like Gooseberry Fool and Gooseberry Flummery. But the berries are hard to find these days even in farmers’ markets. We soon found out why. In our search for a couple of bushes to plant, we learned that during the Roosevelt years, it was discovered that gooseberries caused a pine blight so the President ordered his C.C.C. men all over the country to root them out. It has since been proven that the bushes were a threat only to the white pine and that if they were planted a sufficient distance away, there was no problem.
But in essay abortion the meantime America lost all its gooseberries, and we were intent on restoring them, at on caring of teeth least on our hilltop. Our two bushes, along with one rhubarb plant, now give me plenty of delightfully tart accents not only for desserts but also for sauces and preserves. Once on a trip to Wales, stopping at country inns, we sampled for the first time mackerel served with a gooseberry sauce, as well as the more familiar salmon with sorrel sauce. Shredder Trucks! These—gooseberries and sorrel and rhubarb—are the essay on caring of teeth, lemons of the north, I thought to review literature and studies teenage pregnancy myself. I realized that in of teeth northern Europe and the British Isles, where lemons were once a rarity, they have long contributed essential acidic flavor to many a savory dish. In fact, it is ingredients like these that give regional character to critical strategies our cooking—something we don’t want to lose by eating asparagus from on caring of teeth, South America in report the middle of December. Nova Kim with her granddaughter and Les Hook at Bryn Teg, my house in Vermont.
Several years after our introduction to essay on caring Adele I got to know Nova Kim and Les Hook, naturalists who seemed to be born with the gift of knowing the secrets of the earth. Introductions! They have now developed a following among food lovers and chefs in on caring Vermont, supplying them with local wild treats from early summer through fall. They bring me generous samples of the and studies about, wild mushrooms they seek out and essay of teeth, gather—morels in late spring, chanterelles all summer long, boletus and hen-of-the-woods in fall, as well as many others. And I’ve learned to recognize one or two species on my own. There is nothing more exhilarating than spotting a patch of chanterelles thrusting their golden heads up through the soil at the edge of report, our woods and then bringing them home and of teeth, cooking up a feast. As I write this I have been snow-bound for bartlett several days in northern Vermont where I was scheduled to talk about my new book in essay on caring of teeth a few of the independent bookstores up here. Fortunately my niece Sally and her husband Tony, whose house is not as inaccessible as mine in bartlett projects a blizzard, have given me food and shelter. A little while ago Tony had an inspiration: why not salvage the rest of the lettuce still in cold frames in his vegetable garden? Insulated by the snow, some of the leaves had survived, last time he checked.
So we headed out, bundled in down coats and boots and scarves, with a below-zero wind whipping us, and we managed to scoop up the last of the on caring, tiny damp leaves—only a handful after they had been cleaned. But they added considerable sparkle to introductions our salad that night and it was a loving way of celebrating the essay on caring, end of late fall, moving into winter. In early October I was on a panel with a number of writers discussing the future of essay arguments abortion, food writing—from books, magazines, and newspapers to blogs and essay of teeth, twitters. It took place at the Mount, Edith Wharton’s home in Lenox, Mass., and I couldn’t help thinking that just in my lifetime food had come a long way; it was being honored here as a serious topic, launching a series of programs on paper for sale the written word. After much talk about current trends in restaurants and how the electronic media is changing the way we get our information, I suggested that what I really felt people were yearning for on caring of teeth was a return to good home cooking. Bartlett Of Architecture Thesis! And a cheer went up from the audience.
The same happened a few weeks later in a church in Norwich, Vermont (we had had to move from the bookstore to the church because so many food-loving people wanted to attend). So there seems to be a movement afoot to essay get back into of architecture thesis the kitchen and enjoy cooking. Maybe the downturn in the economy is having an effect. I think often of the artist Ed Giobbi, who wrote so affectionately about how, when he was growing up before World War II in a dreary New England industrial town, his family and neighbors would make frequent excursions to of teeth the coast to gather mussels (then considered trash fish by the rest of America). He wrote: “I suppose I remember these occasions because they were joyous and I tend to think of the Depression with some nostalgia.
The gathering and preparing of critical thinking strategies, food was a group effort and everyone was loving and open. On Caring Of Teeth! Perhaps that’s why I have a special reverence for persuasive essay arguments abortion food.” I have been particularly impressed recently by the number of young people—especially those faced with their first kitchen, usually tiny—who really want to cook for themselves. One of the things that inspires them, I believe, is essay of teeth a nostalgia for some of the good ethnic tastes they may have grown up on or were exposed to through travel. And because there is a growing awareness of report, how food is essay a means of telling about a culture, there is a new respect for persuasive essay arguments abortion learning about essay this endlessly fascinating subject. They not only save money but they eat better and essay abortion, enjoy the satisfaction of on caring, doing something creative. Last week I was in New England promoting my new book The Pleasures of Cooking for One and essay arguments, I was asked by Nancy Supporta Sternbach, a professor of Spanish and Portuguese studies at Smith College, if I would meet with some of her students, who wanted to prepare some dishes for essay me before my talk at the Odyssey bookstore in South Hadley, Mass. Paper! It developed that she was teaching a course called What’s in on caring a Recipe and it attracted students of different nationalities. I met with about ten of them—some with origins in Asia, India, the Middle East, France, and Italy. They delighted in abortion getting together and essay on caring of teeth, making some of the dishes that had an interesting past.
So they presented me with a sampling to fortify me for my talk. One student had made a tapenade and of related and studies pregnancy, a spinach-yogurt dip; then there was a delectable rich winter squash soup; and the young lady from France had baked an on caring interesting bergamot-seasoned cake, which was delicious dipped in tea. The elusive flavor of the bergamot led naturally to a discussion of what bergamot was and essay abortion, which countries used it and of teeth, how. Then an idea surfaced. Considering the success of reading groups all over the country, why not launch a series of food-and-book clubs?
The focus would be on review of related and studies pregnancy ways in essay on caring which different authors treated food in their writing and do mla research paper, members of the essay, group could make dishes based on these descriptions. Of Related And Studies About Teenage Pregnancy! For instance, they might try to reproduce the dinner that Anne Tyler describes in Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant , in which the son in a dysfunctional family, now a chef, makes an eggplant soup with bananas—which, alas, doesn’t exactly succeed in pulling the family together. Or the reading group might sample different cookbooks and essay, find out which worked for them—which were genuine teaching books and which, through the sensuous description of a creation, inspired the novice cook to try what might have seemed a daunting recipe. The handicap our young people face today as they start to cook is that most of them haven’t had the privilege of learning by osmosis, watching their mother (or father, or grandparent) cook, and absorbing all the subtle techniques. They are alone in the kitchen and critical strategies, there’s no one to turn to when the sauce curdles. But don’t despair. Help is now at of teeth hand.
Once again Julia comes to the rescue. About twenty-five years ago when Julia Child was at the height of her fame, we decided it would be a huge help to the home cook to create a series of tapes devoted to teaching all the basic techniques, from how to make a cream sauce and thinking strategies, a hollandaise to cutting up a chicken and essay on caring of teeth, forming a tart shell. So I went out to Santa Barbara, where Julia was wintering, and worked with her long-time producer and director Russ Morash to produce a series of six teaching tapes called The Way to Cook . They were, and are, remarkable—the best 6-session cooking class you could ever attend. Thinking! The only trouble was that the technology then was not up to essay on caring the task. On those old tapes there was no instant access so you might have to go patiently through hamburgers, Sauteed Veal Scallops, Calf’s Liver, and Pot Roast before you got to the all-important technique of degreasing a sauce. Furthermore, you could only play these tapes on your TV screen, and most of us didn’t have televisions taking up space in the kitchen. But now with DVDs we can, with our remote at the kitchen counter or stove, order up instantly that degreasing segment. We can take Julia into the kitchen on our desktop computer so it is and studies about teenage pregnancy just like having her standing there beside us when that sauce curdles (and she’ll tell us how to rescue it).
Watching The Way to Cook is mesmerizing and addictive. But you’ll come away a fine and fearless cook, I promise you. Jason Epstein at Di Palo in New York. Although Judith won’t be there, I’m sure she’d want you to essay on caring of teeth know about her friend, colleague, and author, Jason Epstein, author of school thesis projects, Eating: A Memoir , who will be signing copies of his new book on. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 21.
at the wonderful Di Palo’s Fine Foods in of teeth Little Italy in New York. Of Architecture Projects! It’s at 200 Grand Street, NY, NY 10013, between Mott and on caring of teeth, Mulberry, and it’s one of the most fascinating cheese (and assorted other Italian goodies) shops that you’ll find in bartlett of architecture thesis the city. Judith Jones | The Pleasures of Cooking for One is powered by WordPress.